Prompt for Extraction? PAIE: Prompting Argument Interaction for Event Argument Extraction

Yubo Ma, Zehao Wang, Yixin Cao, Mukai Li, Meiqi Chen, Kun Wang, Jing Shao


Abstract
In this paper, we propose an effective yet efficient model PAIE for both sentence-level and document-level Event Argument Extraction (EAE), which also generalizes well when there is a lack of training data. On the one hand, PAIE utilizes prompt tuning for extractive objectives to take the best advantages of Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs). It introduces two span selectors based on the prompt to select start/end tokens among input texts for each role. On the other hand, it captures argument interactions via multi-role prompts and conducts joint optimization with optimal span assignments via a bipartite matching loss. Also, with a flexible prompt design, PAIE can extract multiple arguments with the same role instead of conventional heuristic threshold tuning. We have conducted extensive experiments on three benchmarks, including both sentence- and document-level EAE. The results present promising improvements from PAIE (3.5% and 2.3% F1 gains in average on three benchmarks, for PAIE-base and PAIE-large respectively). Further analysis demonstrates the efficiency, generalization to few-shot settings, and effectiveness of different extractive prompt tuning strategies. Our code is available at https://github.com/mayubo2333/PAIE.
Anthology ID:
2022.acl-long.466
Volume:
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)
Month:
May
Year:
2022
Address:
Dublin, Ireland
Venue:
ACL
SIG:
Publisher:
Association for Computational Linguistics
Note:
Pages:
6759–6774
Language:
URL:
https://aclanthology.org/2022.acl-long.466
DOI:
10.18653/v1/2022.acl-long.466
Bibkey:
Cite (ACL):
Yubo Ma, Zehao Wang, Yixin Cao, Mukai Li, Meiqi Chen, Kun Wang, and Jing Shao. 2022. Prompt for Extraction? PAIE: Prompting Argument Interaction for Event Argument Extraction. In Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers), pages 6759–6774, Dublin, Ireland. Association for Computational Linguistics.
Cite (Informal):
Prompt for Extraction? PAIE: Prompting Argument Interaction for Event Argument Extraction (Ma et al., ACL 2022)
Copy Citation:
PDF:
https://aclanthology.org/2022.acl-long.466.pdf
Software:
 2022.acl-long.466.software.zip
Code
 mayubo2333/paie