QSTS: A Question-Sensitive Text Similarity Measure for Question Generation

Sujatha Das Gollapalli, See-Kiong Ng


Abstract
While question generation (QG) has received significant focus in conversation modeling and text generation research, the problems of comparing questions and evaluation of QG models have remained inadequately addressed. Indeed, QG models continue to be evaluated using traditional measures such as BLEU, METEOR, and ROUGE scores which were designed for other text generation problems. We propose QSTS, a novel Question-Sensitive Text Similarity measure for comparing two questions by characterizing their target intent based on question class, named-entity, and semantic similarity information from the two questions. We show that QSTS addresses several shortcomings of existing measures that depend on n-gram overlap scores and obtains superior results compared to traditional measures on publicly-available QG datasets. We also collect a novel dataset SimQG, for enabling question similarity research in QG contexts. SimQG contains questions generated by state-of-the-art QG models along with human judgements on their relevance with respect to the passage context they were generated for as well as when compared to the given reference question. Using SimQG, we showcase the key aspect of QSTS that differentiates it from all existing measures. QSTS is not only able to characterize similarity between two questions, but is also able to score questions with respect to passage contexts. Thus QSTS is, to our knowledge, the first metric that enables the measurement of QG performance in a reference-free manner.
Anthology ID:
2022.coling-1.337
Volume:
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics
Month:
October
Year:
2022
Address:
Gyeongju, Republic of Korea
Venue:
COLING
SIG:
Publisher:
International Committee on Computational Linguistics
Note:
Pages:
3835–3846
Language:
URL:
https://aclanthology.org/2022.coling-1.337
DOI:
Bibkey:
Cite (ACL):
Sujatha Das Gollapalli and See-Kiong Ng. 2022. QSTS: A Question-Sensitive Text Similarity Measure for Question Generation. In Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, pages 3835–3846, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea. International Committee on Computational Linguistics.
Cite (Informal):
QSTS: A Question-Sensitive Text Similarity Measure for Question Generation (Gollapalli & Ng, COLING 2022)
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PDF:
https://aclanthology.org/2022.coling-1.337.pdf
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