Domain Divergences: A Survey and Empirical Analysis

Abhinav Ramesh Kashyap, Devamanyu Hazarika, Min-Yen Kan, Roger Zimmermann


Abstract
Domain divergence plays a significant role in estimating the performance of a model in new domains. While there is a significant literature on divergence measures, researchers find it hard to choose an appropriate divergence for a given NLP application. We address this shortcoming by both surveying the literature and through an empirical study. We develop a taxonomy of divergence measures consisting of three classes — Information-theoretic, Geometric, and Higher-order measures and identify the relationships between them. Further, to understand the common use-cases of these measures, we recognise three novel applications – 1) Data Selection, 2) Learning Representation, and 3) Decisions in the Wild – and use it to organise our literature. From this, we identify that Information-theoretic measures are prevalent for 1) and 3), and Higher-order measures are more common for 2). To further help researchers choose appropriate measures to predict drop in performance – an important aspect of Decisions in the Wild, we perform correlation analysis spanning 130 domain adaptation scenarios, 3 varied NLP tasks and 12 divergence measures identified from our survey. To calculate these divergences, we consider the current contextual word representations (CWR) and contrast with the older distributed representations. We find that traditional measures over word distributions still serve as strong baselines, while higher-order measures with CWR are effective.
Anthology ID:
2021.naacl-main.147
Volume:
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies
Month:
June
Year:
2021
Address:
Online
Venue:
NAACL
SIG:
Publisher:
Association for Computational Linguistics
Note:
Pages:
1830–1849
Language:
URL:
https://aclanthology.org/2021.naacl-main.147
DOI:
10.18653/v1/2021.naacl-main.147
Bibkey:
Cite (ACL):
Abhinav Ramesh Kashyap, Devamanyu Hazarika, Min-Yen Kan, and Roger Zimmermann. 2021. Domain Divergences: A Survey and Empirical Analysis. In Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, pages 1830–1849, Online. Association for Computational Linguistics.
Cite (Informal):
Domain Divergences: A Survey and Empirical Analysis (Ramesh Kashyap et al., NAACL 2021)
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PDF:
https://aclanthology.org/2021.naacl-main.147.pdf
Video:
 https://aclanthology.org/2021.naacl-main.147.mp4