@inproceedings{darlington-1963-translating,
title = "Translating ordinary language into symbolic logic",
author = "Darlington, Jared L.",
booktitle = "Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the Association for Machine Translation and Computational Linguistics",
month = "25-26 " # aug,
year = "1963",
address = "Denver, Colorado",
url = "https://aclanthology.org/1963.earlymt-1.6",
abstract = "The paper describes a computer program, written in COMIT, for translating ordinary English into the notation of propositional logic and first-order functional logic. The program is designed to provide an ordinary language input to a COMIT program for the David-Putnam proof-procedure algorithm. The entire set of operations which are performed on an input sentence or argument are divided into three stages. In Stage I, an input sentence {`}S{'}, such as {``}The composer who wrote {`}Alcina{'} wrote some operas in English,{''} is rewritten in a quasi-logical notation, {``}The X/A such that X/A is a composer and X/A wrote Alcina wrote some X/B such that X/B is an opera and X/B is in English.{''} The quasi-logical notation serves as an intermediate language between logic and ordinary English. In Stage II, S is translated into the logical notation of propositional functions and quantifiers, or of propositional logic, whichever is appropriate. In Stage III, S is run through the proof-procedure program and evaluated. (The sample sentence quoted is of course {`}invalid{'}, i.e. nontautological.) The COMIT program for Stage III is complete, that for Stage II is almost complete, and that for Stage I is incomplete. The paper describes the work done to date on the programs for Stages I and II.",
}