Learning with Contrastive Examples for Data-to-Text Generation

Yui Uehara, Tatsuya Ishigaki, Kasumi Aoki, Hiroshi Noji, Keiichi Goshima, Ichiro Kobayashi, Hiroya Takamura, Yusuke Miyao


Abstract
Existing models for data-to-text tasks generate fluent but sometimes incorrect sentences e.g., “Nikkei gains” is generated when “Nikkei drops” is expected. We investigate models trained on contrastive examples i.e., incorrect sentences or terms, in addition to correct ones to reduce such errors. We first create rules to produce contrastive examples from correct ones by replacing frequent crucial terms such as “gain” or “drop”. We then use learning methods with several losses that exploit contrastive examples. Experiments on the market comment generation task show that 1) exploiting contrastive examples improves the capability of generating sentences with better lexical choice, without degrading the fluency, 2) the choice of the loss function is an important factor because the performances on different metrics depend on the types of loss functions, and 3) the use of the examples produced by some specific rules further improves performance. Human evaluation also supports the effectiveness of using contrastive examples.
Anthology ID:
2020.coling-main.213
Volume:
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics
Month:
December
Year:
2020
Address:
Barcelona, Spain (Online)
Venue:
COLING
SIG:
Publisher:
International Committee on Computational Linguistics
Note:
Pages:
2352–2362
Language:
URL:
https://aclanthology.org/2020.coling-main.213
DOI:
10.18653/v1/2020.coling-main.213
Bibkey:
Cite (ACL):
Yui Uehara, Tatsuya Ishigaki, Kasumi Aoki, Hiroshi Noji, Keiichi Goshima, Ichiro Kobayashi, Hiroya Takamura, and Yusuke Miyao. 2020. Learning with Contrastive Examples for Data-to-Text Generation. In Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, pages 2352–2362, Barcelona, Spain (Online). International Committee on Computational Linguistics.
Cite (Informal):
Learning with Contrastive Examples for Data-to-Text Generation (Uehara et al., COLING 2020)
Copy Citation:
PDF:
https://aclanthology.org/2020.coling-main.213.pdf
Code
 aistairc/contrastive_data2text