AbstractDocument structure is critical for efficient information consumption. However, it is challenging to encode it efficiently into the modern Transformer architecture. In this work, we present HIBRIDS, which injects Hierarchical Biases foR Incorporating Document Structure into attention score calculation. We further present a new task, hierarchical question-summary generation, for summarizing salient content in the source document into a hierarchy of questions and summaries, where each follow-up question inquires about the content of its parent question-summary pair. We also annotate a new dataset with 6,153 question-summary hierarchies labeled on government reports. Experiment results show that our model produces better question-summary hierarchies than comparisons on both hierarchy quality and content coverage, a finding also echoed by human judges. Additionally, our model improves the generation of long-form summaries from long government reports and Wikipedia articles, as measured by ROUGE scores.