Common Sense Beyond English: Evaluating and Improving Multilingual Language Models for Commonsense Reasoning

Bill Yuchen Lin, Seyeon Lee, Xiaoyang Qiao, Xiang Ren


Abstract
Commonsense reasoning research has so far been limited to English. We aim to evaluate and improve popular multilingual language models (ML-LMs) to help advance commonsense reasoning (CSR) beyond English. We collect the Mickey corpus, consisting of 561k sentences in 11 different languages, which can be used for analyzing and improving ML-LMs. We propose Mickey Probe, a language-general probing task for fairly evaluating the common sense of popular ML-LMs across different languages. In addition, we also create two new datasets, X-CSQA and X-CODAH, by translating their English versions to 14 other languages, so that we can evaluate popular ML-LMs for cross-lingual commonsense reasoning. To improve the performance beyond English, we propose a simple yet effective method — multilingual contrastive pretraining (MCP). It significantly enhances sentence representations, yielding a large performance gain on both benchmarks (e.g., +2.7% accuracy for X-CSQA over XLM-R_L).
Anthology ID:
2021.acl-long.102
Volume:
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)
Month:
August
Year:
2021
Address:
Online
Venues:
ACL | IJCNLP
SIG:
Publisher:
Association for Computational Linguistics
Note:
Pages:
1274–1287
Language:
URL:
https://aclanthology.org/2021.acl-long.102
DOI:
10.18653/v1/2021.acl-long.102
Bibkey:
Cite (ACL):
Bill Yuchen Lin, Seyeon Lee, Xiaoyang Qiao, and Xiang Ren. 2021. Common Sense Beyond English: Evaluating and Improving Multilingual Language Models for Commonsense Reasoning. In Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers), pages 1274–1287, Online. Association for Computational Linguistics.
Cite (Informal):
Common Sense Beyond English: Evaluating and Improving Multilingual Language Models for Commonsense Reasoning (Lin et al., ACL 2021)
Copy Citation:
PDF:
https://aclanthology.org/2021.acl-long.102.pdf
Code
 INK-USC/XCSR
Data
X-CSQACC100CODAHCommonsenseQALAMASWAGXNLI