Dependency Induction Through the Lens of Visual Perception

Ruisi Su, Shruti Rijhwani, Hao Zhu, Junxian He, Xinyu Wang, Yonatan Bisk, Graham Neubig


Abstract
Most previous work on grammar induction focuses on learning phrasal or dependency structure purely from text. However, because the signal provided by text alone is limited, recently introduced visually grounded syntax models make use of multimodal information leading to improved performance in constituency grammar induction. However, as compared to dependency grammars, constituency grammars do not provide a straightforward way to incorporate visual information without enforcing language-specific heuristics. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised grammar induction model that leverages word concreteness and a structural vision-based heuristic to jointly learn constituency-structure and dependency-structure grammars. Our experiments find that concreteness is a strong indicator for learning dependency grammars, improving the direct attachment score (DAS) by over 50% as compared to state-of-the-art models trained on pure text. Next, we propose an extension of our model that leverages both word concreteness and visual semantic role labels in constituency and dependency parsing. Our experiments show that the proposed extension outperforms the current state-of-the-art visually grounded models in constituency parsing even with a smaller grammar size.
Anthology ID:
2021.conll-1.2
Volume:
Proceedings of the 25th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning
Month:
November
Year:
2021
Address:
Online
Venues:
CoNLL | EMNLP
SIG:
SIGNLL
Publisher:
Association for Computational Linguistics
Note:
Pages:
17–26
Language:
URL:
https://aclanthology.org/2021.conll-1.2
DOI:
Bibkey:
Copy Citation:
PDF:
https://aclanthology.org/2021.conll-1.2.pdf
Code
 ruisi-su/concrete_dep
Data
COCO