LXMERT: Learning Cross-Modality Encoder Representations from Transformers

Hao Tan, Mohit Bansal


Abstract
Vision-and-language reasoning requires an understanding of visual concepts, language semantics, and, most importantly, the alignment and relationships between these two modalities. We thus propose the LXMERT (Learning Cross-Modality Encoder Representations from Transformers) framework to learn these vision-and-language connections. In LXMERT, we build a large-scale Transformer model that consists of three encoders: an object relationship encoder, a language encoder, and a cross-modality encoder. Next, to endow our model with the capability of connecting vision and language semantics, we pre-train the model with large amounts of image-and-sentence pairs, via five diverse representative pre-training tasks: masked language modeling, masked object prediction (feature regression and label classification), cross-modality matching, and image question answering. These tasks help in learning both intra-modality and cross-modality relationships. After fine-tuning from our pre-trained parameters, our model achieves the state-of-the-art results on two visual question answering datasets (i.e., VQA and GQA). We also show the generalizability of our pre-trained cross-modality model by adapting it to a challenging visual-reasoning task, NLVR2, and improve the previous best result by 22% absolute (54% to 76%). Lastly, we demonstrate detailed ablation studies to prove that both our novel model components and pre-training strategies significantly contribute to our strong results. Code and pre-trained models publicly available at: https://github.com/airsplay/lxmert
Anthology ID:
D19-1514
Volume:
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)
Month:
November
Year:
2019
Address:
Hong Kong, China
Venues:
EMNLP | IJCNLP
SIG:
SIGDAT
Publisher:
Association for Computational Linguistics
Note:
Pages:
5100–5111
Language:
URL:
https://aclanthology.org/D19-1514
DOI:
10.18653/v1/D19-1514
Bibkey:
Cite (ACL):
Hao Tan and Mohit Bansal. 2019. LXMERT: Learning Cross-Modality Encoder Representations from Transformers. In Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP), pages 5100–5111, Hong Kong, China. Association for Computational Linguistics.
Cite (Informal):
LXMERT: Learning Cross-Modality Encoder Representations from Transformers (Tan & Bansal, EMNLP-IJCNLP 2019)
Copy Citation:
PDF:
https://aclanthology.org/D19-1514.pdf
Code
 airsplay/lxmert +  additional community code
Data
A-OKVQACOCOGQAImageNetNLVRVisual GenomeVisual Question Answering v2.0VizWiz