XOR QA: Cross-lingual Open-Retrieval Question Answering

Akari Asai, Jungo Kasai, Jonathan Clark, Kenton Lee, Eunsol Choi, Hannaneh Hajishirzi


Abstract
Multilingual question answering tasks typically assume that answers exist in the same language as the question. Yet in practice, many languages face both information scarcity—where languages have few reference articles—and information asymmetry—where questions reference concepts from other cultures. This work extends open-retrieval question answering to a cross-lingual setting enabling questions from one language to be answered via answer content from another language. We construct a large-scale dataset built on 40K information-seeking questions across 7 diverse non-English languages that TyDi QA could not find same-language answers for. Based on this dataset, we introduce a task framework, called Cross-lingual Open-Retrieval Question Answering (XOR QA), that consists of three new tasks involving cross-lingual document retrieval from multilingual and English resources. We establish baselines with state-of-the-art machine translation systems and cross-lingual pretrained models. Experimental results suggest that XOR QA is a challenging task that will facilitate the development of novel techniques for multilingual question answering. Our data and code are available at https://nlp.cs.washington.edu/xorqa/.
Anthology ID:
2021.naacl-main.46
Volume:
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies
Month:
June
Year:
2021
Address:
Online
Venue:
NAACL
SIG:
Publisher:
Association for Computational Linguistics
Note:
Pages:
547–564
Language:
URL:
https://aclanthology.org/2021.naacl-main.46
DOI:
10.18653/v1/2021.naacl-main.46
Bibkey:
Copy Citation:
PDF:
https://aclanthology.org/2021.naacl-main.46.pdf
Code
 AkariAsai/XORQA +  additional community code
Data
XOR-TYDI QAMKQAMLQANatural QuestionsSQuADXQuAD