Placing M-Phasis on the Plurality of Hate: A Feature-Based Corpus of Hate Online

Dana Ruiter, Liane Reiners, Ashwin Geet D’Sa, Thomas Kleinbauer, Dominique Fohr, Irina Illina, Dietrich Klakow, Christian Schemer, Angeliki Monnier


Abstract
Even though hate speech (HS) online has been an important object of research in the last decade, most HS-related corpora over-simplify the phenomenon of hate by attempting to label user comments as “hate” or “neutral”. This ignores the complex and subjective nature of HS, which limits the real-life applicability of classifiers trained on these corpora. In this study, we present the M-Phasis corpus, a corpus of ~9k German and French user comments collected from migration-related news articles. It goes beyond the “hate”-“neutral” dichotomy and is instead annotated with 23 features, which in combination become descriptors of various types of speech, ranging from critical comments to implicit and explicit expressions of hate. The annotations are performed by 4 native speakers per language and achieve high (0.77 <= k <= 1) inter-annotator agreements. Besides describing the corpus creation and presenting insights from a content, error and domain analysis, we explore its data characteristics by training several classification baselines.
Anthology ID:
2022.lrec-1.84
Volume:
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference
Month:
June
Year:
2022
Address:
Marseille, France
Venue:
LREC
SIG:
Publisher:
European Language Resources Association
Note:
Pages:
791–804
Language:
URL:
https://aclanthology.org/2022.lrec-1.84
DOI:
Bibkey:
Cite (ACL):
Dana Ruiter, Liane Reiners, Ashwin Geet D’Sa, Thomas Kleinbauer, Dominique Fohr, Irina Illina, Dietrich Klakow, Christian Schemer, and Angeliki Monnier. 2022. Placing M-Phasis on the Plurality of Hate: A Feature-Based Corpus of Hate Online. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, pages 791–804, Marseille, France. European Language Resources Association.
Cite (Informal):
Placing M-Phasis on the Plurality of Hate: A Feature-Based Corpus of Hate Online (Ruiter et al., LREC 2022)
Copy Citation:
PDF:
https://aclanthology.org/2022.lrec-1.84.pdf
Code
 uds-lsv/mphasis
Data
M-Phasis