Transformer-XL: Attentive Language Models beyond a Fixed-Length Context

Zihang Dai, Zhilin Yang, Yiming Yang, Jaime Carbonell, Quoc Le, Ruslan Salakhutdinov


Abstract
Transformers have a potential of learning longer-term dependency, but are limited by a fixed-length context in the setting of language modeling. We propose a novel neural architecture Transformer-XL that enables learning dependency beyond a fixed length without disrupting temporal coherence. It consists of a segment-level recurrence mechanism and a novel positional encoding scheme. Our method not only enables capturing longer-term dependency, but also resolves the context fragmentation problem. As a result, Transformer-XL learns dependency that is 80% longer than RNNs and 450% longer than vanilla Transformers, achieves better performance on both short and long sequences, and is up to 1,800+ times faster than vanilla Transformers during evaluation. Notably, we improve the state-of-the-art results of bpc/perplexity to 0.99 on enwiki8, 1.08 on text8, 18.3 on WikiText-103, 21.8 on One Billion Word, and 54.5 on Penn Treebank (without finetuning). When trained only on WikiText-103, Transformer-XL manages to generate reasonably coherent, novel text articles with thousands of tokens. Our code, pretrained models, and hyperparameters are available in both Tensorflow and PyTorch.
Anthology ID:
P19-1285
Volume:
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics
Month:
July
Year:
2019
Address:
Florence, Italy
Venue:
ACL
SIG:
Publisher:
Association for Computational Linguistics
Note:
Pages:
2978–2988
Language:
URL:
https://aclanthology.org/P19-1285
DOI:
10.18653/v1/P19-1285
Bibkey:
Cite (ACL):
Zihang Dai, Zhilin Yang, Yiming Yang, Jaime Carbonell, Quoc Le, and Ruslan Salakhutdinov. 2019. Transformer-XL: Attentive Language Models beyond a Fixed-Length Context. In Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages 2978–2988, Florence, Italy. Association for Computational Linguistics.
Cite (Informal):
Transformer-XL: Attentive Language Models beyond a Fixed-Length Context (Dai et al., ACL 2019)
Copy Citation:
PDF:
https://aclanthology.org/P19-1285.pdf
Supplementary:
 P19-1285.Supplementary.zip
Video:
 https://vimeo.com/384795188
Code
 kimiyoung/transformer-xl +  additional community code
Data
Billion Word BenchmarkHutter PrizePenn TreebankText8WikiText-103WikiText-2