KQA Pro: A Dataset with Explicit Compositional Programs for Complex Question Answering over Knowledge Base

Shulin Cao, Jiaxin Shi, Liangming Pan, Lunyiu Nie, Yutong Xiang, Lei Hou, Juanzi Li, Bin He, Hanwang Zhang


Abstract
Complex question answering over knowledge base (Complex KBQA) is challenging because it requires various compositional reasoning capabilities, such as multi-hop inference, attribute comparison, set operation, etc. Existing benchmarks have some shortcomings that limit the development of Complex KBQA: 1) they only provide QA pairs without explicit reasoning processes; 2) questions are poor in diversity or scale. To this end, we introduce KQA Pro, a dataset for Complex KBQA including around 120K diverse natural language questions. We introduce a compositional and interpretable programming language KoPL to represent the reasoning process of complex questions. For each question, we provide the corresponding KoPL program and SPARQL query, so that KQA Pro can serve for both KBQA and semantic parsing tasks. Experimental results show that state-of-the-art KBQA methods cannot achieve promising results on KQA Pro as on current datasets, which suggests that KQA Pro is challenging and Complex KBQA requires further research efforts. We also treat KQA Pro as a diagnostic dataset for testing multiple reasoning skills, conduct a thorough evaluation of existing models and discuss further directions for Complex KBQA. Our codes and datasets can be obtained from https://github.com/shijx12/KQAPro_Baselines.
Anthology ID:
2022.acl-long.422
Volume:
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)
Month:
May
Year:
2022
Address:
Dublin, Ireland
Venue:
ACL
SIG:
Publisher:
Association for Computational Linguistics
Note:
Pages:
6101–6119
Language:
URL:
https://aclanthology.org/2022.acl-long.422
DOI:
10.18653/v1/2022.acl-long.422
Bibkey:
Cite (ACL):
Shulin Cao, Jiaxin Shi, Liangming Pan, Lunyiu Nie, Yutong Xiang, Lei Hou, Juanzi Li, Bin He, and Hanwang Zhang. 2022. KQA Pro: A Dataset with Explicit Compositional Programs for Complex Question Answering over Knowledge Base. In Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers), pages 6101–6119, Dublin, Ireland. Association for Computational Linguistics.
Cite (Informal):
KQA Pro: A Dataset with Explicit Compositional Programs for Complex Question Answering over Knowledge Base (Cao et al., ACL 2022)
Copy Citation:
PDF:
https://aclanthology.org/2022.acl-long.422.pdf
Software:
 2022.acl-long.422.software.zip
Code
 shijx12/kqapro_baselines
Data
KQA ProCFQCSQAComplexWebQuestionsMetaQASimpleQuestionsWebQuestions