Hierarchical Meta-Embeddings for Code-Switching Named Entity Recognition

Genta Indra Winata, Zhaojiang Lin, Jamin Shin, Zihan Liu, Pascale Fung


Abstract
In countries that speak multiple main languages, mixing up different languages within a conversation is commonly called code-switching. Previous works addressing this challenge mainly focused on word-level aspects such as word embeddings. However, in many cases, languages share common subwords, especially for closely related languages, but also for languages that are seemingly irrelevant. Therefore, we propose Hierarchical Meta-Embeddings (HME) that learn to combine multiple monolingual word-level and subword-level embeddings to create language-agnostic lexical representations. On the task of Named Entity Recognition for English-Spanish code-switching data, our model achieves the state-of-the-art performance in the multilingual settings. We also show that, in cross-lingual settings, our model not only leverages closely related languages, but also learns from languages with different roots. Finally, we show that combining different subunits are crucial for capturing code-switching entities.
Anthology ID:
D19-1360
Volume:
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)
Month:
November
Year:
2019
Address:
Hong Kong, China
Venues:
EMNLP | IJCNLP
SIG:
SIGDAT
Publisher:
Association for Computational Linguistics
Note:
Pages:
3541–3547
Language:
URL:
https://aclanthology.org/D19-1360
DOI:
10.18653/v1/D19-1360
Bibkey:
Cite (ACL):
Genta Indra Winata, Zhaojiang Lin, Jamin Shin, Zihan Liu, and Pascale Fung. 2019. Hierarchical Meta-Embeddings for Code-Switching Named Entity Recognition. In Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP), pages 3541–3547, Hong Kong, China. Association for Computational Linguistics.
Cite (Informal):
Hierarchical Meta-Embeddings for Code-Switching Named Entity Recognition (Winata et al., EMNLP-IJCNLP 2019)
Copy Citation:
PDF:
https://aclanthology.org/D19-1360.pdf
Code
 gentaiscool/meta-emb