International Conference Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (2023)


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Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing

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Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing
Ruslan Mitkov | Galia Angelova

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Bipol: Multi-Axes Evaluation of Bias with Explainability in Benchmark Datasets
Tosin Adewumi | Isabella Södergren | Lama Alkhaled | Sana Al-azzawi | Foteini Simistira Liwicki | Marcus Liwicki

We investigate five English NLP benchmark datasets (on the superGLUE leaderboard) and two Swedish datasets for bias, along multiple axes. The datasets are the following: Boolean Question (Boolq), CommitmentBank (CB), Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC), Winogender diagnostic (AXg), Recognising Textual Entailment (RTE), Swedish CB, and SWEDN. Bias can be harmful and it is known to be common in data, which ML models learn from. In order to mitigate bias in data, it is crucial to be able to estimate it objectively. We use bipol, a novel multi-axes bias metric with explainability, to estimate and explain how much bias exists in these datasets. Multilingual, multi-axes bias evaluation is not very common. Hence, we also contribute a new, large Swedish bias-labelled dataset (of 2 million samples), translated from the English version and train the SotA mT5 model on it. In addition, we contribute new multi-axes lexica for bias detection in Swedish. We make the codes, model, and new dataset publicly available.

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Automatically Generating Hindi Wikipedia Pages Using Wikidata as a Knowledge Graph: A Domain-Specific Template Sentences Approach
Aditya Agarwal | Radhika Mamidi

This paper presents a method for automatically generating Wikipedia articles in the Hindi language, using Wikidata as a knowledge base. Our method extracts structured information from Wikidata, such as the names of entities, their properties, and their relationships, and then uses this information to generate natural language text that conforms to a set of templates designed for the domain of interest. We evaluate our method by generating articles about scientists, and we compare the resulting articles to machine-translated articles. Our results show that more than 70% of the generated articles using our method are better in terms of coherence, structure, and readability. Our approach has the potential to significantly reduce the time and effort required to create Wikipedia articles in Hindi and could be extended to other languages and domains as well.

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Cross-lingual Classification of Crisis-related Tweets Using Machine Translation
Shareefa Al Amer | Mark Lee | Phillip Smith

Utilisation of multilingual language models such as mBERT and XLM-RoBERTa has increasingly gained attention in recent work by exploiting the multilingualism of such models in different downstream tasks across different languages. However, performance degradation is expected in transfer learning across languages compared to monolingual performance although it is an acceptable trade-off considering the sparsity of resources and lack of available training data in low-resource languages. In this work, we study the effect of machine translation on the cross-lingual transfer learning in a crisis event classification task. Our experiments include measuring the effect of machine-translating the target data into the source language and vice versa. We evaluated and compared the performance in terms of accuracy and F1-Score. The results show that translating the source data into the target language improves the prediction accuracy by 14.8% and the Weighted Average F1-Score by 19.2% when compared to zero-shot transfer to an unseen language.

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Lexicon-Driven Automatic Sentence Generation for the Skills Section in a Job Posting
Vera Aleksic | Mona Brems | Anna Mathes | Theresa Bertele

This paper presents a sentence generation pipeline as implemented on the online job board Stepstone. The goal is to automatically create a set of sentences for the candidate profile and the task description sections in a job ad, related to a given input skill. They must cover two different “tone of voice” variants in German (Du, Sie), three experience levels (junior, mid, senior), and two optionality values (skill is mandatory or optional/nice to have). The generation process considers the difference between soft skills, natural language competencies and hard skills, as well as more specific sub-categories such as IT skills, programming languages and similar. To create grammatically consistent text, morphosyntactic features from the proprietary skill ontology and lexicon are consulted. The approach is a lexicon-driven generation process that compares all lexical features of the new input skills with the ones already added to the sentence database and creates new sentences according to the corresponding templates.

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Multilingual Racial Hate Speech Detection Using Transfer Learning
Abinew Ali Ayele | Skadi Dinter | Seid Muhie Yimam | Chris Biemann

The rise of social media eases the spread of hateful content, especially racist content with severe consequences. In this paper, we analyze the tweets targeting the death of George Floyd in May 2020 as the event accelerated debates on racism globally. We focus on the tweets published in French for a period of one month since the death of Floyd. Using the Yandex Toloka platform, we annotate the tweets into categories as hate, offensive or normal. Tweets that are offensive or hateful are further annotated as racial or non-racial. We build French hate speech detection models based on the multilingual BERT and CamemBERT and apply transfer learning by fine-tuning the HateXplain model. We compare different approaches to resolve annotation ties and find that the detection model based on CamemBERT yields the best results in our experiments.

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Exploring Amharic Hate Speech Data Collection and Classification Approaches
Abinew Ali Ayele | Seid Muhie Yimam | Tadesse Destaw Belay | Tesfa Asfaw | Chris Biemann

In this paper, we present a study of efficient data selection and annotation strategies for Amharic hate speech. We also build various classification models and investigate the challenges of hate speech data selection, annotation, and classification for the Amharic language. From a total of over 18 million tweets in our Twitter corpus, 15.1k tweets are annotated by two independent native speakers, and a Cohen’s kappa score of 0.48 is achieved. A third annotator, a curator, is also employed to decide on the final gold labels. We employ both classical machine learning and deep learning approaches, which include fine-tuning AmFLAIR and AmRoBERTa contextual embedding models. Among all the models, AmFLAIR achieves the best performance with an F1-score of 72%. We publicly release the annotation guidelines, keywords/lexicon entries, datasets, models, and associated scripts with a permissive license.

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Bhojpuri WordNet: Problems in Translating Hindi Synsets into Bhojpuri
Imran Ali | Praveen Gatla

Today, artificial intelligence systems are incredibly intelligent, however they lack the human like capacity for understanding. In this context, sense-based lexical resources become a requirement for artificially intelligent machines. Lexical resources like Wordnets have received scholarly attention because they are considered as the crucial sense-based resources in the field of natural language understanding. They can help in knowing the intended meaning of the communicated texts, as they are focused on the concept rather than the words. Wordnets are available only for 18 Indian languages. Keeping this in mind, we have initiated the development of a comprehensive wordnet for Bhojpuri. The present paper describes the creation of the synsets of Bhojpuri and discusses the problems that we faced while translating Hindi synsets into Bhojpuri. They are lexical anomalies, lexical mismatch words, synthesized forms, lack of technical words etc. Nearly 4000 Hindi synsets were mapped for their equivalent synsets in Bhojpuri following the expansion approach. We have also worked on the language-specific synsets, which are unique to Bhojpuri. This resource is useful in machine translation, sentiment analysis, word sense disambiguation, cross-lingual references among Indian languages, and Bhojpuri language teaching and learning.

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3D-EX: A Unified Dataset of Definitions and Dictionary Examples
Fatemah Almeman | Hadi Sheikhi | Luis Espinosa Anke

Definitions are a fundamental building block in lexicography, linguistics and computational semantics. In NLP, they have been used for retrofitting word embeddings or augmenting contextual representations in language models. However, lexical resources containing definitions exhibit a wide range of properties, which has implications in the behaviour of models trained and evaluated on them. In this paper, we introduce 3D-EX, a dataset that aims to fill this gap by combining well-known English resources into one centralized knowledge repository in the form of <term, definition, example> triples. 3D-EX is a unified evaluation framework with carefully pre-computed train/validation/test splits to prevent memorization. We report experimental results that suggest that this dataset could be effectively leveraged in downstream NLP tasks. Code and data are available at

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Are You Not moved? Incorporating Sensorimotor Knowledge to Improve Metaphor Detection
Ghadi Alnafesah | Phillip Smith | Mark Lee

Metaphors use words from one domain of knowledge to describe another, which can make the meaning less clear and require human interpretation to understand. This makes it difficult for automated models to detect metaphorical usage. The objective of the experiments in the paper is to enhance the ability of deep learning models to detect metaphors automatically. This is achieved by using two elements of semantic richness, sensory experience, and body-object interaction, as the main lexical features, combined with the contextual information present in the metaphorical sentences. The tests were conducted using classification and sequence labeling models for metaphor detection on the three metaphorical corpora VUAMC, MOH-X, and TroFi. The sensory experience led to significant improvements in the classification and sequence labelling models across all datasets. The highest gains were seen on the VUAMC dataset: recall increased by 20.9%, F1 by 7.5% for the classification model, and Recall increased by 11.66% and F1 by 3.69% for the sequence labelling model. Body-object interaction also showed positive impact on the three datasets.

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HAQA and QUQA: Constructing Two Arabic Question-Answering Corpora for the Quran and Hadith
Sarah Alnefaie | Eric Atwell | Mohammad Ammar Alsalka

It is neither possible nor fair to compare the performance of question-answering systems for the Holy Quran and Hadith Sharif in Arabic due to both the absence of a golden test dataset on the Hadith Sharif and the small size and easy questions of the newly created golden test dataset on the Holy Quran. This article presents two question–answer datasets: Hadith Question–Answer pairs (HAQA) and Quran Question–Answer pairs (QUQA). HAQA is the first Arabic Hadith question–answer dataset available to the research community, while the QUQA dataset is regarded as the more challenging and the most extensive collection of Arabic question–answer pairs on the Quran. HAQA was designed and its data collected from several expert sources, while QUQA went through several steps in the construction phase; that is, it was designed and then integrated with existing datasets in different formats, after which the datasets were enlarged with the addition of new data from books by experts. The HAQA corpus consists of 1598 question–answer pairs, and that of QUQA contains 3382. They may be useful as gold–standard datasets for the evaluation process, as training datasets for language models with question-answering tasks and for other uses in artificial intelligence.

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ConfliBERT-Arabic: A Pre-trained Arabic Language Model for Politics, Conflicts and Violence
Sultan Alsarra | Luay Abdeljaber | Wooseong Yang | Niamat Zawad | Latifur Khan | Patrick Brandt | Javier Osorio | Vito D’Orazio

This study investigates the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods to analyze politics, conflicts and violence in the Middle East using domain-specific pre-trained language models. We introduce Arabic text and present ConfliBERT-Arabic, a pre-trained language models that can efficiently analyze political, conflict and violence-related texts. Our technique hones a pre-trained model using a corpus of Arabic texts about regional politics and conflicts. Performance of our models is compared to baseline BERT models. Our findings show that the performance of NLP models for Middle Eastern politics and conflict analysis are enhanced by the use of domain-specific pre-trained local language models. This study offers political and conflict analysts, including policymakers, scholars, and practitioners new approaches and tools for deciphering the intricate dynamics of local politics and conflicts directly in Arabic.

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A Review in Knowledge Extraction from Knowledge Bases
Fabio Yanez | Andrés Montoyo | Yoan Gutierrez | Rafael Muñoz | Armando Suarez

Generative language models achieve the state of the art in many tasks within natural language processing (NLP). Although these models correctly capture syntactic information, they fail to interpret knowledge (semantics). Moreover, the lack of interpretability of these models promotes the use of other technologies as a replacement or complement to generative language models. This is the case with research focused on incorporating knowledge by resorting to knowledge bases mainly in the form of graphs. The generation of large knowledge graphs is carried out with unsupervised or semi-supervised techniques, which promotes the validation of this knowledge with the same type of techniques due to the size of the generated databases. In this review, we will explain the different techniques used to test and infer knowledge from graph structures with machine learning algorithms. The motivation of validating and inferring knowledge is to use correct knowledge in subsequent tasks with improved embeddings.

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Evaluating of Large Language Models in Relationship Extraction from Unstructured Data: Empirical Study from Holocaust Testimonies
Isuri Anuradha | Le An Ha | Ruslan Mitkov | Vinita Nahar

Relationship extraction from unstructured data remains one of the most challenging tasks in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP). The complexity of relationship extraction arises from the need to comprehend the underlying semantics, syntactic structures, and contextual dependencies within the text. Unstructured data poses challenges with diverse linguistic patterns, implicit relationships, contextual nuances, complicating accurate relationship identification and extraction. The emergence of Large Language Models (LLMs), such as GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer), has indeed marked a significant advancement in the field of NLP. In this work, we assess and evaluate the effectiveness of LLMs in relationship extraction in the Holocaust testimonies within the context of the Historical realm. By delving into this domain-specific context, we aim to gain deeper insights into the performance and capabilities of LLMs in accurately capturing and extracting relationships within the Holocaust domain by developing a novel knowledge graph to visualise the relationships of the Holocaust. To the best of our knowledge, there is no existing study which discusses relationship extraction in Holocaust testimonies. The majority of current approaches for Information Extraction (IE) in historic documents are either manual or OCR based. Moreover, in this study, we found that the Subject-Object-Verb extraction using GPT3-based relations produced more meaningful results compared to the Semantic Role labeling-based triple extraction.

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Impact of Emojis on Automatic Analysis of Individual Emotion Categories
Ratchakrit Arreerard | Scott Piao

Automatic emotion analysis is a highly challenging task for Natural Language Processing, which has so far mainly relied on textual contents to determine the emotion of text. However, words are not the only media that carry emotional information. In social media, people also use emojis to convey their feelings. Recently, researchers have studied emotional aspects of emojis, and use emoji information to improve the emotion detection and classification, but many issues remain to be addressed. In this study, we examine the impact of emoji embedding on emotion classification and intensity prediction on four individual emotion categories, including anger, fear, joy, and sadness, in order to investigate how emojis affect the automatic analysis of individual emotion categories and intensity. We conducted a comparative study by testing five machine learning models with and without emoji embeddings involved. Our experiment demonstrates that emojis have varying impact on different emotion categories, and there is potential that emojis can be used to enhance emotion information processing.

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Was That a Question? Automatic Classification of Discourse Meaning in Spanish
Santiago Arróniz | Sandra Kübler

This paper examines the effectiveness of different feature representations of audio data in accurately classifying discourse meaning in Spanish. The task involves determining whether an utterance is a declarative sentence, an interrogative, an imperative, etc. We explore how pitch contour can be represented for a discourse-meaning classification task, employing three different audio features: MFCCs, Mel-scale spectrograms, and chromagrams. We also determine if utilizing means is more effective in representing the speech signal, given the large number of coefficients produced during the feature extraction process. Finally, we evaluate whether these feature representation techniques are sensitive to speaker information. Our results show that a recurrent neural network architecture in conjunction with all three feature sets yields the best results for the task.

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Designing the LECOR Learner Corpus for Romanian
Ana Maria Barbu | Elena Irimia | Carmen Mîrzea Vasile | Vasile Păiș

This article presents a work-in-progress project, which aims to build and utilize a corpus of Romanian texts written or spoken by non-native students of different nationalities, who learn Romanian as a foreign language in the one-year, intensive academic program organized by the University of Bucharest. This corpus, called LECOR – Learner Corpus for Romanian – is made up of pairs of texts: a version of the student and a corrected one of the teacher. Each version is automatically annotated with lemma and POS-tag, and the two versions are then compared, and the differences are marked as errors at this stage. The corpus also contains metadata file sets about students and their samples. In this article, the conceptual framework for building and utilization of the corpus is presented, including the acquisition and organization phases of the primary material, the annotation process, and the first attempts to adapt the NoSketch Engine query interface to the project’s objectives. The article concludes by outlining the next steps in the development of the corpus aimed at quantitative accumulation and the development of the error correction process and the complex error annotation.

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Non-Parametric Memory Guidance for Multi-Document Summarization
Florian Baud | Alex Aussem

Multi-document summarization (MDS) is a difficult task in Natural Language Processing, aiming to summarize information from several documents. However, the source documents are often insufficient to obtain a qualitative summary. We propose a retriever-guided model combined with non-parametric memory for summary generation. This model retrieves relevant candidates from a database and then generates the summary considering the candidates with a copy mechanism and the source documents. The retriever is implemented with Approximate Nearest Neighbor Search (ANN) to search large databases. Our method is evaluated on the MultiXScience dataset which includes scientific articles. Finally, we discuss our results and possible directions for future work.

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Beyond Information: Is ChatGPT Empathetic Enough?
Ahmed Belkhir | Fatiha Sadat

This paper aims to explore and enhance ChatGPT’s abilities to generate more human-like conversations by taking into account the emotional state of the user. To achieve this goal, a prompt-driven Emotional Intelligence is used through the empathetic dialogue dataset in order to propose a more empathetic conversational language model. We propose two altered versions of ChatGPT as follows: (1) an emotion-infused version which takes the user’s emotion as input before generating responses using an emotion classifier based on ELECTRA ; and (2) the emotion adapting version that tries to accommodate for how the user feels without any external component. By analyzing responses of the two proposed altered versions and comparing them to the standard version of ChatGPT, we find that using the external emotion classifier leads to more frequent and pronounced use of positive emotions compared to the standard version. On the other hand, using simple prompt engineering to take the user emotion into consideration, does the opposite. Finally, comparisons with state-of-the-art models highlight the potential of prompt engineering to enhance the emotional abilities of chatbots based on large language models.

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Using Wikidata for Enhancing Compositionality in Pretrained Language Models
Meriem Beloucif | Mihir Bansal | Chris Biemann

One of the many advantages of pre-trained language models (PLMs) such as BERT and RoBERTa is their flexibility and contextual nature. These features give PLMs strong capabilities for representing lexical semantics. However, PLMs seem incapable of capturing high-level semantics in terms of compositionally. We show that when augmented with the relevant semantic knowledge, PMLs learn to capture a higher degree of lexical compositionality. We annotate a large dataset from Wikidata highlighting a type of semantic inference that is easy for humans to understand but difficult for PLMs, like the correlation between age and date of birth. We use this resource for finetuning DistilBERT, BERT large and RoBERTa. Our results show that the performance of PLMs against the test data continuously improves when augmented with such a rich resource. Our results are corroborated by a consistent improvement over most GLUE benchmark natural language understanding tasks.

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Multimodal Learning for Accurate Visual Question Answering: An Attention-Based Approach
Jishnu Bhardwaj | Anurag Balakrishnan | Satyam Pathak | Ishan Unnarkar | Aniruddha Gawande | Benyamin Ahmadnia

This paper proposes an open-ended task for Visual Question Answering (VQA) that leverages the InceptionV3 Object Detection model and an attention-based Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network for question answering. Our proposed model provides accurate natural language answers to questions about an image, including those that require understanding contextual information and background details. Our findings demonstrate that the proposed approach can achieve high accuracy, even with complex and varied visual information. The proposed method can contribute to developing more advanced vision systems that can process and interpret visual information like humans.

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Generative Models For Indic Languages: Evaluating Content Generation Capabilities
Savita Bhat | Vasudeva Varma | Niranjan Pedanekar

Large language models (LLMs) and generative AI have emerged as the most important areas in the field of natural language processing (NLP). LLMs are considered to be a key component in several NLP tasks, such as summarization, question-answering, sentiment classification, and translation. Newer LLMs, such as ChatGPT, BLOOMZ, and several such variants, are known to train on multilingual training data and hence are expected to process and generate text in multiple languages. Considering the widespread use of LLMs, evaluating their efficacy in multilingual settings is imperative. In this work, we evaluate the newest generative models (ChatGPT, mT0, and BLOOMZ) in the context of Indic languages. Specifically, we consider natural language generation (NLG) applications such as summarization and question-answering in monolingual and cross-lingual settings. We observe that current generative models have limited capability for generating text in Indic languages in a zero-shot setting. In contrast, generative models perform consistently better on manual quality-based evaluation in both Indic languages and English language generation. Considering limited generation performance, we argue that these LLMs are not intended to use in zero-shot fashion in downstream applications.

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Measuring Spurious Correlation in Classification: “Clever Hans” in Translationese
Angana Borah | Daria Pylypenko | Cristina España-Bonet | Josef van Genabith

Recent work has shown evidence of “Clever Hans” behavior in high-performance neural translationese classifiers, where BERT-based classifiers capitalize on spurious correlations, in particular topic information, between data and target classification labels, rather than genuine translationese signals. Translationese signals are subtle (especially for professional translation) and compete with many other signals in the data such as genre, style, author, and, in particular, topic. This raises the general question of how much of the performance of a classifier is really due to spurious correlations in the data versus the signals actually targeted for by the classifier, especially for subtle target signals and in challenging (low resource) data settings. We focus on topic-based spurious correlation and approach the question from two directions: (i) where we have no knowledge about spurious topic information and its distribution in the data, (ii) where we have some indication about the nature of spurious topic correlations. For (i) we develop a measure from first principles capturing alignment of unsupervised topics with target classification labels as an indication of spurious topic information in the data. We show that our measure is the same as purity in clustering and propose a “topic floor” (as in a “noise floor”) for classification. For (ii) we investigate masking of known spurious topic carriers in classification. Both (i) and (ii) contribute to quantifying and (ii) to mitigating spurious correlations.

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WIKITIDE: A Wikipedia-Based Timestamped Definition Pairs Dataset
Hsuvas Borkakoty | Luis Espinosa Anke

A fundamental challenge in the current NLP context, dominated by language models, comes from the inflexibility of current architectures to “learn” new information. While model-centric solutions like continual learning or parameter-efficient fine-tuning are available, the question still remains of how to reliably identify changes in language or in the world. In this paper, we propose WikiTiDe, a dataset derived from pairs of timestamped definitions extracted from Wikipedia. We argue that such resources can be helpful for accelerating diachronic NLP, specifically, for training models able to scan knowledge resources for core updates concerning a concept, an event, or a named entity. Our proposed end-to-end method is fully automatic and leverages a bootstrapping algorithm for gradually creating a high-quality dataset. Our results suggest that bootstrapping the seed version of WikiTiDe leads to better-fine-tuned models. We also leverage fine-tuned models in a number of downstream tasks, showing promising results with respect to competitive baselines.

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BERTabaporu: Assessing a Genre-Specific Language Model for Portuguese NLP
Pablo Botton Costa | Matheus Camasmie Pavan | Wesley Ramos Santos | Samuel Caetano Silva | Ivandré Paraboni

Transformer-based language models such as Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) are now mainstream in the NLP field, but extensions to languages other than English, to new domains and/or to more specific text genres are still in demand. In this paper we introduced BERTabaporu, a BERT language model that has been pre-trained on Twitter data in the Brazilian Portuguese language. The model is shown to outperform the best-known general-purpose model for this language in three Twitter-related NLP tasks, making a potentially useful resource for Portuguese NLP in general.

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Comparison of Multilingual Entity Linking Approaches
Ivelina Bozhinova | Andrey Tagarev

Despite rapid developments in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) in the past few years, the task of Multilingual Entity Linking (MEL) and especially its end-to-end formulation remains challenging. In this paper we aim to evaluate solutions for general end-to-end multilingual entity linking by conducting experiments using both existing complete approaches and novel combinations of pipelines for solving the task. The results identify the best performing current solutions and suggest some directions for further research.

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Automatic Extraction of the Romanian Academic Word List: Data and Methods
Ana-Maria Bucur | Andreea Dincă | Madalina Chitez | Roxana Rogobete

This paper presents the methodology and data used for the automatic extraction of the Romanian Academic Word List (Ro-AWL). Academic Word Lists are useful in both L2 and L1 teaching contexts. For the Romanian language, no such resource exists so far. Ro-AWL has been generated by combining methods from corpus and computational linguistics with L2 academic writing approaches. We use two types of data: (a) existing data, such as the Romanian Frequency List based on the ROMBAC corpus, and (b) self-compiled data, such as the expert academic writing corpus EXPRES. For constructing the academic word list, we follow the methodology for building the Academic Vocabulary List for the English language. The distribution of Ro-AWL features (general distribution, POS distribution) into four disciplinary datasets is in line with previous research. Ro-AWL is freely available and can be used for teaching, research and NLP applications.

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Stance Prediction from Multimodal Social Media Data
Lais Carraro Leme Cavalheiro | Matheus Camasmie Pavan | Ivandré Paraboni

Stance prediction - the computational task of inferring attitudes towards a given target topic of interest - relies heavily on text data provided by social media or similar sources, but it may also benefit from non-text information such as demographics (e.g., users’ gender, age, etc.), network structure (e.g., friends, followers, etc.), interactions (e.g., mentions, replies, etc.) and other non-text properties (e.g., time information, etc.). However, so-called hybrid (or in some cases multimodal) approaches to stance prediction have only been developed for a small set of target languages, and often making use of count-based text models (e.g., bag-of-words) and time-honoured classification methods (e.g., support vector machines). As a means to further research in the field, in this work we introduce a number of text- and non-text models for stance prediction in the Portuguese language, which make use of more recent methods based on BERT and an ensemble architecture, and ask whether a BERT stance classifier may be enhanced with different kinds of network-related information.

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From Stigma to Support: A Parallel Monolingual Corpus and NLP Approach for Neutralizing Mental Illness Bias
Mason Choey

Negative attitudes and perceptions towards mental illness continue to be pervasive in our society. One of the factors contributing to and reinforcing this stigma is the usage of language that is biased against mental illness. Identifying biased language and replacing it with person-first, neutralized language is a first step towards eliminating harmful stereotypes and creating a supportive and inclusive environment for those living with mental illness. This paper presents a novel Natural Language Processing (NLP) system that aims to automatically identify biased text related to mental illness and suggest neutral language replacements without altering the original text’s meaning. Building on previous work in the field, this paper presents the Mental Illness Neutrality Corpus (MINC) comprising over 5500 mental illness-biased text and neutralized sentence pairs (in English), which is used to fine-tune a CONCURRENT model system developed by Pryzant et al. (2020). After evaluation, the model demonstrates high proficiency in neutralizing mental illness bias with an accuracy of 98.7%. This work contributes a valuable resource for reducing mental illness bias in text and has the potential for further research in tackling more complex nuances and multilingual biases.

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BB25HLegalSum: Leveraging BM25 and BERT-Based Clustering for the Summarization of Legal Documents
Leonardo de Andrade | Karin Becker

Legal document summarization aims to provide a clear understanding of the main points and arguments in a legal document, contributing to the efficiency of the judicial system. In this paper, we propose BB25HLegalSum, a method that combines BERT clusters with the BM25 algorithm to summarize legal documents and present them to users with highlighted important information. The process involves selecting unique, relevant sentences from the original document, clustering them to find sentences about a similar subject, combining them to generate a summary according to three strategies, and highlighting them to the user in the original document. We outperformed baseline techniques using the BillSum dataset, a widely used benchmark in legal document summarization. Legal workers positively assessed the highlighted presentation.

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SSSD: Leveraging Pre-trained Models and Semantic Search for Semi-supervised Stance Detection
André de Sousa | Karin Becker

Pre-trained models (PTMs) based on the Transformers architecture are trained on massive amounts of data and can capture nuances and complexities in linguistic expressions, making them a powerful tool for many natural language processing tasks. In this paper, we present SSSD (Semantic Similarity Stance Detection), a semi-supervised method for stance detection on Twitter that automatically labels a large, domain-related corpus for training a stance classification model. The method assumes as input a domain set of tweets about a given target and a labeled query set of tweets of representative arguments related to the stances. It scales the automatic labeling of a large number of tweets, and improves classification accuracy by leveraging the power of PTMs and semantic search to capture context and meaning. We largely outperformed all baselines in experiments using the Semeval benchmark.

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Detecting Text Formality: A Study of Text Classification Approaches
Daryna Dementieva | Nikolay Babakov | Alexander Panchenko

Formality is one of the important characteristics of text documents. The automatic detection of the formality level of a text is potentially beneficial for various natural language processing tasks. Before, two large-scale datasets were introduced for multiple languages featuring formality annotation—GYAFC and X-FORMAL. However, they were primarily used for the training of style transfer models. At the same time, the detection of text formality on its own may also be a useful application. This work proposes the first to our knowledge systematic study of formality detection methods based on statistical, neural-based, and Transformer-based machine learning methods and delivers the best-performing models for public usage. We conducted three types of experiments – monolingual, multilingual, and cross-lingual. The study shows the overcome of Char BiLSTM model over Transformer-based ones for the monolingual and multilingual formality classification task, while Transformer-based classifiers are more stable to cross-lingual knowledge transfer.

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Developing a Multilingual Corpus of Wikipedia Biographies
Hannah Devinney | Anton Eklund | Igor Ryazanov | Jingwen Cai

For many languages, Wikipedia is the most accessible source of biographical information. Studying how Wikipedia describes the lives of people can provide insights into societal biases, as well as cultural differences more generally. We present a method for extracting datasets of Wikipedia biographies. The accompanying codebase is adapted to English, Swedish, Russian, Chinese, and Farsi, and is extendable to other languages. We present an exploratory analysis of biographical topics and gendered patterns in four languages using topic modelling and embedding clustering. We find similarities across languages in the types of categories present, with the distribution of biographies concentrated in the language’s core regions. Masculine terms are over-represented and spread out over a wide variety of topics. Feminine terms are less frequent and linked to more constrained topics. Non-binary terms are nearly non-represented.

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A Computational Analysis of the Voices of Shakespeare’s Characters
Liviu P. Dinu | Ana Sabina Uban

In this paper we propose a study of a relatively novel problem in authorship attribution research: that of classifying the stylome of characters in a literary work. We choose as a case study the plays of William Shakespeare, presumably the most renowned and respected dramatist in the history of literature. Previous research in the field of authorship attribution has shown that the writing style of an author can be characterized and distinguished from that of other authors automatically. The question we propose to answer is a related but different one: can the styles of different characters be distinguished? We aim to verify in this way if an author managed to create believable characters with individual styles, and focus on Shakespeare’s iconic characters. We present our experiments using various features and models, including an SVM and a neural network, show that characters in Shakespeare’s plays can be classified with up to 50% accuracy.

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Source Code Plagiarism Detection with Pre-Trained Model Embeddings and Automated Machine Learning
Fahad Ebrahim | Mike Joy

Source code plagiarism is a critical ethical issue in computer science education where students use someone else’s work as their own. It can be treated as a binary classification problem where the output can be either: yes (plagiarism found) or no (plagiarism not found). In this research, we have taken the open-source dataset ‘SOCO’, which contains two programming languages (PLs), namely Java and C/C++ (although our method could be applied to any PL). Source codes should be converted to vector representations that capture both the syntax and semantics of the text, known as contextual embeddings. These embeddings would be generated using source code pre-trained models (CodePTMs). The cosine similarity scores of three different CodePTMs were selected as features. The classifier selection and parameter tuning were conducted with the assistance of Automated Machine Learning (AutoML). The selected classifiers were tested, initially on Java, and the proposed approach produced average to high results compared to other published research, and surpassed the baseline (the JPlag plagiarism detection tool). For C/C++, the approach outperformed other research work and produced the highest ranking score.

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Identifying Semantic Argument Types in Predication and Copredication Contexts: A Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Approach
Deniz Ekin Yavas | Laura Kallmeyer | Rainer Osswald | Elisabetta Jezek | Marta Ricchiardi | Long Chen

Identifying semantic argument types in predication contexts is not a straightforward task for several reasons, such as inherent polysemy, coercion, and copredication phenomena. In this paper, we train monolingual and multilingual classifiers with a zero-shot cross-lingual approach to identify semantic argument types in predications using pre-trained language models as feature extractors. We train classifiers for different semantic argument types and for both verbal and adjectival predications. Furthermore, we propose a method to detect copredication using these classifiers through identifying the argument semantic type targeted in different predications over the same noun in a sentence. We evaluate the performance of the method on copredication test data with Food•Event nouns for 5 languages.

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A Review of Research-Based Automatic Text Simplification Tools
Isabel Espinosa-Zaragoza | José Abreu-Salas | Elena Lloret | Paloma Moreda | Manuel Palomar

In the age of knowledge, the democratisation of information facilitated through the Internet may not be as pervasive if written language poses challenges to particular sectors of the population. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of research-based automatic text simplification tools. Consequently, we describe aspects such as the language, language phenomena, language levels simplified, approaches, specific target populations these tools are created for (e.g. individuals with cognitive impairment, attention deficit, elderly people, children, language learners), and accessibility and availability considerations. The review of existing studies covering automatic text simplification tools is undergone by searching two databases: Web of Science and Scopus. The eligibility criteria involve text simplification tools with a scientific background in order to ascertain how they operate. This methodology yielded 27 text simplification tools that are further analysed. Some of the main conclusions reached with this review are the lack of resources accessible to the public, the need for customisation to foster the individual’s independence by allowing the user to select what s/he finds challenging to understand while not limiting the user’s capabilities and the need for more simplification tools in languages other than English, to mention a few.

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Vocab-Expander: A System for Creating Domain-Specific Vocabularies Based on Word Embeddings
Michael Faerber | Nicholas Popovic

In this paper, we propose Vocab-Expander at, an online tool that enables end-users (e.g., technology scouts) to create and expand a vocabulary of their domain of interest. It utilizes an ensemble of state-of-the-art word embedding techniques based on web text and ConceptNet, a common-sense knowledge base, to suggest related terms for already given terms. The system has an easy-to-use interface that allows users to quickly confirm or reject term suggestions. Vocab-Expander offers a variety of potential use cases, such as improving concept-based information retrieval in technology and innovation management, enhancing communication and collaboration within organizations or interdisciplinary projects, and creating vocabularies for specific courses in education.

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On the Generalization of Projection-Based Gender Debiasing in Word Embedding
Elisabetta Fersini | Antonio Candelieri | Lorenzo Pastore

Gender bias estimation and mitigation techniques in word embeddings lack an understanding of their generalization capabilities. In this work, we complement prior research by comparing in a systematic way four gender bias metrics (Word Embedding Association Tes, Relative Negative Sentiment Bias, Embedding Coherence Test and Bias Analogy Test), two types of projection-based gender mitigation strategies (hard- and soft-debiasing) on three well-known word embedding representations (Word2Vec, FastText and Glove). The experiments have shown that the considered word embeddings are consistent between them but the debiasing techniques are inconsistent across the different metrics, also highlighting the potential risk of unintended bias after the mitigation strategies.

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Mapping Explicit and Implicit Discourse Relations between the RST-DT and the PDTB 3.0
Nelson Filipe Costa | Nadia Sheikh | Leila Kosseim

In this paper we propose a first empirical mapping between the RST-DT and the PDTB 3.0. We provide an original algorithm which allowed the mapping of 6,510 (80.0%) explicit and implicit discourse relations between the overlapping articles of the RST-DT and PDTB 3.0 discourse annotated corpora. Results of the mapping show that while it is easier to align segments of implicit discourse relations, the mapping obtained between the aligned explicit discourse relations is more unambiguous.

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Bigfoot in Big Tech: Detecting Out of Domain Conspiracy Theories
Matthew Fort | Zuoyu Tian | Elizabeth Gabel | Nina Georgiades | Noah Sauer | Daniel Dakota | Sandra Kübler

We investigate approaches to classifying texts into either conspiracy theory or mainstream using the Language Of Conspiracy (LOCO) corpus. Since conspiracy theories are not monolithic constructs, we need to identify approaches that robustly work in an out-of- domain setting (i.e., across conspiracy topics). We investigate whether optimal in-domain set- tings can be transferred to out-of-domain set- tings, and we investigate different methods for bleaching to steer classifiers away from words typical for an individual conspiracy theory. We find that BART works better than an SVM, that we can successfully classify out-of-domain, but there are no clear trends in how to choose the best source training domains. Addition- ally, bleaching only topic words works better than bleaching all content words or completely delexicalizing texts.

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Deep Learning Approaches to Detecting Safeguarding Concerns in Schoolchildren’s Online Conversations
Emma Franklin | Tharindu Ranasinghe

For school teachers and Designated Safeguarding Leads (DSLs), computers and other school-owned communication devices are both indispensable and deeply worrisome. For their education, children require access to the Internet, as well as a standard institutional ICT infrastructure, including e-mail and other forms of online communication technology. Given the sheer volume of data being generated and shared on a daily basis within schools, most teachers and DSLs can no longer monitor the safety and wellbeing of their students without the use of specialist safeguarding software. In this paper, we experiment with the use of state-of-the-art neural network models on the modelling of a dataset of almost 9,000 anonymised child-generated chat messages on the Microsoft Teams platform. The data was manually classified into eight fine-grained classes of safeguarding concerns (or false alarms) that a monitoring program would be interested in, and these were further split into two binary classes: true positives (real safeguarding concerns) and false positives (false alarms). For the fine grained classification, our models achieved a macro F1 score of 73.56, while for the binary classification, we achieved a macro F1 score of 87.32. This first experiment into the use of Deep Learning for detecting safeguarding concerns represents an important step towards achieving high-accuracy and reliable monitoring information for busy teachers and safeguarding leads.

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On the Identification and Forecasting of Hate Speech in Inceldom
Paolo Gajo | Arianna Muti | Katerina Korre | Silvia Bernardini | Alberto Barrón-Cedeño

Spotting hate speech in social media posts is crucial to increase the civility of the Web and has been thoroughly explored in the NLP community. For the first time, we introduce a multilingual corpus for the analysis and identification of hate speech in the domain of inceldom, built from incel Web forums in English and Italian, including expert annotation at the post level for two kinds of hate speech: misogyny and racism. This resource paves the way for the development of mono- and cross-lingual models for (a) the identification of hateful (misogynous and racist) posts and (b) the forecasting of the amount of hateful responses that a post is likely to trigger. Our experiments aim at improving the performance of Transformer-based models using masked language modeling pre-training and dataset merging. The results show that these strategies boost the models’ performance in all settings (binary classification, multi-label classification and forecasting), especially in the cross-lingual scenarios.

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T2KG: Transforming Multimodal Document to Knowledge Graph
Santiago Galiano | Rafael Muñoz | Yoan Gutiérrez | Andrés Montoyo | Jose Ignacio Abreu | Luis Alfonso Ureña

The large amount of information in digital format that exists today makes it unfeasible to use manual means to acquire the knowledge contained in these documents. Therefore, it is necessary to develop tools that allow us to incorporate this knowledge into a structure that is easy to use by both machines and humans. This paper presents a system that can incorporate the relevant information from a document in any format, structured or unstructured, into a semantic network that represents the existing knowledge in the document. The system independently processes from structured documents based on its annotation scheme to unstructured documents, written in natural language, for which it uses a set of sensors that identifies the relevant information and subsequently incorporates it to enrich the semantic network that is created by linking all the information based on the knowledge discovered.

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!Translate: When You Cannot Cook Up a Translation, Explain
Federico Garcea | Margherita Martinelli | Maja Milicević Petrović | Alberto Barrón-Cedeño

In the domain of cuisine, both dishes and ingredients tend to be heavily rooted in the local context they belong to. As a result, the associated terms are often realia tied to specific cultures and languages. This causes difficulties for non-speakers of the local language and ma- chine translation (MT) systems alike, as it implies a lack of the concept and/or of a plausible translation. MT typically opts for one of two alternatives: keeping the source language terms untranslated or relying on a hyperonym/near-synonym in the target language, provided one exists. !Translate proposes a better alternative: explaining. Given a cuisine entry such as a restaurant menu item, we identify culture-specific terms and enrich the output of the MT system with automatically retrieved definitions of the non-translatable terms in the target language, making the translation more actionable for the final user.

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An Evaluation of Source Factors in Concatenation-Based Context-Aware Neural Machine Translation
Harritxu Gete | Thierry Etchegoyhen

We explore the use of source factors in context-aware neural machine translation, specifically concatenation-based models, to improve the translation quality of inter-sentential phenomena. Context sentences are typically concatenated to the sentence to be translated, with string-based markers to separate the latter from the former. Although previous studies have measured the impact of prefixes to identify and mark context information, the use of learnable factors has only been marginally explored. In this study, we evaluate the impact of single and multiple source context factors in English-German and Basque-Spanish contextual translation. We show that this type of factors can significantly enhance translation accuracy for phenomena such as gender and register coherence in Basque-Spanish, while also improving BLEU results in some scenarios. These results demonstrate the potential of factor-based context identification to improve context-aware machine translation in future research.

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Lessons Learnt from Linear Text Segmentation: a Fair Comparison of Architectural and Sentence Encoding Strategies for Successful Segmentation
Iacopo Ghinassi | Lin Wang | Chris Newell | Matthew Purver

Recent works on linear text segmentation have shown new state-of-the-art results nearly every year. Most times, however, these recent advances include a variety of different elements which makes it difficult to evaluate which individual components of the proposed methods bring about improvements for the task and, more generally, what actually works for linear text segmentation. Moreover, evaluating text segmentation is notoriously difficult and the use of a metric such as Pk, which is widely used in existing literature, presents specific problems that complicates a fair comparison between segmentation models. In this work, then, we draw from a number of existing works to assess which is the state-of-the-art in linear text segmentation, investigating what architectures and features work best for the task. For doing so, we present three models representative of a variety of approaches, we compare them to existing methods and we inspect elements composing them, so as to give a more complete picture of which technique is more successful and why that might be the case. At the same time, we highlight a specific feature of Pk which can bias the results and we report our results using different settings, so as to give future literature a more comprehensive set of baseline results for future developments. We then hope that this work can serve as a solid foundation to foster research in the area, overcoming task-specific difficulties such as evaluation setting and providing new state-of-the-art results.

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Student’s t-Distribution: On Measuring the Inter-Rater Reliability When the Observations are Scarce
Serge Gladkoff | Lifeng Han | Goran Nenadic

In natural language processing (NLP) we always rely on human judgement as the golden quality evaluation method. However, there has been an ongoing debate on how to better evaluate inter-rater reliability (IRR) levels for certain evaluation tasks, such as translation quality evaluation (TQE), especially when the data samples (observations) are very scarce. In this work, we first introduce the study on how to estimate the confidence interval for the measurement value when only one data (evaluation) point is available. Then, this leads to our example with two human-generated observational scores, for which, we introduce “Student’s t-Distribution” method and explain how to use it to measure the IRR score using only these two data points, as well as the confidence intervals (CIs) of the quality evaluation. We give a quantitative analysis of how the evaluation confidence can be greatly improved by introducing more observations, even if only one extra observation. We encourage researchers to report their IRR scores in all possible means, e.g. using Student’s t-Distribution method whenever possible; thus making the NLP evaluation more meaningful, transparent, and trustworthy. This t-Distribution method can be also used outside of NLP fields to measure IRR level for trustworthy evaluation of experimental investigations, whenever the observational data is scarce.

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Data Augmentation for Fake News Detection by Combining Seq2seq and NLI
Anna Glazkova

State-of-the-art data augmentation methods help improve the generalization of deep learning models. However, these methods often generate examples that contradict the preserving class labels. This is crucial for some natural language processing tasks, such as fake news detection. In this work, we combine sequence-to-sequence and natural language inference models for data augmentation in the fake news detection domain using short news texts, such as tweets and news titles. This approach allows us to generate new training examples that do not contradict facts from the original texts. We use the non-entailment probability for the pair of the original and generated texts as a loss function for a transformer-based sequence-to-sequence model. The proposed approach has demonstrated the effectiveness on three classification benchmarks in fake news detection in terms of the F1-score macro and ROC AUC. Moreover, we showed that our approach retains the class label of the original text more accurately than other transformer-based methods.

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Exploring Unsupervised Semantic Similarity Methods for Claim Verification in Health Care News Articles
Vishwani Gupta | Astrid Viciano | Holger Wormer | Najmehsadat Mousavinezhad

In the 21st century, the proliferation of fake information has emerged as a significant threat to society. Particularly, healthcare medical reporters face challenges when verifying claims related to treatment effects, side effects, and risks mentioned in news articles, relying on scientific publications for accuracy. The accurate communication of scientific information in news articles has long been a crucial concern in the scientific community, as the dissemination of misinformation can have dire consequences in the healthcare domain. Healthcare medical reporters would greatly benefit from efficient methods to retrieve evidence from scientific publications supporting specific claims. This paper delves into the application of unsupervised semantic similarity models to facilitate claim verification for medical reporters, thereby expediting the process. We explore unsupervised multilingual evidence retrieval techniques aimed at reducing the time required to obtain evidence from scientific studies. Instead of employing content classification, we propose an approach that retrieves relevant evidence from scientific publications for claim verification within the healthcare domain. Given a claim and a set of scientific publications, our system generates a list of the most similar paragraphs containing supporting evidence. Furthermore, we evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art unsupervised semantic similarity methods in this task. As the claim and evidence are present in a cross-lingual space, we find that the XML-RoBERTa model exhibits high accuracy in achieving our objective. Through this research, we contribute to enhancing the efficiency and reliability of claim verification for healthcare medical reporters, enabling them to accurately source evidence from scientific publications in a timely manner.

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AlphaMWE-Arabic: Arabic Edition of Multilingual Parallel Corpora with Multiword Expression Annotations
Najet Hadj Mohamed | Malak Rassem | Lifeng Han | Goran Nenadic

Multiword Expressions (MWEs) have been a bottleneck for Natural Language Understanding (NLU) and Natural Language Generation (NLG) tasks due to their idiomaticity, ambiguity, and non-compositionality. Bilingual parallel corpora introducing MWE annotations are very scarce which set another challenge for current Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems, especially in a multilingual setting. This work presents AlphaMWE-Arabic, an Arabic edition of the AlphaMWE parallel corpus with MWE annotations. We introduce how we created this corpus including machine translation (MT), post-editing, and annotations for both standard and dialectal varieties, i.e. Tunisian and Egyptian Arabic. We analyse the MT errors when they meet MWEs-related content, both quantitatively using the human-in-the-loop metric HOPE and qualitatively. We report the current state-of-the-art MT systems are far from reaching human parity performances. We expect our bilingual English-Arabic corpus will be an asset for multilingual research on MWEs such as translation and localisation, as well as for monolingual settings including the study of Arabic-specific lexicography and phrasal verbs on MWEs. Our corpus and experimental data are available at

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Performance Analysis of Arabic Pre-trained Models on Named Entity Recognition Task
Abdelhalim Hafedh Dahou | Mohamed Amine Cheragui | Ahmed Abdelali

Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a crucial task within natural language processing (NLP) that entails the identification and classification of entities, such as person, organization and location. This study delves into NER specifically in the Arabic language, focusing on the Algerian dialect. While previous research in NER has primarily concentrated on Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), the advent of social media has prompted a need to address the variations found in different Arabic dialects. Moreover, given the notable achievements of Large-scale pre-trained models (PTMs) based on the BERT architecture, this paper aims to evaluate Arabic pre-trained models using an Algerian dataset that covers different domains and writing styles. Additionally, an error analysis is conducted to identify PTMs’ limitations, and an investigation is carried out to assess the performance of trained MSA models on the Algerian dialect. The experimental results and subsequent analysis shed light on the complexities of NER in Arabic, offering valuable insights for future research endeavors.

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Discourse Analysis of Argumentative Essays of English Learners Based on CEFR Level
Blaise Hanel | Leila Kosseim

In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the use of discourse relations and the CEFR-level of argumentative English learner essays. Using both the Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) and the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB) frameworks, we analyze essays from The International Corpus Network of Asian Learners (ICNALE), and the Corpus and Repository of Writing (CROW). Results show that the use of the RST relations of Explanation and Background, as well as the first-level PDTB sense of Contingency, are influenced by the English proficiency level of the writer.

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Improving Translation Quality for Low-Resource Inuktitut with Various Preprocessing Techniques
Mathias Hans Erik Stenlund | Mathilde Nanni | Micaella Bruton | Meriem Beloucif

Neural machine translation has been shown to outperform all other machine translation paradigms when trained in a high-resource setting. However, it still performs poorly when dealing with low-resource languages, for which parallel data for training is scarce. This is especially the case for morphologically complex languages such as Turkish, Tamil, Uyghur, etc. In this paper, we investigate various preprocessing methods for Inuktitut, a low-resource indigenous language from North America, without a morphological analyzer. On both the original and romanized scripts, we test various preprocessing techniques such as Byte-Pair Encoding, random stemming, and data augmentation using Hungarian for the Inuktitut-to-English translation task. We found that there are benefits to retaining the original script as it helps to achieve higher BLEU scores than the romanized models.

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Enriched Pre-trained Transformers for Joint Slot Filling and Intent Detection
Momchil Hardalov | Ivan Koychev | Preslav Nakov

Detecting the user’s intent and finding the corresponding slots among the utterance’s words are important tasks in natural language understanding. Their interconnected nature makes their joint modeling a standard part of training such models. Moreover, data scarceness and specialized vocabularies pose additional challenges. Recently, the advances in pre-trained language models, namely contextualized models such as ELMo and BERT have revolutionized the field by tapping the potential of training very large models with just a few steps of fine-tuning on a task-specific dataset. Here, we leverage such models, and we design a novel architecture on top of them. Moreover, we propose an intent pooling attention mechanism, and we reinforce the slot filling task by fusing intent distributions, word features, and token representations. The experimental results on standard datasets show that our model outperforms both the current non-BERT state of the art as well as stronger BERT-based baselines.

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Unimodal Intermediate Training for Multimodal Meme Sentiment Classification
Muzhaffar Hazman | Susan McKeever | Josephine Griffith

Internet Memes remain a challenging form of user-generated content for automated sentiment classification. The availability of labelled memes is a barrier to developing sentiment classifiers of multimodal memes. To address the shortage of labelled memes, we propose to supplement the training of a multimodal meme classifier with unimodal (image-only and text-only) data. In this work, we present a novel variant of supervised intermediate training that uses relatively abundant sentiment-labelled unimodal data. Our results show a statistically significant performance improvement from the incorporation of unimodal text data. Furthermore, we show that the training set of labelled memes can be reduced by 40% without reducing the performance of the downstream model.

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Explainable Event Detection with Event Trigger Identification as Rationale Extraction
Hansi Hettiarachchi | Tharindu Ranasinghe

Most event detection methods act at the sentence-level and focus on identifying sentences related to a particular event. However, identifying certain parts of a sentence that act as event triggers is also important and more challenging, especially when dealing with limited training data. Previous event detection attempts have considered these two tasks separately and have developed different methods. We hypothesise that similar to humans, successful sentence-level event detection models rely on event triggers to predict sentence-level labels. By exploring feature attribution methods that assign relevance scores to the inputs to explain model predictions, we study the behaviour of state-of-the-art sentence-level event detection models and show that explanations (i.e. rationales) extracted from these models can indeed be used to detect event triggers. We, therefore, (i) introduce a novel weakly-supervised method for event trigger detection; and (ii) propose to use event triggers as an explainable measure in sentence-level event detection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first explainable machine learning approach to event trigger identification.

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Clinical Text Classification to SNOMED CT Codes Using Transformers Trained on Linked Open Medical Ontologies
Anton Hristov | Petar Ivanov | Anna Aksenova | Tsvetan Asamov | Pavlin Gyurov | Todor Primov | Svetla Boytcheva

We present an approach for medical text coding with SNOMED CT. Our approach uses publicly available linked open data from terminologies and ontologies as training data for the algorithms. We claim that even small training corpora made of short text snippets can be used to train models for the given task. We propose a method based on transformers enhanced with clustering and filtering of the candidates. Further, we adopt a classical machine learning approach - support vector classification (SVC) using transformer embeddings. The resulting approach proves to be more accurate than the predictions given by Large Language Models. We evaluate on a dataset generated from linked open data for SNOMED codes related to morphology and topography for four use cases. Our transformers-based approach achieves an F1-score of 0.82 for morphology and 0.99 for topography codes. Further, we validate the applicability of our approach in a clinical context using labelled real clinical data that are not used for model training.

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Towards a Consensus Taxonomy for Annotating Errors in Automatically Generated Text
Rudali Huidrom | Anya Belz

Error analysis aims to provide insights into system errors at different levels of granularity. NLP as a field has a long-standing tradition of analysing and reporting errors which is generally considered good practice. There are existing error taxonomies tailored for different types of NLP task. In this paper, we report our work reviewing existing research on meaning/content error types in generated text, attempt to identify emerging consensus among existing meaning/content error taxonomies, and propose a standardised error taxonomy on this basis. We find that there is virtually complete agreement at the highest taxonomic level where errors of meaning/content divide into (1) Content Omission, (2) Content Addition, and (3) Content Substitution. Consensus in the lower levels is less pronounced, but a compact standardised consensus taxonomy can nevertheless be derived that works across generation tasks and application domains.

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Uncertainty Quantification of Text Classification in a Multi-Label Setting for Risk-Sensitive Systems
Jinha Hwang | Carol Gudumotu | Benyamin Ahmadnia

This paper addresses the challenge of uncertainty quantification in text classification for medical purposes and provides a three-fold approach to support robust and trustworthy decision-making by medical practitioners. Also, we address the challenge of imbalanced datasets in the medical domain by utilizing the Mondrian Conformal Predictor with a Naïve Bayes classifier.

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Pretraining Language- and Domain-Specific BERT on Automatically Translated Text
Tatsuya Ishigaki | Yui Uehara | Goran Topić | Hiroya Takamura

Domain-specific pretrained language models such as SciBERT are effective for various tasks involving text in specific domains. However, pretraining BERT requires a large-scale language resource, which is not necessarily available in fine-grained domains, especially in non-English languages. In this study, we focus on a setting with no available domain-specific text for pretraining. To this end, we propose a simple framework that trains a BERT on text in the target language automatically translated from a resource-rich language, e.g., English. In this paper, we particularly focus on the materials science domain in Japanese. Our experiments pertain to the task of entity and relation extraction for this domain and language. The experiments demonstrate that the various models pretrained on translated texts consistently perform better than the general BERT in terms of F1 scores although the domain-specific BERTs do not use any human-authored domain-specific text. These results imply that BERTs for various low-resource domains can be successfully trained on texts automatically translated from resource-rich languages.

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Categorising Fine-to-Coarse Grained Misinformation: An Empirical Study of the COVID-19 Infodemic
Ye Jiang | Xingyi Song | Carolina Scarton | Iknoor Singh | Ahmet Aker | Kalina Bontcheva

The spread of COVID-19 misinformation on social media became a major challenge for citizens, with negative real-life consequences. Prior research focused on detection and/or analysis of COVID-19 misinformation. However, fine-grained classification of misinformation claims has been largely overlooked. The novel contribution of this paper is in introducing a new dataset which makes fine-grained distinctions between statements that assert, comment or question on false COVID-19 claims. This new dataset not only enables social behaviour analysis but also enables us to address both evidence-based and non-evidence-based misinformation classification tasks. Lastly, through leave claim out cross-validation, we demonstrate that classifier performance on unseen COVID-19 misinformation claims is significantly different, as compared to performance on topics present in the training data.

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Bridging the Gap between Subword and Character Segmentation in Pretrained Language Models
Shun Kiyono | Sho Takase | Shengzhe Li | Toshinori Sato

Pretrained language models require the use of consistent segmentation (e.g., subword- or character-level segmentation) in pretraining and finetuning. In NLP, many tasks are modeled by subword-level segmentation better than by character-level segmentation. However, because of their format, several tasks require the use of character-level segmentation. Thus, in order to tackle both types of NLP tasks, language models must be independently pretrained for both subword and character-level segmentation. However, this is an inefficient and costly procedure. Instead, this paper proposes a method for training a language model with unified segmentation. This means that the trained model can be finetuned on both subword- and character-level segmentation. The principle of the method is to apply the subword regularization technique to generate a mixture of subword- and character-level segmentation. Through experiment on BERT models, we demonstrate that our method can halve the computational cost of pretraining.

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Evaluating Data Augmentation for Medication Identification in Clinical Notes
Jordan Koontz | Maite Oronoz | Alicia Pérez

We evaluate the effectiveness of using data augmentation to improve the generalizability of a Named Entity Recognition model for the task of medication identification in clinical notes. We compare disparate data augmentation methods, namely mention-replacement and a generative model, for creating synthetic training examples. Through experiments on the n2c2 2022 Track 1 Contextualized Medication Event Extraction data set, we show that data augmentation with supplemental examples created with GPT-3 can boost the performance of a transformer-based model for small training sets.

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Advancing Topical Text Classification: A Novel Distance-Based Method with Contextual Embeddings
Andriy Kosar | Guy De Pauw | Walter Daelemans

This study introduces a new method for distance-based unsupervised topical text classification using contextual embeddings. The method applies and tailors sentence embeddings for distance-based topical text classification. This is achieved by leveraging the semantic similarity between topic labels and text content, and reinforcing the relationship between them in a shared semantic space. The proposed method outperforms a wide range of existing sentence embeddings on average by 35%. Presenting an alternative to the commonly used transformer-based zero-shot general-purpose classifiers for multiclass text classification, the method demonstrates significant advantages in terms of computational efficiency and flexibility, while maintaining comparable or improved classification results.

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Taxonomy-Based Automation of Prior Approval Using Clinical Guidelines
Saranya Krishnamoorthy | Ayush Singh

Performing prior authorization on patients in a medical facility is a time-consuming and challenging task for insurance companies. Automating the clinical decisions that lead to authorization can reduce the time that staff spend executing such procedures. To better facilitate such critical decision making, we present an automated approach to predict one of the challenging tasks in the process called primary clinical indicator prediction, which is the outcome of this procedure. The proposed solution is to create a taxonomy to capture the main categories in primary clinical indicators. Our approach involves an important step of selecting what is known as the “primary indicator” – one of the several heuristics based on clinical guidelines that are published and publicly available. A taxonomy based PI classification system was created to help in the recognition of PIs from free text in electronic health records (EHRs). This taxonomy includes comprehensive explanations of each PI, as well as examples of free text that could be used to detect each PI. The major contribution of this work is to introduce a taxonomy created by three professional nurses with many years of experience. We experiment with several state-of-the-art supervised and unsupervised techniques with a focus on prior approval for spinal imaging. The results indicate that the proposed taxonomy is capable of increasing the performance of unsupervised approaches by up to 10 F1 points. Further, in the supervised setting, we achieve an F1 score of 0.61 using a conventional technique based on term frequency–inverse document frequency that outperforms other deep-learning approaches.

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Simultaneous Interpreting as a Noisy Channel: How Much Information Gets Through
Maria Kunilovskaya | Heike Przybyl | Ekaterina Lapshinova-Koltunski | Elke Teich

We explore the relationship between information density/surprisal of source and target texts in translation and interpreting in the language pair English-German, looking at the specific properties of translation (“translationese”). Our data comes from two bidirectional English-German subcorpora representing written and spoken mediation modes collected from European Parliament proceedings. Within each language, we (a) compare original speeches to their translated or interpreted counterparts, and (b) explore the association between segment-aligned sources and targets in each translation direction. As additional variables, we consider source delivery mode (read-out, impromptu) and source speech rate in interpreting. We use language modelling to measure the information rendered by words in a segment and to characterise the cross-lingual transfer of information under various conditions. Our approach is based on statistical analyses of surprisal values, extracted from n-gram models of our dataset. The analysis reveals that while there is a considerable positive correlation between the average surprisal of source and target segments in both modes, information output in interpreting is lower than in translation, given the same amount of input. Significantly lower information density in spoken mediated production compared to non-mediated speech in the same language can indicate a possible simplification effect in interpreting.

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Challenges of GPT-3-Based Conversational Agents for Healthcare
Fabian Lechner | Allison Lahnala | Charles Welch | Lucie Flek

The potential of medical domain dialogue agents lies in their ability to provide patients with faster information access while enabling medical specialists to concentrate on critical tasks. However, the integration of large-language models (LLMs) into these agents presents certain limitations that may result in serious consequences. This paper investigates the challenges and risks of using GPT-3-based models for medical question-answering (MedQA). We perform several evaluations contextualized in terms of standard medical principles. We provide a procedure for manually designing patient queries to stress-test high-risk limitations of LLMs in MedQA systems. Our analysis reveals that LLMs fail to respond adequately to these queries, generating erroneous medical information, unsafe recommendations, and content that may be considered offensive.

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Noisy Self-Training with Data Augmentations for Offensive and Hate Speech Detection Tasks
João Leite | Carolina Scarton | Diego Silva

Online social media is rife with offensive and hateful comments, prompting the need for their automatic detection given the sheer amount of posts created every second. Creating high-quality human-labelled datasets for this task is difficult and costly, especially because non-offensive posts are significantly more frequent than offensive ones. However, unlabelled data is abundant, easier, and cheaper to obtain. In this scenario, self-training methods, using weakly-labelled examples to increase the amount of training data, can be employed. Recent “noisy” self-training approaches incorporate data augmentation techniques to ensure prediction consistency and increase robustness against noisy data and adversarial attacks. In this paper, we experiment with default and noisy self-training using three different textual data augmentation techniques across five different pre-trained BERT architectures varying in size. We evaluate our experiments on two offensive/hate-speech datasets and demonstrate that (i) self-training consistently improves performance regardless of model size, resulting in up to +1.5% F1-macro on both datasets, and (ii) noisy self-training with textual data augmentations, despite being successfully applied in similar settings, decreases performance on offensive and hate-speech domains when compared to the default method, even with state-of-the-art augmentations such as backtranslation.

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A Practical Survey on Zero-Shot Prompt Design for In-Context Learning
Yinheng Li

The remarkable advancements in large language models (LLMs) have brought about significant improvements in Natural Language Processing(NLP) tasks. This paper presents a comprehensive review of in-context learning techniques, focusing on different types of prompts, including discrete, continuous, few-shot, and zero-shot, and their impact on LLM performance. We explore various approaches to prompt design, such as manual design, optimization algorithms, and evaluation methods, to optimize LLM performance across diverse tasks. Our review covers key research studies in prompt engineering, discussing their methodologies and contributions to the field. We also delve into the challenges faced in evaluating prompt performance, given the absence of a single “best” prompt and the importance of considering multiple metrics. In conclusion, the paper highlights the critical role of prompt design in harnessing the full potential of LLMs and provides insights into the combination of manual design, optimization techniques, and rigorous evaluation for more effective and efficient use of LLMs in various NLP tasks.

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Classifying COVID-19 Vaccine Narratives
Yue Li | Carolina Scarton | Xingyi Song | Kalina Bontcheva

Vaccine hesitancy is widespread, despite the government’s information campaigns and the efforts of the World Health Organisation (WHO). Categorising the topics within vaccine-related narratives is crucial to understand the concerns expressed in discussions and identify the specific issues that contribute to vaccine hesitancy. This paper addresses the need for monitoring and analysing vaccine narratives online by introducing a novel vaccine narrative classification task, which categorises COVID-19 vaccine claims into one of seven categories. Following a data augmentation approach, we first construct a novel dataset for this new classification task, focusing on the minority classes. We also make use of fact-checker annotated data. The paper also presents a neural vaccine narrative classifier that achieves an accuracy of 84% under cross-validation. The classifier is publicly available for researchers and journalists.

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Sign Language Recognition and Translation: A Multi-Modal Approach Using Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing
Jacky Li | Jaren Gerdes | James Gojit | Austin Tao | Samyak Katke | Kate Nguyen | Benyamin Ahmadnia

Sign-to-Text (S2T) is a hand gesture recognition program in the American Sign Language (ASL) domain. The primary objective of S2T is to classify standard ASL alphabets and custom signs and convert the classifications into a stream of text using neural networks. This paper addresses the shortcomings of pure Computer Vision techniques and applies Natural Language Processing (NLP) as an additional layer of complexity to increase S2T’s robustness.

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Classification-Aware Neural Topic Model Combined with Interpretable Analysis - for Conflict Classification
Tianyu Liang | Yida Mu | Soonho Kim | Darline Kuate | Julie Lang | Rob Vos | Xingyi Song

A large number of conflict events are affecting the world all the time. In order to analyse such conflict events effectively, this paper presents a Classification-Aware Neural Topic Model (CANTM-IA) for Conflict Information Classification and Topic Discovery. The model provides a reliable interpretation of classification results and discovered topics by introducing interpretability analysis. At the same time, interpretation is introduced into the model architecture to improve the classification performance of the model and to allow interpretation to focus further on the details of the data. Finally, the model architecture is optimised to reduce the complexity of the model.

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Data Augmentation for Fake Reviews Detection
Ming Liu | Massimo Poesio

In this research, we studied the relationship between data augmentation and model accuracy for the task of fake review detection. We used data generation methods to augment two different fake review datasets and compared the performance of models trained with the original data and with the augmented data. Our results show that the accuracy of our fake review detection model can be improved by 0.31 percentage points on DeRev Test and by 7.65 percentage points on Amazon Test by using the augmented datasets.

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Coherent Story Generation with Structured Knowledge
Congda Ma | Kotaro Funakoshi | Kiyoaki Shirai | Manabu Okumura

The emergence of pre-trained language models has taken story generation, which is the task of automatically generating a comprehensible story from limited information, to a new stage. Although generated stories from the language models are fluent and grammatically correct, the lack of coherence affects their quality. We propose a knowledge-based multi-stage model that incorporates the schema, a kind of structured knowledge, to guide coherent story generation. Our framework includes a schema acquisition module, a plot generation module, and a surface realization module. In the schema acquisition module, high-relevant structured knowledge pieces are selected as a schema. In the plot generation module, a coherent plot plan is navigated by the schema. In the surface realization module, conditioned by the generated plot, a story is generated. Evaluations show that our methods can generate more comprehensible stories than strong baselines, especially with higher global coherence and less repetition.

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Studying Common Ground Instantiation Using Audio, Video and Brain Behaviours: The BrainKT Corpus
Eliot Maës | Thierry Legou | Leonor Becerra | Philippe Blache

An increasing amount of multimodal recordings has been paving the way for the development of a more automatic way to study language and conversational interactions. However this data largely comprises of audio and video recordings, leaving aside other modalities that might complement this external view of the conversation but might be more difficult to collect in naturalistic setups, such as participants brain activity. In this context, we present BrainKT, a natural conversational corpus with audio, video and neuro-physiological signals, collected with the aim of studying information exchanges and common ground instantiation in conversation in a new, more in-depth way. We recorded conversations from 28 dyads (56 participants) during 30 minutes experiments where subjects were first tasked to collaborate on a joint information game, then freely drifted to the topic of their choice. During each session, audio and video were captured, along with the participants’ neural signal (EEG with Biosemi 64) and their electro-physiological activity (with Empatica-E4). The paper situates this new type of resources in the literature, presents the experimental setup and describes the different kinds of annotations considered for the corpus.

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Reading between the Lines: Information Extraction from Industry Requirements
Ole Magnus Holter | Basil Ell

Industry requirements describe the qualities that a project or a service must provide. Most requirements are, however, only available in natural language format and are embedded in textual documents. To be machine-understandable, a requirement needs to be represented in a logical format. We consider that a requirement consists of a scope, which is the requirement’s subject matter, a condition, which is any condition that must be fulfilled for the requirement to be relevant, and a demand, which is what is required. We introduce a novel task, the identification of the semantic components scope, condition, and demand in a requirement sentence, and establish baselines using sequence labelling and few-shot learning. One major challenge with this task is the implicit nature of the scope, often not stated in the sentence. By including document context information, we improved the average performance for scope detection. Our study provides insights into the difficulty of machine understanding of industry requirements and suggests strategies for addressing this challenge.

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Transformer-Based Language Models for Bulgarian
Iva Marinova | Kiril Simov | Petya Osenova

This paper presents an approach for training lightweight and robust language models for Bulgarian that mitigate gender, political, racial, and other biases in the data. Our method involves scraping content from major Bulgarian online media providers using a specialized procedure for source filtering, topic selection, and lexicon-based removal of inappropriate language during the pre-training phase. We continuously improve the models by incorporating new data from various domains, including social media, books, scientific literature, and linguistically modified corpora. Our motivation is to provide a solution that is sufficient for all natural language processing tasks in Bulgarian, and to address the lack of existing procedures for guaranteeing the robustness of such models.

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Multi-task Ensemble Learning for Fake Reviews Detection and Helpfulness Prediction: A Novel Approach
Alimuddin Melleng | Anna Jurek-Loughrey | Deepak P

Research on fake reviews detection and review helpfulness prediction is prevalent, yet most studies tend to focus solely on either fake reviews detection or review helpfulness prediction, considering them separate research tasks. In contrast to this prevailing pattern, we address both challenges concurrently by employing a multi-task learning approach. We posit that undertaking these tasks simultaneously can enhance the performance of each task through shared information among features. We utilize pre-trained RoBERTa embeddings with a document-level data representation. This is coupled with an array of deep learning and neural network models, including Bi-LSTM, LSTM, GRU, and CNN. Additionally, we em- ploy ensemble learning techniques to integrate these models, with the objective of enhancing overall prediction accuracy and mitigating the risk of overfitting. The findings of this study offer valuable insights to the fields of natural language processing and machine learning and present a novel perspective on leveraging multi-task learning for the twin challenges of fake reviews detection and review helpfulness prediction

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Data Fusion for Better Fake Reviews Detection
Alimuddin Melleng | Anna Jurek-Loughrey | Deepak P

Online reviews have become critical in informing purchasing decisions, making the detection of fake reviews a crucial challenge to tackle. Many different Machine Learning based solutions have been proposed, using various data representations such as n-grams or document embeddings. In this paper, we first explore the effectiveness of different data representations, including emotion, document embedding, n-grams, and noun phrases in embedding for mat, for fake reviews detection. We evaluate these representations with various state-of-the-art deep learning models, such as BILSTM, LSTM, GRU, CNN, and MLP. Following this, we propose to incorporate different data repre- sentations and classification models using early and late data fusion techniques in order to im- prove the prediction performance. The experiments are conducted on four datasets: Hotel, Restaurant, Amazon, and Yelp. The results demonstrate that combination of different data representations significantly outperform any of the single data representations

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Dimensions of Quality: Contrasting Stylistic vs. Semantic Features for Modelling Literary Quality in 9,000 Novels
Pascale Moreira | Yuri Bizzoni

In computational literary studies, the challenging task of predicting quality or reader-appreciation of narrative texts is confounded by volatile definitions of quality and the vast feature space that may be considered in modeling. In this paper, we explore two different types of feature sets: stylistic features on one hand, and semantic features on the other. We conduct experiments on a corpus of 9,089 English language literary novels published in the 19th and 20th century, using GoodReads’ ratings as a proxy for reader-appreciation. Examining the potential of both approaches, we find that some types of books are more predictable in one model than in the other, which may indicate that texts have different prominent characteristics (stylistic complexity, a certain narrative progression at the sentiment-level).

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BanglaBait: Semi-Supervised Adversarial Approach for Clickbait Detection on Bangla Clickbait Dataset
Md. Motahar Mahtab | Monirul Haque | Mehedi Hasan | Farig Sadeque

Intentionally luring readers to click on a particular content by exploiting their curiosity defines a title as clickbait. Although several studies focused on detecting clickbait titles in English articles, low-resource language like Bangla has not been given adequate attention. To tackle clickbait titles in Bangla, we have constructed the first Bangla clickbait detection dataset containing 15,056 labeled news articles and 65,406 unlabelled news articles extracted from clickbait-dense news sites. Each article has been labeled by three expert linguists and includes an article’s title, body, and other metadata. By incorporating labeled and unlabelled data, we finetune a pre-trained Bangla transformer model in an adversarial fashion using Semi-Supervised Generative Adversarial Networks (SS-GANs). The proposed model acts as a good baseline for this dataset, outperforming traditional neural network models (LSTM, GRU, CNN) and linguistic feature-based models. We expect that this dataset and the detailed analysis and comparison of these clickbait detection models will provide a fundamental basis for future research into detecting clickbait titles in Bengali articles.

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TreeSwap: Data Augmentation for Machine Translation via Dependency Subtree Swapping
Attila Nagy | Dorina Lakatos | Botond Barta | Judit Ács

Data augmentation methods for neural machine translation are particularly useful when limited amount of training data is available, which is often the case when dealing with low-resource languages. We introduce a novel augmentation method, which generates new sentences by swapping objects and subjects across bisentences. This is performed simultaneously based on the dependency parse trees of the source and target sentences. We name this method TreeSwap. Our results show that TreeSwap achieves consistent improvements over baseline models in 4 language pairs in both directions on resource-constrained datasets. We also explore domain-specific corpora, but find that our method does not make significant improvements on law, medical and IT data. We report the scores of similar augmentation methods and find that TreeSwap performs comparably. We also analyze the generated sentences qualitatively and find that the augmentation produces a correct translation in most cases. Our code is available on Github.

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Automatic Assessment Of Spoken English Proficiency Based on Multimodal and Multitask Transformers
Kamel Nebhi | György Szaszák

This paper describes technology developed to automatically grade students on their English spontaneous spoken language proficiency with common european framework of reference for languages (CEFR) level. Our automated assessment system contains two tasks: elicited imitation and spontaneous speech assessment. Spontaneous speech assessment is a challenging task that requires evaluating various aspects of speech quality, content, and coherence. In this paper, we propose a multimodal and multitask transformer model that leverages both audio and text features to perform three tasks: scoring, coherence modeling, and prompt relevancy scoring. Our model uses a fusion of multiple features and multiple modality attention to capture the interactions between audio and text modalities and learn from different sources of information.

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Medical Concept Mention Identification in Social Media Posts Using a Small Number of Sample References
Vasudevan Nedumpozhimana | Sneha Rautmare | Meegan Gower | Nishtha Jain | Maja Popović | Patricia Buffini | John Kelleher

Identification of mentions of medical concepts in social media text can provide useful information for caseload prediction of diseases like Covid-19 and Measles. We propose a simple model for the automatic identification of the medical concept mentions in the social media text. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed model on Twitter, Reddit, and News/Media datasets.

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Context-Aware Module Selection in Modular Dialog Systems
Jan Nehring | René Marcel Berk | Stefan Hillmann

In modular dialog systems, a dialog system consists of multiple conversational agents. The task “module selection” selects the appropriate sub-dialog system for an incoming user utterance. Current models for module selection use features derived from the current user turn only, such as the utterances text or confidence values of the natural language understanding systems of the individual conversational agents, or they perform text classification on the user utterance. However, dialogs often span multiple turns, and turns are embedded into a context. Therefore, looking at the current user turn only is a source of error in certain situations. This work proposes four models for module selection that include the dialog history and the current user turn into module selection. We show that these models surpass the current state of the art in module selection.

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Human Value Detection from Bilingual Sensory Product Reviews
Boyu Niu | Céline Manetta | Frédérique Segond

We applied text classification methods on a corpus of product reviews we created with the help of a questionnaire. We found that for certain values, “traditional” deep neural networks like CNN can give promising results compared to the baseline. We propose some ideas to improve the results in the future. The bilingual corpus we created which contains more than 16 000 consumer reviews associated to the human value profile of the authors can be used for different marketing purposes.

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Word Sense Disambiguation for Automatic Translation of Medical Dialogues into Pictographs
Magali Norré | Rémi Cardon | Vincent Vandeghinste | Thomas François

Word sense disambiguation is an NLP task embedded in different applications. We propose to evaluate its contribution to the automatic translation of French texts into pictographs, in the context of communication between doctors and patients with an intellectual disability. Different general and/or medical language models (Word2Vec, fastText, CamemBERT, FlauBERT, DrBERT, and CamemBERT-bio) are tested in order to choose semantically correct pictographs leveraging the synsets in the French WordNets (WOLF and WoNeF). The results of our automatic evaluations show that our method based on Word2Vec and fastText significantly improves the precision of medical translations into pictographs. We also present an evaluation corpus adapted to this task.

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A Research-Based Guide for the Creation and Deployment of a Low-Resource Machine Translation System
John E. Ortega | Kenneth Church

The machine translation (MT) field seems to focus heavily on English and other high-resource languages. Though, low-resource MT (LRMT) is receiving more attention than in the past. Successful LRMT systems (LRMTS) should make a compelling business case in terms of demand, cost and quality in order to be viable for end users. When used by communities where low-resource languages are spoken, LRMT quality should not only be determined by the use of traditional metrics like BLEU, but it should also take into account other factors in order to be inclusive and not risk overall rejection by the community. MT systems based on neural methods tend to perform better with high volumes of training data, but they may be unrealistic and even harmful for LRMT. It is obvious that for research purposes, the development and creation of LRMTS is necessary. However, in this article, we argue that two main workarounds could be considered by companies that are considering deployment of LRMTS in the wild: human-in-the-loop and sub-domains.

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MQDD: Pre-training of Multimodal Question Duplicity Detection for Software Engineering Domain
Jan Pasek | Jakub Sido | Miloslav Konopik | Ondrej Prazak

This work proposes a new pipeline for leveraging data collected on the Stack Overflow website for pre-training a multimodal model for searching duplicates on question answering websites. Our multimodal model is trained on question descriptions and source codes in multiple programming languages. We design two new learning objectives to improve duplicate detection capabilities. The result of this work is a mature, fine-tuned Multimodal Question Duplicity Detection (MQDD) model, ready to be integrated into a Stack Overflow search system, where it can help users find answers for already answered questions. Alongside the MQDD model, we release two datasets related to the software engineering domain. The first Stack Overflow Dataset (SOD) represents a massive corpus of paired questions and answers. The second Stack Overflow Duplicity Dataset (SODD) contains data for training duplicate detection models.

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Forming Trees with Treeformers
Nilay Patel | Jeffrey Flanigan

Human language is known to exhibit a nested, hierarchical structure, allowing us to form complex sentences out of smaller pieces. However, many state-of-the-art neural networks models such as Transformers have no explicit hierarchical structure in their architecture—that is, they don’t have an inductive bias toward hierarchical structure. Additionally, Transformers are known to perform poorly on compositional generalization tasks which require such structures. In this paper, we introduce Treeformer, a general-purpose encoder module inspired by the CKY algorithm which learns a composition operator and pooling function to construct hierarchical encodings for phrases and sentences. Our extensive experiments demonstrate the benefits of incorporating hierarchical structure into the Transformer and show significant improvements in compositional generalization as well as in downstream tasks such as machine translation, abstractive summarization, and various natural language understanding tasks.

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Evaluating Unsupervised Hierarchical Topic Models Using a Labeled Dataset
Judicael Poumay | Ashwin Ittoo

Topic modeling is a commonly used method for identifying and extracting topics from a corpus of documents. While several evaluation techniques, such as perplexity and topic coherence, have been developed to assess the quality of extracted topics, they fail to determine whether all topics have been identified and to what extent they have been represented. Additionally, hierarchical topic models have been proposed, but the quality of the hierarchy produced has not been adequately evaluated. This study proposes a novel approach to evaluating topic models that supplements existing methods. Using a labeled dataset, we trained hierarchical topic models in an unsupervised manner and used the known labels to evaluate the accuracy of the results. Our findings indicate that labels encompassing a substantial number of documents achieve high accuracy of over 70%. Although there are 90 labels in the dataset, labels that cover only 1% of the data still achieve an average accuracy of 37.9%, demonstrating the effectiveness of hierarchical topic models even on smaller subsets. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these labels can be used to assess the quality of the topic tree and confirm that hierarchical topic models produce coherent taxonomies for the labels.

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HTMOT: Hierarchical Topic Modelling over Time
Judicael Poumay | Ashwin Ittoo

Topic models provide an efficient way of extracting insights from text and supporting decision-making. Recently, novel methods have been proposed to model topic hierarchy or temporality. Modeling temporality provides more precise topics by separating topics that are characterized by similar words but located over distinct time periods. Conversely, modeling hierarchy provides a more detailed view of the content of a corpus by providing topics and sub-topics. However, no models have been proposed to incorporate both hierarchy and temporality which could be beneficial for applications such as environment scanning. Therefore, we propose a novel method to perform Hierarchical Topic Modelling Over Time (HTMOT). We evaluate the performance of our approach on a corpus of news articles using the Word Intrusion task. Results demonstrate that our model produces topics that elegantly combine a hierarchical structure and a temporal aspect. Furthermore, our proposed Gibbs sampling implementation shows competitive performance compared to previous state-of-the-art methods.

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Multilingual Continual Learning Approaches for Text Classification
Karan Praharaj | Irina Matveeva

Multilingual continual learning is important for models that are designed to be deployed over long periods of time and are required to be updated when new data becomes available. Such models are continually applied to new unseen data that can be in any of the supported languages. One challenge in this scenario is to ensure consistent performance of the model throughout the deployment lifecycle, beginning from the moment of first deployment. We empirically assess the strengths and shortcomings of some continual learning methods in a multilingual setting across two tasks.

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Can Model Fusing Help Transformers in Long Document Classification? An Empirical Study
Damith Premasiri | Tharindu Ranasinghe | Ruslan Mitkov

Text classification is an area of research which has been studied over the years in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Adapting NLP to multiple domains has introduced many new challenges for text classification and one of them is long document classification. While state-of-the-art transformer models provide excellent results in text classification, most of them have limitations in the maximum sequence length of the input sequence. The majority of the transformer models are limited to 512 tokens, and therefore, they struggle with long document classification problems. In this research, we explore on employing Model Fusing for long document classification while comparing the results with well-known BERT and Longformer architectures.

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Deep Learning Methods for Identification of Multiword Flower and Plant Names
Damith Premasiri | Amal Haddad Haddad | Tharindu Ranasinghe | Ruslan Mitkov

Multiword Terms (MWTs) are domain-specific Multiword Expressions (MWE) where two or more lexemes converge to form a new unit of meaning. The task of processing MWTs is crucial in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, including Machine Translation (MT) and terminology extraction. However, the automatic detection of those terms is a difficult task and more research is still required to give more insightful and useful results in this field. In this study, we seek to fill this gap using state-of-the-art transformer models. We evaluate both BERT like discriminative transformer models and generative pre-trained transformer (GPT) models on this task, and we show that discriminative models perform better than current GPT models in multi-word terms identification task in flower and plant names in English and Spanish languages. Best discriminate models perform 94.3127%, 82.1733% F1 scores in English and Spanish data, respectively while ChatGPT could only perform 63.3183% and 47.7925% respectively.

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Improving Aspect-Based Sentiment with End-to-End Semantic Role Labeling Model
Pavel Přibáň | Ondrej Prazak

This paper presents a series of approaches aimed at enhancing the performance of Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) by utilizing extracted semantic information from a Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) model. We propose a novel end-to-end Semantic Role Labeling model that effectively captures most of the structured semantic information within the Transformer hidden state. We believe that this end-to-end model is well-suited for our newly proposed models that incorporate semantic information. We evaluate the proposed models in two languages, English and Czech, employing ELECTRA-small models. Our combined models improve ABSA performance in both languages. Moreover, we achieved new state-of-the-art results on the Czech ABSA.

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huPWKP: A Hungarian Text Simplification Corpus
Noémi Prótár | Dávid Márk Nemeskey

In this article we introduce huPWKP, the first parallel corpus consisting of Hungarian standard language-simplified sentence pairs. As Hungarian is a quite low-resource language in regards to text simplification, we opted for translating an already existing corpus, PWKP (Zhu et al., 2010), on which we performed some cleaning in order to improve its quality. We evaluated the corpus both with the help of human evaluators and by training a seq2seq model on both the Hungarian corpus and the original (cleaned) English corpus. The Hungarian model performed slightly worse in terms of automatic metrics; however, the English model attains a SARI score close to the state of the art on the official PWKP set. According to the human evaluation, the corpus performs at around 3 on a scale ranging from 1 to 5 in terms of information retention and increase in simplification and around 3.7 in terms of grammaticality.

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Topic Modeling Using Community Detection on a Word Association Graph
Mahfuzur Rahman Chowdhury | Intesur Ahmed | Farig Sadeque | Muhammad Yanhaona

Topic modeling of a text corpus is one of the most well-studied areas of information retrieval and knowledge discovery. Despite several decades of research in the area that begets an array of modeling tools, some common problems still obstruct automated topic modeling from matching users’ expectations. In particular, existing topic modeling solutions suffer when the distribution of words among the underlying topics is uneven or the topics are overlapped. Furthermore, many solutions ask the user to provide a topic count estimate as input, which limits their usefulness in modeling a corpus where such information is unavailable. We propose a new topic modeling approach that overcomes these shortcomings by formulating the topic modeling problem as a community detection problem in a word association graph/network that we generate from the text corpus. Experimental evaluation using multiple data sets of three different types of text corpora shows that our approach is superior to prominent topic modeling alternatives in most cases. This paper describes our approach and discusses the experimental findings.

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Exploring Techniques to Detect and Mitigate Non-Inclusive Language Bias in Marketing Communications Using a Dictionary-Based Approach
Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Prasanna Kumar Kumaresan | Rahul Ponnusamy | John P. McCrae | Michaela Comerford | Jay Megaro | Deniz Keles | Last Feremenga

We propose a new dataset for detecting non-inclusive language in sentences in English. These sentences were gathered from public sites, explaining what is inclusive and what is non-inclusive. We also extracted potentially non-inclusive keywords/phrases from the guidelines from business websites. A phrase dictionary was created by using an automatic extension with a word embedding trained on a massive corpus of general English text. In the end, a phrase dictionary was constructed by hand-editing the previous one to exclude inappropriate expansions and add the keywords from the guidelines. In a business context, the words individuals use can significantly impact the culture of inclusion and the quality of interactions with clients and prospects. Knowing the right words to avoid helps customers of different backgrounds and historically excluded groups feel included. They can make it easier to have productive, engaging, and positive communications. You can find the dictionaries, the code, and the method for making requests for the corpus at (we will release the link for data and code once the paper is accepted).

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Does the “Most Sinfully Decadent Cake Ever” Taste Good? Answering Yes/No Questions from Figurative Contexts
Geetanjali Rakshit | Jeffrey Flanigan

Figurative language is commonplace in natural language, and while making communication memorable and creative, can be difficult to understand. In this work, we investigate the robustness of Question Answering (QA) models on figurative text. Yes/no questions, in particular, are a useful probe of figurative language understanding capabilities of large language models. We propose FigurativeQA, a set of 1000 yes/no questions with figurative and non-figurative contexts, extracted from the domains of restaurant and product reviews. We show that state-of-the-art BERT-based QA models exhibit an average performance drop of up to 15% points when answering questions from figurative contexts, as compared to non-figurative ones. While models like GPT-3 and ChatGPT are better at handling figurative texts, we show that further performance gains can be achieved by automatically simplifying the figurative contexts into their non-figurative (literal) counterparts. We find that the best overall model is ChatGPT with chain-of-thought prompting to generate non-figurative contexts. Our work provides a promising direction for building more robust QA models with figurative language understanding capabilities.

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Modeling Easiness for Training Transformers with Curriculum Learning
Leonardo Ranaldi | Giulia Pucci | Fabio Massimo Zanzotto

Directly learning from complex examples is generally problematic for humans and machines. Indeed, a better strategy is exposing learners to examples in a reasonable, pedagogically-motivated order. Curriculum Learning (CL) has been proposed to import this strategy when training machine learning models. In this paper, building on Curriculum Learning, we propose a novel, linguistically motivated measure to determine example complexity for organizing examples during learning. Our complexity measure - LRC- is based on length, rarity, and comprehensibility. Our resulting learning model is CL-LRC, that is, CL with LRC. Experiments on downstream tasks show that CL-LRC outperforms existing CL and non-CL methods for training BERT and RoBERTa from scratch. Furthermore, we analyzed different measures, including perplexity, loss, and learning curve of different models pre-trained from scratch, showing that CL-LRC performs better than the state-of-the-art.

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The Dark Side of the Language: Pre-trained Transformers in the DarkNet
Leonardo Ranaldi | Aria Nourbakhsh | Elena Sofia Ruzzetti | Arianna Patrizi | Dario Onorati | Michele Mastromattei | Francesca Fallucchi | Fabio Massimo Zanzotto

Pre-trained Transformers are challenging human performances in many Natural Language Processing tasks. The massive datasets used for pre-training seem to be the key to their success on existing tasks. In this paper, we explore how a range of pre-trained natural language understanding models performs on definitely unseen sentences provided by classification tasks over a DarkNet corpus. Surprisingly, results show that syntactic and lexical neural networks perform on par with pre-trained Transformers even after fine-tuning. Only after what we call extreme domain adaptation, that is, retraining with the masked language model task on all the novel corpus, pre-trained Transformers reach their standard high results. This suggests that huge pre-training corpora may give Transformers unexpected help since they are exposed to many of the possible sentences.

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PreCog: Exploring the Relation between Memorization and Performance in Pre-trained Language Models
Leonardo Ranaldi | Elena Sofia Ruzzetti | Fabio Massimo Zanzotto

Large Language Models (LLMs) are impressive machines with the ability to memorize, possibly generalized learning examples. We present here a small, focused contribution to the analysis of the interplay between memorization and performance of BERT in downstream tasks. We propose PreCog, a measure for evaluating memorization from pre-training, and we analyze its correlation with the BERT’s performance. Our experiments show that highly memorized examples are better classified, suggesting memorization is an essential key to success for BERT.

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Publish or Hold? Automatic Comment Moderation in Luxembourgish News Articles
Tharindu Ranasinghe | Alistair Plum | Christoph Purschke | Marcos Zampieri

Recently, the internet has emerged as the primary platform for accessing news. In the majority of these news platforms, the users now have the ability to post comments on news articles and engage in discussions on various social media. While these features promote healthy conversations among users, they also serve as a breeding ground for spreading fake news, toxic discussions and hate speech. Moderating or removing such content is paramount to avoid unwanted consequences for the readers. How- ever, apart from a few notable exceptions, most research on automatic moderation of news article comments has dealt with English and other high resource languages. This leaves under-represented or low-resource languages at a loss. Addressing this gap, we perform the first large-scale qualitative analysis of more than one million Luxembourgish comments posted over the course of 14 years. We evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art transformer models in Luxembourgish news article comment moderation. Furthermore, we analyse how the language of Luxembourgish news article comments has changed over time. We observe that machine learning models trained on old comments do not perform well on recent data. The findings in this work will be beneficial in building news comment moderation systems for many low-resource languages

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Cross-Lingual Speaker Identification for Indian Languages
Amaan Rizvi | Anupam Jamatia | Dwijen Rudrapal | Kunal Chakma | Björn Gambäck

The paper introduces a cross-lingual speaker identification system for Indian languages, utilising a Long Short-Term Memory dense neural network (LSTM-DNN). The system was trained on audio recordings in English and evaluated on data from Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, and Telugu, with a view to how factors such as phonetic similarity and native accent affect performance. The model was fed with MFCC (mel-frequency cepstral coefficient) features extracted from the audio file. For comparison, the corresponding mel-spectrogram images were also used as input to a ResNet-50 model, while the raw audio was used to train a Siamese network. The LSTM-DNN model outperformed the other two models as well as two more traditional baseline speaker identification models, showing that deep learning models are superior to probabilistic models for capturing low-level speech features and learning speaker characteristics.

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ChemXtract’ A System for Extraction of Chemical Events from Patent Documents
Pattabhi RK Rao | Sobha Lalitha Devi

ChemXtraxt main goal is to extract the chemical events from patent documents. Event extraction requires that we first identify the names of chemical compounds involved in the events. Thus, in this work two extractions are done and they are (a) names of chemical compounds and (b) event that identify the specific involvement of the chemical compounds in a chemical reaction. Extraction of essential elements of a chemical reaction, generally known as Named Entity Recognition (NER), extracts the compounds, condition and yields, their specific role in reaction and assigns a label according to the role it plays within a chemical reaction. Whereas event extraction identifies the chemical event relations between the chemical compounds identified. Here in this work we have used Neural Conditional Random Fields (NCRF), which combines the power of artificial neural network (ANN) and CRFs. Different levels of features that include linguistic, orthographical and lexical clues are used. The results obtained are encouraging.

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Mind the User! Measures to More Accurately Evaluate the Practical Value of Active Learning Strategies
Julia Romberg

One solution to limited annotation budgets is active learning (AL), a collaborative process of human and machine to strategically select a small but informative set of examples. While current measures optimize AL from a pure machine learning perspective, we argue that for a successful transfer into practice, additional criteria must target the second pillar of AL, the human annotator. In text classification, e.g., where practitioners regularly encounter datasets with an increased number of imbalanced classes, measures like F1 fall short when finding all classes or identifying rare cases is required. We therefore introduce four measures that reflect class-related demands that users place on data acquisition. In a comprehensive comparison of uncertainty-based, diversity-based, and hybrid query strategies on six different datasets, we find that strong F1 performance is not necessarily associated with full class coverage. Uncertainty sampling outperforms diversity sampling in selecting minority classes and covering classes more efficiently, while diversity sampling excels in selecting less monotonous batches. Our empirical findings emphasize that a holistic view is essential when evaluating AL approaches to ensure their usefulness in practice - the actual, but often overlooked, goal of development. To this end, standard measures for assessing the performance of text classification need to be complemented by such that more appropriately reflect user needs.

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Event Annotation and Detection in Kannada-English Code-Mixed Social Media Data
Sumukh S | Abhinav Appidi | Manish Shrivastava

Code-mixing (CM) is a frequently observed phenomenon on social media platforms in multilingual societies such as India. While the increase in code-mixed content on these platforms provides good amount of data for studying various aspects of code-mixing, the lack of automated text analysis tools makes such studies difficult. To overcome the same, tools such as language identifiers, Parts-of-Speech (POS) taggers and Named Entity Recognition (NER) for analysing code-mixed data have been developed. One such important tool is Event Detection, an important information retrieval task which can be used to identify critical facts occurring in the vast streams of unstructured text data available. While event detection from text is a hard problem on its own, social media data adds to it with its informal nature, and code-mixed (Kannada-English) data further complicates the problem due to its word-level mixing, lack of structure and incomplete information. In this work, we have tried to address this problem. We have proposed guidelines for the annotation of events in Kannada-English CM data and provided some baselines for the same with careful feature selection.

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Three Approaches to Client Email Topic Classification
Branislava Šandrih Todorović | Katarina Josipović | Jurij Kodre

This paper describes a use case that was implemented and is currently running in production at the Nova Ljubljanska Banka, that involves classifying incoming client emails in the Slovenian language according to their topics and priorities. Since the proposed approach relies only on the Named Entity Recogniser (NER) of personal names as a language-dependent resource (for the purpose of anonymisation), that is the only prerequisite for applying the approach to any other language.

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Exploring Abstractive Text Summarisation for Podcasts: A Comparative Study of BART and T5 Models
Parth Saxena | Mo El-Haj

Podcasts have become increasingly popular in recent years, resulting in a massive amount of audio content being produced every day. Efficient summarisation of podcast episodes can enable better content management and discovery for users. In this paper, we explore the use of abstractive text summarisation methods to generate high-quality summaries of podcast episodes. We use pre-trained models, BART and T5, to fine-tune on a dataset of Spotify’s 100K podcast. We evaluate our models using automated metrics and human evaluation, and find that the BART model fine-tuned on the podcast dataset achieved a higher ROUGE-1 and ROUGE-L score compared to other models, while the T5 model performed better in terms of semantic meaning. The human evaluation indicates that both models produced high-quality summaries that were well received by participants. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of abstractive summarisation methods for podcast episodes and offers insights for improving the summarisation of audio content.

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Exploring the Landscape of Natural Language Processing Research
Tim Schopf | Karim Arabi | Florian Matthes

As an efficient approach to understand, generate, and process natural language texts, research in natural language processing (NLP) has exhibited a rapid spread and wide adoption in recent years. Given the increasing research work in this area, several NLP-related approaches have been surveyed in the research community. However, a comprehensive study that categorizes established topics, identifies trends, and outlines areas for future research remains absent. Contributing to closing this gap, we have systematically classified and analyzed research papers in the ACL Anthology. As a result, we present a structured overview of the research landscape, provide a taxonomy of fields of study in NLP, analyze recent developments in NLP, summarize our findings, and highlight directions for future work.

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Efficient Domain Adaptation of Sentence Embeddings Using Adapters
Tim Schopf | Dennis N. Schneider | Florian Matthes

Sentence embeddings enable us to capture the semantic similarity of short texts. Most sentence embedding models are trained for general semantic textual similarity tasks. Therefore, to use sentence embeddings in a particular domain, the model must be adapted to it in order to achieve good results. Usually, this is done by fine-tuning the entire sentence embedding model for the domain of interest. While this approach yields state-of-the-art results, all of the model’s weights are updated during fine-tuning, making this method resource-intensive. Therefore, instead of fine-tuning entire sentence embedding models for each target domain individually, we propose to train lightweight adapters. These domain-specific adapters do not require fine-tuning all underlying sentence embedding model parameters. Instead, we only train a small number of additional parameters while keeping the weights of the underlying sentence embedding model fixed. Training domain-specific adapters allows always using the same base model and only exchanging the domain-specific adapters to adapt sentence embeddings to a specific domain. We show that using adapters for parameter-efficient domain adaptation of sentence embeddings yields competitive performance within 1% of a domain-adapted, entirely fine-tuned sentence embedding model while only training approximately 3.6% of the parameters.

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AspectCSE: Sentence Embeddings for Aspect-Based Semantic Textual Similarity Using Contrastive Learning and Structured Knowledge
Tim Schopf | Emanuel Gerber | Malte Ostendorff | Florian Matthes

Generic sentence embeddings provide coarse-grained approximation of semantic textual similarity, but ignore specific aspects that make texts similar. Conversely, aspect-based sentence embeddings provide similarities between texts based on certain predefined aspects. Thus, similarity predictions of texts are more targeted to specific requirements and more easily explainable. In this paper, we present AspectCSE, an approach for aspect-based contrastive learning of sentence embeddings. Results indicate that AspectCSE achieves an average improvement of 3.97% on information retrieval tasks across multiple aspects compared to the previous best results. We also propose the use of Wikidata knowledge graph properties to train models of multi-aspect sentence embeddings in which multiple specific aspects are simultaneously considered during similarity predictions. We demonstrate that multi-aspect embeddings outperform even single-aspect embeddings on aspect-specific information retrieval tasks. Finally, we examine the aspect-based sentence embedding space and demonstrate that embeddings of semantically similar aspect labels are often close, even without explicit similarity training between different aspect labels.

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Tackling the Myriads of Collusion Scams on YouTube Comments of Cryptocurrency Videos
Sadat Shahriar | Arjun Mukherjee

Despite repeated measures, YouTube’s comment section has been a fertile ground for scammers. With the growth of the cryptocurrency market and obscurity around it, a new form of scam, namely “Collusion Scam” has emerged as a dominant force within YouTube’s comment space. Unlike typical scams and spams, collusion scams employ a cunning persuasion strategy, using the facade of genuine social interactions within comment threads to create an aura of trust and success to entrap innocent users. In this research, we collect 1,174 such collusion scam threads and perform a detailed analysis, which is tailored towards the successful detection of these scams. We find that utilization of the collusion dynamics can provide an accuracy of 96.67% and an F1-score of 93.04%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the robust predictive power of metadata associated with these threads and user channels, which act as compelling indicators of collusion scams. Finally, we show that modern LLM, like chatGPT, can effectively detect collusion scams without the need for any training.

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Exploring Deceptive Domain Transfer Strategies: Mitigating the Differences among Deceptive Domains
Sadat Shahriar | Arjun Mukherjee | Omprakash Gnawali

Deceptive text poses a significant threat to users, resulting in widespread misinformation and disorder. While researchers have created numerous cutting-edge techniques for detecting deception in domain-specific settings, whether there is a generic deception pattern so that deception-related knowledge in one domain can be transferred to the other remains mostly unexplored. Moreover, the disparities in textual expression across these many mediums pose an additional obstacle for generalization. To this end, we present a Multi-Task Learning (MTL)-based deception generalization strategy to reduce the domain-specific noise and facilitate a better understanding of deception via a generalized training. As deceptive domains, we use News (fake news), Tweets (rumors), and Reviews (fake reviews) and employ LSTM and BERT model to incorporate domain transfer techniques. Our proposed architecture for the combined approach of domain-independent and domain-specific training improves the deception detection performance by up to 5.28% in F1-score.

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Party Extraction from Legal Contract Using Contextualized Span Representations of Parties
Sanjeepan Sivapiran | Charangan Vasantharajan | Uthayasanker Thayasivam

Extracting legal entities from legal documents, particularly legal parties in contract documents, poses a significant challenge for legal assistive software. Many existing party extraction systems tend to generate numerous false positives due to the complex structure of the legal text. In this study, we present a novel and accurate method for extracting parties from legal contract documents by leveraging contextual span representations. To facilitate our approach, we have curated a large-scale dataset comprising 1000 contract documents with party annotations. Our method incorporates several enhancements to the SQuAD 2.0 question-answering system, specifically tailored to handle the intricate nature of the legal text. These enhancements include modifications to the activation function, an increased number of encoder layers, and the addition of normalization and dropout layers stacked on top of the output encoder layer. Baseline experiments reveal that our model, fine-tuned on our dataset, outperforms the current state-of-the-art model. Furthermore, we explore various combinations of the aforementioned techniques to further enhance the accuracy of our method. By employing a hybrid approach that combines 24 encoder layers with normalization and dropout layers, we achieve the best results, exhibiting an exact match score of 0.942 (+6.2% improvement).

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From Fake to Hyperpartisan News Detection Using Domain Adaptation
Răzvan-Alexandru Smădu | Sebastian-Vasile Echim | Dumitru-Clementin Cercel | Iuliana Marin | Florin Pop

Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (UDA) is a popular technique that aims to reduce the domain shift between two data distributions. It was successfully applied in computer vision and natural language processing. In the current work, we explore the effects of various unsupervised domain adaptation techniques between two text classification tasks: fake and hyperpartisan news detection. We investigate the knowledge transfer from fake to hyperpartisan news detection without involving target labels during training. Thus, we evaluate UDA, cluster alignment with a teacher, and cross-domain contrastive learning. Extensive experiments show that these techniques improve performance, while including data augmentation further enhances the results. In addition, we combine clustering and topic modeling algorithms with UDA, resulting in improved performances compared to the initial UDA setup.

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Prompt-Based Approach for Czech Sentiment Analysis
Jakub Šmíd | Pavel Přibáň

This paper introduces the first prompt-based methods for aspect-based sentiment analysis and sentiment classification in Czech. We employ the sequence-to-sequence models to solve the aspect-based tasks simultaneously and demonstrate the superiority of our prompt-based approach over traditional fine-tuning. In addition, we conduct zero-shot and few-shot learning experiments for sentiment classification and show that prompting yields significantly better results with limited training examples compared to traditional fine-tuning. We also demonstrate that pre-training on data from the target domain can lead to significant improvements in a zero-shot scenario.

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Measuring Gender Bias in Natural Language Processing: Incorporating Gender-Neutral Linguistic Forms for Non-Binary Gender Identities in Abusive Speech Detection
Nasim Sobhani | Kinshuk Sengupta | Sarah Jane Delany

Predictions from machine learning models can reflect bias in the data on which they are trained. Gender bias has been shown to be prevalent in natural language processing models. The research into identifying and mitigating gender bias in these models predominantly considers gender as binary, male and female, neglecting the fluidity and continuity of gender as a variable. In this paper, we present an approach to evaluate gender bias in a prediction task, which recognises the non-binary nature of gender. We gender-neutralise a random subset of existing real-world hate speech data. We extend the existing template approach for measuring gender bias to include test examples that are gender-neutral. Measuring the bias across a selection of hate speech datasets we show that the bias for the gender-neutral data is closer to that seen for test instances that identify as male than those that identify as female.

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LeSS: A Computationally-Light Lexical Simplifier for Spanish
Sanja Stajner | Daniel Ibanez | Horacio Saggion

Due to having knowledge of only basic vocabulary, many people cannot understand up-to-date written information and thus make informed decisions and fully participate in the society. We propose LeSS, a modular lexical simplification architecture that outperforms state-of-the-art lexical simplification systems for Spanish. In addition to its state-of-the-art performance, LeSS is computationally light, using much less disk space, CPU and GPU, and having faster loading and execution time than the transformer-based lexical simplification models which are predominant in the field.

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Hindi to Dravidian Language Neural Machine Translation Systems
Vijay Sundar Ram | Sobha Lalitha Devi

Neural machine translation (NMT) has achieved state-of-art performance in high-resource language pairs, but the performance of NMT drops in low-resource conditions. Morphologically rich languages are yet another challenge in NMT. The common strategy to handle this issue is to apply sub-word segmentation. In this work, we compare the morphologically inspired segmentation methods against the Byte Pair Encoding (BPE) in processing the input for building NMT systems for Hindi to Malayalam and Hindi to Tamil, where Hindi is an Indo-Aryan language and Malayalam and Tamil are south Dravidian languages. These two languages are low resource, morphologically rich and agglutinative. Malayalam is more agglutinative than Tamil. We show that for both the language pairs, the morphological segmentation algorithm out-performs BPE. We also present an elaborate analysis on translation outputs from both the NMT systems.

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Looking for Traces of Textual Deepfakes in Bulgarian on Social Media
Irina Temnikova | Iva Marinova | Silvia Gargova | Ruslana Margova | Ivan Koychev

Textual deepfakes can cause harm, especially on social media. At the moment, there are models trained to detect deepfake messages mainly for the English language, but no research or datasets currently exist for detecting them in most low-resource languages, such as Bulgarian. To address this gap, we explore three approaches. First, we machine translate an English-language social media dataset with bot messages into Bulgarian. However, the translation quality is unsatisfactory, leading us to create a new Bulgarian-language dataset with real social media messages and those generated by two language models (a new Bulgarian GPT-2 model – GPT-WEB-BG, and ChatGPT). We machine translate it into English and test existing English GPT-2 and ChatGPT detectors on it, achieving only 0.44-0.51 accuracy. Next, we train our own classifiers on the Bulgarian dataset, obtaining an accuracy of 0.97. Additionally, we apply the classifier with the highest results to a recently released Bulgarian social media dataset with manually fact-checked messages, which successfully identifies some of the messages as generated by Language Models (LM). Our results show that the use of machine translation is not suitable for textual deepfakes detection. We conclude that combining LM text detection with fact-checking is the most appropriate method for this task, and that identifying Bulgarian textual deepfakes is indeed possible.

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Propaganda Detection in Russian Telegram Posts in the Scope of the Russian Invasion of Ukraine
Natalia Vanetik | Marina Litvak | Egor Reviakin | Margarita Tiamanova

The emergence of social media has made it more difficult to recognize and analyze misinformation efforts. Popular messaging software Telegram has developed into a medium for disseminating political messages and misinformation, particularly in light of the conflict in Ukraine. In this paper, we introduce a sizable corpus of Telegram posts containing pro-Russian propaganda and benign political texts. We evaluate the corpus by applying natural language processing (NLP) techniques to the task of text classification in this corpus. Our findings indicate that, with an overall accuracy of over 96% for confirmed sources as propagandists and oppositions and 92% for unconfirmed sources, our method can successfully identify and categorize pro- Russian propaganda posts. We highlight the consequences of our research for comprehending political communications and propaganda on social media.

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Auto-Encoding Questions with Retrieval Augmented Decoding for Unsupervised Passage Retrieval and Zero-Shot Question Generation
Stalin Varanasi | Muhammad Umer Tariq Butt | Guenter Neumann

Dense passage retrieval models have become state-of-the-art for information retrieval on many Open-domain Question Answering (ODQA) datasets. However, most of these models rely on supervision obtained from the ODQA datasets, which hinders their performance in a low-resource setting. Recently, retrieval-augmented language models have been proposed to improve both zero-shot and supervised information retrieval. However, these models have pre-training tasks that are agnostic to the target task of passage retrieval. In this work, we propose Retrieval Augmented Auto-encoding of Questions for zero-shot dense information retrieval. Unlike other pre-training methods, our pre-training method is built for target information retrieval, thereby making the pre-training more efficient. Our method consists of a dense IR model for encoding questions and retrieving documents during training and a conditional language model that maximizes the question’s likelihood by marginalizing over retrieved documents. As a by-product, we can use this conditional language model for zero-shot question generation from documents. We show that the IR model obtained through our method improves the current state-of-the-art of zero-shot dense information retrieval, and we improve the results even further by training on a synthetic corpus created by zero-shot question generation.

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NoHateBrazil: A Brazilian Portuguese Text Offensiveness Analysis System
Francielle Vargas | Isabelle Carvalho | Wolfgang Schmeisser-Nieto | Fabrício Benevenuto | Thiago Pardo

Hate speech is a surely relevant problem in Brazil. Nevertheless, its regulation is not effective due to the difficulty to identify, quantify and classify offensive comments. Here, we introduce a novel system for offensive comment analysis in Brazilian Portuguese. The system titled “NoHateBrazil” recognizes explicit and implicit offensiveness in context at a fine-grained level. Specifically, we propose a framework for data collection, human annotation and machine learning models that were used to build the system. In addition, we assess the potential of our system to reflect stereotypical beliefs against marginalized groups by contrasting them with counter-stereotypes. As a result, a friendly web application was implemented, which besides presenting relevant performance, showed promising results towards mitigation of the risk of reinforcing social stereotypes. Lastly, new measures were proposed to improve the explainability of offensiveness classification and reliability of the model’s predictions.

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Socially Responsible Hate Speech Detection: Can Classifiers Reflect Social Stereotypes?
Francielle Vargas | Isabelle Carvalho | Ali Hürriyetoğlu | Thiago Pardo | Fabrício Benevenuto

Recent studies have shown that hate speech technologies may propagate social stereotypes against marginalized groups. Nevertheless, there has been a lack of realistic approaches to assess and mitigate biased technologies. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to analyze the potential of hate-speech classifiers to reflect social stereotypes through the investigation of stereotypical beliefs by contrasting them with counter-stereotypes. We empirically measure the distribution of stereotypical beliefs by analyzing the distinctive classification of tuples containing stereotypes versus counter-stereotypes in machine learning models and datasets. Experiment results show that hate speech classifiers attribute unreal or negligent offensiveness to social identity groups by reflecting and reinforcing stereotypical beliefs regarding minorities. Furthermore, we also found that models that embed expert and context information from offensiveness markers present promising results to mitigate social stereotype bias towards socially responsible hate speech detection.

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Predicting Sentence-Level Factuality of News and Bias of Media Outlets
Francielle Vargas | Kokil Jaidka | Thiago Pardo | Fabrício Benevenuto

Automated news credibility and fact-checking at scale require accurate prediction of news factuality and media bias. This paper introduces a large sentence-level dataset, titled “FactNews”, composed of 6,191 sentences expertly annotated according to factuality and media bias definitions proposed by AllSides. We use FactNews to assess the overall reliability of news sources by formulating two text classification problems for predicting sentence-level factuality of news reporting and bias of media outlets. Our experiments demonstrate that biased sentences present a higher number of words compared to factual sentences, besides having a predominance of emotions. Hence, the fine-grained analysis of subjectivity and impartiality of news articles showed promising results for predicting the reliability of entire media outlets. Finally, due to the severity of fake news and political polarization in Brazil, and the lack of research for Portuguese, both dataset and baseline were proposed for Brazilian Portuguese.

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Classification of US Supreme Court Cases Using BERT-Based Techniques
Shubham Vatsal | Adam Meyers | John E. Ortega

Models based on bidirectional encoder representations from transformers (BERT) produce state of the art (SOTA) results on many natural language processing (NLP) tasks such as named entity recognition (NER), part-of-speech (POS) tagging etc. An interesting phenomenon occurs when classifying long documents such as those from the US supreme court where BERT-based models can be considered difficult to use on a first-pass or out-of-the-box basis. In this paper, we experiment with several BERT-based classification techniques for US supreme court decisions or supreme court database (SCDB) and compare them with the previous SOTA results. We then compare our results specifically with SOTA models for long documents. We compare our results for two classification tasks: (1) a broad classification task with 15 categories and (2) a fine-grained classification task with 279 categories. Our best result produces an accuracy of 80% on the 15 broad categories and 60% on the fine-grained 279 categories which marks an improvement of 8% and 28% respectively from previously reported SOTA results.

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Kāraka-Based Answer Retrieval for Question Answering in Indic Languages
Devika Verma | Ramprasad S. Joshi | Aiman A. Shivani | Rohan D. Gupta

Kārakas from ancient Paninian grammar form a concise set of semantic roles that capture crucial aspect of sentence meaning pivoted on the action verb. In this paper, we propose employing a kāraka-based approach for retrieving answers in Indic question-answering systems. To study and evaluate this novel approach, empirical experiments are conducted over large benchmark corpora in Hindi and Marathi. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Additionally, we explore the varying impact of two approaches for extracting kārakas. The literature surveyed and experiments conducted encourage hope that kāraka annotation can improve communication with machines using natural languages, particularly in low-resource languages.

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Comparative Analysis of Named Entity Recognition in the Dungeons and Dragons Domain
Gayashan Weerasundara | Nisansa de Silva

Some Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks that are in the sufficiently solved state for general domain English still struggle to attain the same level of performance in specific domains. Named Entity Recognition (NER), which aims to find and categorize entities in text is such a task met with difficulties in adapting to domain specificity. This paper compares the performance of 10 NER models on 7 adventure books from the Dungeons and Dragons (D&D) domain which is a subdomain of fantasy literature. Fantasy literature, being rich and diverse in vocabulary, poses considerable challenges for conventional NER. In this study, we use open-source Large Language Models (LLM) to annotate the named entities and character names in each number of official D&D books and evaluate the precision and distribution of each model. The paper aims to identify the challenges and opportunities for improving NER in fantasy literature. Our results show that even in the off-the-shelf configuration, Flair, Trankit, and Spacy achieve better results for identifying named entities in the D&D domain compared to their peers.

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Comparative Analysis of Anomaly Detection Algorithms in Text Data
Yizhou Xu | Kata Gábor | Jérôme Milleret | Frédérique Segond

Text anomaly detection (TAD) is a crucial task that aims to identify texts that deviate significantly from the norm within a corpus. Despite its importance in various domains, TAD remains relatively underexplored in natural language processing. This article presents a systematic evaluation of 22 TAD algorithms on 17 corpora using multiple text representations, including monolingual and multilingual SBERT. The performance of the algorithms is compared based on three criteria: degree of supervision, theoretical basis, and architecture used. The results demonstrate that semi-supervised methods utilizing weak labels outperform both unsupervised methods and semi-supervised methods using only negative samples for training. Additionally, we explore the application of TAD techniques in hate speech detection. The results provide valuable insights for future TAD research and guide the selection of suitable algorithms for detecting text anomalies in different contexts.

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Poetry Generation Combining Poetry Theme Labels Representations
Yingyu Yan | Dongzhen Wen | Liang Yang | Dongyu Zhang | Hongfei Lin

Ancient Chinese poetry is the earliest literary genre that took shape in Chinese literature and has a dissemination effect, showing China’s profound cultural heritage. At the same time, the generation of ancient poetry is an important task in the field of digital humanities, which is of great significance to the inheritance of national culture and the education of ancient poetry. The current work in the field of poetry generation is mainly aimed at improving the fluency and structural accuracy of words and sentences, ignoring the theme unity of poetry generation results. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a graph neural network poetry theme representation model based on label embedding. On the basis of the network representation of poetry, the topic feature representation of poetry is constructed and learned from the granularity of words. Then, the features of the poetry theme representation model are combined with the autoregressive language model to construct a theme-oriented ancient Chinese poetry generation model TLPG (Poetry Generation with Theme Label). Through machine evaluation and evaluation by experts in related fields, the model proposed in this paper has significantly improved the topic consistency of poetry generation compared with existing work on the premise of ensuring the fluency and format accuracy of poetry.

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Evaluating Generative Models for Graph-to-Text Generation
Shuzhou Yuan | Michael Faerber

Large language models (LLMs) have been widely employed for graph-to-text generation tasks. However, the process of finetuning LLMs requires significant training resources and annotation work. In this paper, we explore the capability of generative models to generate descriptive text from graph data in a zero-shot setting. Specifically, we evaluate GPT-3 and ChatGPT on two graph-to-text datasets and compare their performance with that of finetuned LLM models such as T5 and BART. Our results demonstrate that generative models are capable of generating fluent and coherent text, achieving BLEU scores of 10.57 and 11.08 for the AGENDA and WebNLG datasets, respectively. However, our error analysis reveals that generative models still struggle with understanding the semantic relations between entities, and they also tend to generate text with hallucinations or irrelevant information. As a part of error analysis, we utilize BERT to detect machine-generated text and achieve high macro-F1 scores. We have made the text generated by generative models publicly available.

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Microsyntactic Unit Detection Using Word Embedding Models: Experiments on Slavic Languages
Iuliia Zaitova | Irina Stenger | Tania Avgustinova

Microsyntactic units have been defined as language-specific transitional entities between lexicon and grammar, whose idiomatic properties are closely tied to syntax. These units are typically described based on individual constructions, making it difficult to understand them comprehensively as a class. This study proposes a novel approach to detect microsyntactic units using Word Embedding Models (WEMs) trained on six Slavic languages, namely Belarusian, Bulgarian, Czech, Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian, and evaluates how well these models capture the nuances of syntactic non-compositionality. To evaluate the models, we develop a cross-lingual inventory of microsyntactic units using the lists of microsyntantic units available at the Russian National Corpus. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of WEMs in capturing microsyntactic units across all six Slavic languages under analysis. Additionally, we find that WEMs tailored for syntax-based tasks consistently outperform other WEMs at the task. Our findings contribute to the theory of microsyntax by providing insights into the detection of microsyntactic units and their cross-linguistic properties.

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Systematic TextRank Optimization in Extractive Summarization
Morris Zieve | Anthony Gregor | Frederik Juul Stokbaek | Hunter Lewis | Ellis Marie Mendoza | Benyamin Ahmadnia

With the ever-growing amount of textual data, extractive summarization has become increasingly crucial for efficiently processing information. The TextRank algorithm, a popular unsupervised method, offers excellent potential for this task. In this paper, we aim to optimize the performance of TextRank by systematically exploring and verifying the best preprocessing and fine-tuning techniques. We extensively evaluate text preprocessing methods, such as tokenization, stemming, and stopword removal, to identify the most effective combination with TextRank. Additionally, we examine fine-tuning strategies, including parameter optimization and incorporation of domain-specific knowledge, to achieve superior summarization quality.


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Proceedings of the 8th Student Research Workshop associated with the International Conference Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing

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Proceedings of the 8th Student Research Workshop associated with the International Conference Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing
Momchil Hardalov | Zara Kancheva | Boris Velichkov | Ivelina Nikolova-Koleva | Milena Slavcheva

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Detecting ChatGPT: A Survey of the State of Detecting ChatGPT-Generated Text
Mahdi Dhaini | Wessel Poelman | Ege Erdogan

While recent advancements in the capabilities and widespread accessibility of generative language models, such as ChatGPT (OpenAI, 2022), have brought about various benefits by generating fluent human-like text, the task of distinguishing between human- and large language model (LLM) generated text has emerged as a crucial problem. These models can potentially deceive by generating artificial text that appears to be human-generated. This issue is particularly significant in domains such as law, education, and science, where ensuring the integrity of text is of the utmost importance. This survey provides an overview of the current approaches employed to differentiate between texts generated by humans and ChatGPT. We present an account of the different datasets constructed for detecting ChatGPT-generated text, the various methods utilized, what qualitative analyses into the characteristics of human versus ChatGPT-generated text have been performed, and finally, summarize our findings into general insights.

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Unsupervised Calibration through Prior Adaptation for Text Classification using Large Language Models
Lautaro Estienne

A wide variety of natural language tasks are currently being addressed with large-scale language models (LLMs). These models are usually trained with a very large amount of unsupervised text data and adapted to perform a downstream natural language task using methods like fine-tuning, calibration or in-context learning. In this work, we propose an approach to adapt the prior class distribution to perform text classification tasks without the need for labelled samples and only a few in-domain sample queries. The proposed approach treats the LLM as a black box, adding a stage where the model posteriors are calibrated to the task. Results show that these methods outperform the un-adapted model for different number of training shots in the prompt and a previous approach where calibration is performed without using any adaptation data.

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Controllable Active-Passive Voice Generation using Prefix Tuning
Valentin Knappich | Timo Pierre Schrader

The prompting paradigm is an uprising trend in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) that aims to learn tasks by finding appropriate prompts rather than fine-tuning the model weights. Such prompts can express an intention, e.g., they can instruct a language model to generate a summary of a given event. In this paper, we study how to influence (”control”) the language generation process such that the outcome fulfills a requested linguistic property. More specifically, we look at controllable active-passive (AP) voice generation, i.e., we require the model to generate a sentence in the requested voice. We build upon the prefix tuning approach and introduce control tokens that are trained on controllable AP generation. We create an AP subset of the WebNLG dataset to fine-tune these control tokens. Among four different models, the one trained with a contrastive learning approach yields the best results in terms of AP accuracy ( 95%) but at the cost of decreased performance on the original WebNLG task.

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Age-Specific Linguistic Features of Depression via Social Media
Charlotte Rosario

Social media data has become a crucial resource for understanding and detecting mental health challenges. However, there is a significant gap in our understanding of age-specific linguistic markers associated with classifying depression. This study bridges the gap by analyzing 25,241 text samples from 15,156 Reddit users with self-reported depression across two age groups: adolescents (13-20 year olds) and adults (21+). Through a quantitative exploratory analysis using LIWC, topic modeling, and data visualization, distinct patterns and topical differences emerged in the language of depression for adolescents and adults, including social concerns, temporal focuses, emotions, and cognition. These findings enhance our understanding of how depression is expressed on social media, bearing implications for accurate classification and tailored interventions across different age groups.

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Trigger Warnings: A Computational Approach to Understanding User-Tagged Trigger Warnings
Sarthak Tyagi | Adwita Arora | Krish Chopra | Manan Suri

Content and trigger warnings give information about the content of material prior to receiving it and are used by social media users to tag their content when discussing sensitive topics. Trigger warnings are known to yield benefits in terms of an increased individual agency to make an informed decision about engaging with content. At the same time, some studies contest the benefits of trigger warnings suggesting that they can induce anxiety and reinforce the traumatic experience of specific identities. Our study involves the analysis of the nature and implications of the usage of trigger warnings by social media users using empirical methods and machine learning. Further, we aim to study the community interactions associated with trigger warnings in online communities, precisely the diversity and content of responses and inter-user interactions. The domains of trigger warnings covered will include self-harm, drug abuse, suicide, and depression. The analysis of the above domains will assist in a better understanding of online behaviour associated with them and help in developing domain-specific datasets for further research

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Evaluating Hallucinations in Large Language Models for Bulgarian Language
Melania Berbatova | Yoan Salambashev

In this short paper, we introduce the task of evaluating the hallucination of large language models for the Bulgarian language. We first give definitions of what is a hallucination in large language models and what evaluation methods for measuring hallucinations exist. Next, we give an overview of the multilingual evaluation of the latest large language models, focusing on the evaluation of the performance in Bulgarian on tasks, related to hallucination. We then present a method to evaluate the level of hallucination in a given language with no reference data, and provide some initial experiments with this method in Bulgarian. Finally, we provide directions for future research on the topic.

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Leveraging Probabilistic Graph Models in Nested Named Entity Recognition for Polish
Jędrzej Jamnicki

This paper presents ongoing work on leveraging probabilistic graph models, specifically conditional random fields and hidden Markov models, in nested named entity recognition for the Polish language. NER is a crucial task in natural language processing that involves identifying and classifying named entities in text documents. Nested NER deals with recognizing hierarchical structures of entities that overlap with one another, presenting additional challenges. The paper discusses the methodologies and approaches used in nested NER, focusing on CRF and HMM. Related works and their contributions are reviewed, and experiments using the KPWr dataset are conducted, particularly with the BiLSTM-CRF model and Word2Vec and HerBERT embeddings. The results show promise in addressing nested NER for Polish, but further research is needed to develop robust and accurate models for this complex task.

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Crowdsourcing Veridicality Annotations in Spanish: Can Speakers Actually Agree?
Teresa Martín Soeder

In veridicality studies, an area of research of Natural Language Inference (NLI), the factuality of different contexts is evaluated. This task, known to be a difficult one since often it is not clear what the interpretation should be Uma et al. (2021), is key for building any Natural Language Understanding (NLU) system that aims at making the right inferences. Here the results of a study that analyzes the veridicality of mood alternation and specificity in Spanish, and whose labels are based on those of Saurí and Pustejovsky (2009) are presented. It has an inter-annotator agreement of AC2 = 0.114, considerably lower than that of de Marneffe et al. (2012) (κ = 0.53), a main reference to this work; and a couple of mood-related significant effects. Due to this strong lack of agreement, an analysis of what factors cause disagreement is presented together with a discussion based on the work of de Marneffe et al. (2012) and Pavlick and Kwiatkowski (2019) about the quality of the annotations gathered and whether other types of analysis like entropy distribution could better represent this corpus. The annotations collected are available at

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Weakly supervised learning for aspect based sentiment analysis of Urdu Tweets
Zoya Maqsood

Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) is vital for text comprehension which benefits applications across various domains. This field involves the two main sub-tasks including aspect extraction and sentiment classification. Existing methods to tackle this problem normally address only one sub-task or utilize topic models that may result in overlapping concepts. Moreover, such algorithms often rely on extensive labeled data and external language resources, making their application costly and time-consuming in new domains and especially for resource-poor languages like Urdu. The lack of aspect mining studies in Urdu literature further exacerbates the inapplicability of existing methods for Urdu language. The primary challenge lies in the preprocessing of data to ensure its suitability for language comprehension by the model, as well as the availability of appropriate pre-trained models, domain embeddings, and tools. This paper implements an ABSA model (CITATION) for unlabeled Urdu tweets with minimal user guidance, utilizing a small set of seed words for each aspect and sentiment class. The model first learns sentiment and aspect joint topic embeddings in the word embedding space with regularization to encourage topic distinctiveness. Afterwards, it employs deep neural models for pre-training with embedding-based predictions and self-training on unlabeled data. Furthermore, we optimize the model for improved performance by substituting the CNN with the BiLSTM classifier for sentence-level sentiment and aspect classification. Our optimized model achieves significant improvements over baselines in aspect and sentiment classification for Urdu tweets with accuracy of 64.8% and 72.8% respectively, demonstrating its effectiveness in generating joint topics and addressing existing limitations in Urdu ABSA.

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Exploring Low-resource Neural Machine Translation for Sinhala-Tamil Language Pair
Ashmari Pramodya

At present, Neural Machine Translation is a promising approach for machine translation. Transformer-based deep learning architectures in particular show a substantial performance increase in translating between various language pairs. However, many low-resource language pairs still struggle to lend themselves to Neural Machine Translation due to their data-hungry nature. In this article, we investigate methods of expanding the parallel corpus to enhance translation quality within a model training pipeline, starting from the initial collection of parallel data to the training process of baseline models. Grounded on state-of-the-art Neural Machine Translation approaches such as hyper-parameter tuning, and data augmentation with forward and backward translation, we define a set of best practices for improving Tamil-to-Sinhala machine translation and empirically validate our methods using standard evaluation metrics. Our results demonstrate that the Neural Machine Translation models trained on larger amounts of back-translated data outperform other synthetic data generation approaches in Transformer base training settings. We further demonstrate that, even for language pairs with limited resources, Transformer models are able to tune to outperform existing state-of-the-art Statistical Machine Translation models by as much as 3.28 BLEU points in the Tamil to Sinhala translation scenarios.

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Prompting ChatGPT to Draw Morphological Connections for New Word Comprehension
Bianca-Madalina Zgreaban | Rishabh Suresh

Though more powerful, Large Language Models need to be periodically retrained for updated information, consuming resources and energy. In this respect, prompt engineering can prove a possible solution to re-training. To explore this line of research, this paper uses a case study, namely, finding the best prompting strategy for asking ChatGPT to define new words based on morphological connections. To determine the best prompting strategy, each definition provided by the prompt was ranked in terms of plausibility and humanlikeness criteria. The findings of this paper show that adding contextual information, operationalised as the keywords ‘new’ and ‘morpheme’, significantly improve the performance of the model for any prompt. While no single prompt significantly outperformed all others, there were differences between performances on the two criteria for most prompts. ChatGPT also provided the most correct definitions with a persona-type prompt.


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Proceedings of the Ancient Language Processing Workshop

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Proceedings of the Ancient Language Processing Workshop
Adam Anderson | Shai Gordin | Bin Li | Yudong Liu | Marco C. Passarotti

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Training and Evaluation of Named Entity Recognition Models for Classical Latin
Marijke Beersmans | Evelien de Graaf | Tim Van de Cruys | Margherita Fantoli

We evaluate the performance of various models on the task of named entity recognition (NER) for classical Latin. Using an existing dataset, we train two transformer-based LatinBERT models and one shallow conditional random field (CRF) model. The performance is assessed using both standard metrics and a detailed manual error analysis, and compared to the results obtained by different already released Latin NER tools. Both analyses demonstrate that the BERT models achieve a better f1-score than the other models. Furthermore, we annotate new, unseen data for further evaluation of the models, and we discuss the impact of annotation choices on the results.

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Sentence Embedding Models for Ancient Greek Using Multilingual Knowledge Distillation
Kevin Krahn | Derrick Tate | Andrew C. Lamicela

Contextual language models have been trained on Classical languages, including Ancient Greek and Latin, for tasks such as lemmatization, morphological tagging, part of speech tagging, authorship attribution, and detection of scribal errors. However, high-quality sentence embedding models for these historical languages are significantly more difficult to achieve due to the lack of training data. In this work, we use a multilingual knowledge distillation approach to train BERT models to produce sentence embeddings for Ancient Greek text. The state-of-the-art sentence embedding approaches for high-resource languages use massive datasets, but our distillation approach allows our Ancient Greek models to inherit the properties of these models while using a relatively small amount of translated sentence data. We build a parallel sentence dataset using a sentence-embedding alignment method to align Ancient Greek documents with English translations, and use this dataset to train our models. We evaluate our models on translation search, semantic similarity, and semantic retrieval tasks and investigate translation bias. We make our training and evaluation datasets freely available.

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A Transformer-based parser for Syriac morphology
Martijn Naaijer | Constantijn Sikkel | Mathias Coeckelbergs | Jisk Attema | Willem Th. Van Peursen

In this project we train a Transformer-based model from scratch, with the goal of parsing the morphology of Ancient Syriac texts as accurately as possible. Syriac is still a low resource language, only a relatively small training set was available. Therefore, the training set was expanded by adding Biblical Hebrew data to it. Five different experiments were done: the model was trained on Syriac data only, it was trained with mixed Syriac and (un)vocalized Hebrew data, and it was pretrained on (un)vocalized Hebrew data and then finetuned on Syriac data. The models trained on Hebrew and Syriac data consistently outperform the models trained on Syriac data only. This shows, that the differences between Syriac and Hebrew are small enough that it is worth adding Hebrew data to train the model for parsing Syriac morphology. Training models on different languages is an important trend in NLP, we show that this works well for relatively small datasets of Syriac and Hebrew.

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Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit. Detecting Latin Allusions to Ancient Greek Literature
Frederick Riemenschneider | Anette Frank

Intertextual allusions hold a pivotal role in Classical Philology, with Latin authors frequently referencing Ancient Greek texts. Until now, the automatic identification of these intertextual references has been constrained to monolingual approaches, seeking parallels solely within Latin or Greek texts. In this study, we introduce SPhilBERTa, a trilingual Sentence-RoBERTa model tailored for Classical Philology, which excels at cross-lingual semantic comprehension and identification of identical sentences across Ancient Greek, Latin, and English. We generate new training data by automatically translating English into Ancient Greek texts. Further, we present a case study, demonstrating SPhilBERTa’s capability to facilitate automated detection of intertextual parallels. Intertextual allusions hold a pivotal role in Classical Philology, with Latin authors frequently referencing Ancient Greek texts. Until now, the automatic identification of these intertextual references has been constrained to monolingual approaches, seeking parallels solely within Latin or Greek texts. In this study, we introduce SPhilBERTa, a trilingual Sentence-RoBERTa model tailored for Classical Philology, which excels at cross-lingual semantic comprehension and identification of identical sentences across Ancient Greek, Latin, and English. We generate new training data by automatically translating English into Ancient Greek texts. Further, we present a case study, demonstrating SPhilBERTa’s capability to facilitate automated detection of intertextual parallels.

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Larth: Dataset and Machine Translation for Etruscan
Gianluca Vico | Gerasimos Spanakis

Etruscan is an ancient language spoken in Italy from the 7th century BC to the 1st century AD. There are no native speakers of the language at the present day, and its resources are scarce, as there are an estimated 12,000 known inscriptions. To the best of our knowledge, there are no publicly available Etruscan corpora for natural language processing. Therefore, we propose a dataset for machine translation from Etruscan to English, which contains 2891 translated examples from existing academic sources. Some examples are extracted manually, while others are acquired in an automatic way. Along with the dataset, we benchmark different machine translation models observing that it is possible to achieve a BLEU score of 10.1 with a small transformer model. Releasing the dataset can help enable future research on this language, similar languages or other languages with scarce resources.

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Evaluation of Distributional Semantic Models of Ancient Greek: Preliminary Results and a Road Map for Future Work
Silvia Stopponi | Nilo Pedrazzini | Saskia Peels | Barbara McGillivray | Malvina Nissim

We evaluate four count-based and predictive distributional semantic models of Ancient Greek against AGREE, a composite benchmark of human judgements, to assess their ability to retrieve semantic relatedness. On the basis of the observations deriving from the analysis of the results, we design a procedure for a larger-scale intrinsic evaluation of count-based and predictive language models, including syntactic embeddings. We also propose possible ways of exploiting the different layers of the whole AGREE benchmark (including both human- and machine-generated data) and different evaluation metrics.

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Latin Morphology through the Centuries: Ensuring Consistency for Better Language Processing
Federica Gamba | Daniel Zeman

This paper focuses on the process of harmonising the five Latin treebanks available in Universal Dependencies with respect to morphological annotation. We propose a workflow that allows to first spot inconsistencies and missing information, in order to detect to what extent the annotations differ, and then correct the retrieved bugs, with the goal of equalising the annotation of morphological features in the treebanks and producing more consistent linguistic data. Subsequently, we present some experiments carried out with UDPipe and Stanza in order to assess the impact of such harmonisation on parsing accuracy.

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Cross-Lingual Constituency Parsing for Middle High German: A Delexicalized Approach
Ercong Nie | Helmut Schmid | Hinrich Schütze

Constituency parsing plays a fundamental role in advancing natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, training an automatic syntactic analysis system for ancient languages solely relying on annotated parse data is a formidable task due to the inherent challenges in building treebanks for such languages. It demands extensive linguistic expertise, leading to a scarcity of available resources. To overcome this hurdle, cross-lingual transfer techniques which require minimal or even no annotated data for low-resource target languages offer a promising solution. In this study, we focus on building a constituency parser for Middle High German (MHG) under realistic conditions, where no annotated MHG treebank is available for training. In our approach, we leverage the linguistic continuity and structural similarity between MHG and Modern German (MG), along with the abundance of MG treebank resources. Specifically, by employing the delexicalization method, we train a constituency parser on MG parse datasets and perform cross-lingual transfer to MHG parsing. Our delexicalized constituency parser demonstrates remarkable performance on the MHG test set, achieving an F1-score of 67.3%. It outperforms the best zero-shot cross-lingual baseline by a margin of 28.6% points. The encouraging results underscore the practicality and potential for automatic syntactic analysis in other ancient languages that face similar challenges as MHG.

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Can Large Langauge Model Comprehend Ancient Chinese? A Preliminary Test on ACLUE
Yixuan Zhang | Haonan Li

Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated exceptional language understanding and generation capabilities. However, their ability to comprehend ancient languages, specifically ancient Chinese, remains largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we introduce ACLUE, an evaluation benchmark designed to assess the language abilities of models in relation to ancient Chinese. ACLUE consists of 15 tasks that cover a range of skills, including phonetic, lexical, syntactic, semantic, inference and knowledge. By evaluating 8 state-of-the-art multilingual and Chinese LLMs, we have observed a significant divergence in their performance between modern Chinese and ancient Chinese. Among the evaluated models, ChatGLM2 demonstrates the highest level of performance, achieving an average accuracy of 37.45%. We have established a leaderboard for communities to assess their models.

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Unveiling Emotional Landscapes in Plautus and Terentius Comedies: A Computational Approach for Qualitative Analysis
Davide Picca | Caroline Richard

This ongoing study explores emotion recognition in Latin texts, specifically focusing on Latin comedies. Leveraging Natural Language Processing and classical philology insights, the project navigates the challenges of Latin’s intricate grammar and nuanced emotional expression. Despite initial challenges with lexicon translation and emotional alignment, the work provides a foundation for a more comprehensive analysis of emotions in Latin literature.

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Morphological and Semantic Evaluation of Ancient Chinese Machine Translation
Kai Jin | Dan Zhao | Wuying Liu

Machine translation (MT) of ancient Chinese texts presents unique challenges due to the complex grammatical structures, cultural nuances, and polysemy of the language. This paper focuses on evaluating the translation quality of different platforms for ancient Chinese texts using The Analects as a case study. The evaluation is conducted using the BLEU, LMS, and ESS metrics, and the platforms compared include three machine translation platforms (Baidu Translate, Bing Microsoft Translator, and DeepL), and one language generation model ChatGPT that can engage in translation endeavors. Results show that Baidu performs the best, surpassing the other platforms in all three metrics, while ChatGPT ranks second and demonstrates unique advantages. The translations generated by ChatGPT are deemed highly valuable as references. The study contributes to understanding the challenges of MT for ancient Chinese texts and provides insights for users and researchers in this field. It also highlights the importance of considering specific domain requirements when evaluating MT systems.

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A tailored Handwritten-Text-Recognition System for Medieval Latin
Philipp Koch | Gilary Vera Nuñez | Esteban Garces Arias | Christian Heumann | Matthias Schöffel | Alexander Häberlin | Matthias Assenmacher

The Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities aims to digitize the Medieval Latin Dictionary. This dictionary entails record cards referring to lemmas in medieval Latin, a low-resource language. A crucial step of the digitization process is the handwritten text recognition (HTR) of the handwritten lemmas on the record cards. In our work, we introduce an end-to-end pipeline, tailored for the medieval Latin dictionary, for locating, extracting, and transcribing the lemmas. We employ two state-of-the-art image segmentation models to prepare the initial data set for the HTR task. Further, we experiment with different transformer-based models and conduct a set of experiments to explore the capabilities of different combinations of vision encoders with a GPT-2 decoder. Additionally, we also apply extensive data augmentation resulting in a highly competitive model. The best-performing setup achieved a character error rate of 0.015, which is even superior to the commercial Google Cloud Vision model, and shows more stable performance.

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Evaluating Existing Lemmatisers on Unedited Byzantine Greek Poetry
Colin Swaelens | Ilse De Vos | Els Lefever

This paper reports on the results of a comparative evaluation in view of the development of a new lemmatizer for unedited, Byzantine Greek texts. For the experiment, the performance of four existing lemmatizers, all pre-trained on Ancient Greek texts, was evaluated on how well they could handle texts stemming from the Middle Ages and displaying quite some peculiarities. The aim of this study is to get insights into the pitfalls of existing lemmatistion approaches as well as the specific challenges of our Byzantine Greek corpus, in order to develop a lemmatizer that can cope with its peculiarities. The results of the experiment show an accuracy drop of 20pp. on our corpus, which is further investigated in a qualitative error analysis.

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Vector Based Stylistic Analysis on Ancient Chinese Books: Take the Three Commentaries on the Spring and Autumn Annals as an Example
Yue Qi | Liu Liu | Bin Li | Dongbo Wang

Commentary of Gongyang, Commentary of Guliang, and Commentary of Zuo are collectively called the Three Commentaries on the Spring and Autumn Annals, which are the supplement and interpretation of the content of Spring and Autumn Annals with value in historical and literary research. In traditional research paradigms, scholars often explored the differences between the Three Commentaries within the details in contexts. Starting from the view of computational humanities, this paper examines the differences in the language style of the Three Commentaries through the representation of language, which takes the methods of deep learning. Specifically, this study vectorizes the context at word and sentence levels. It maps them into the same plane to find the differences between the use of words and sentences in the Three Commentaries. The results show that the Commentary of Gongyang and the Commentary of Guliang are relatively similar, while the Commentary of Zuo is significantly different. This paper verifies the feasibility of deep learning methods in stylistics study under computational humanities. It provides a valuable perspective for studying the Three Commentaries on the Spring and Autumn Annals.

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A Joint Model of Automatic Word Segmentation and Part-Of-Speech Tagging for Ancient Classical Texts Based on Radicals
Bolin Chang | Yiguo Yuan | Bin Li | Zhixing Xu | Minxuan Feng | Dongbo Wang

The digitization of ancient books necessitates the implementation of automatic word segmentation and part-of-speech tagging. However, the existing research on this topic encounters pressing issues, including suboptimal efficiency and precision, which require immediate resolution. This study employs a methodology that combines word segmentation and part-of-speech tagging. It establishes a correlation between fonts and radicals, trains the Radical2Vec radical vector representation model, and integrates it with the SikuRoBERTa word vector representation model. Finally, it connects the BiLSTM-CRF neural network.The study investigates the combination of word segmentation and part-of-speech tagging through an experimental approach using a specific data set. In the evaluation dataset, the F1 score for word segmentation is 95.75%, indicating a high level of accuracy. Similarly, the F1 score for part-of-speech tagging is 91.65%, suggesting a satisfactory performance in this task. This model enhances the efficiency and precision of the processing of ancient books, thereby facilitating the advancement of digitization efforts for ancient books and ensuring the preservation and advancement of ancient book heritage.

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Introducing an Open Source Library for Sumerian Text Analysis
Hansel Guzman-Soto | Yudong Liu

The study of Sumerian texts often requires domain experts to examine a vast number of tables. However, the absence of user-friendly tools for this process poses challenges and consumes significant time. In addressing this issue, we introduce an open-source library that empowers domain experts with minimal technical expertise to automate manual and repetitive tasks using a no-code dashboard. Our library includes an information extraction module that enables the automatic extraction of names and relations based on the user-defined lists of name tags and relation types. By utilizing the tool to facilitate the creation of knowledge graphs which is a data representation method offering insights into the relationships among entities in the data, we demonstrate its practical application in the analysis of Sumerian texts.

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Coding Design of Oracle Bone Inscriptions Input Method Based on “ZhongHuaZiKu” Database
Dongxin Hu

Abstract : Based on the oracle bone glyph data in the “ZhongHuaZiKu”database, this paper designs a new input method coding scheme which is easy to search in the database, and provides a feasible scheme for the design of oracle bone glyph input method software in the future. The coding scheme in this paper is based on the experience of the past oracle bone inscriptions input method design. In view of the particularity of oracle bone inscriptions, the difference factors such as component combination, sound code and shape code ( letter ) are added, and the coding format is designed as follows : The single component characters in the identified characters are arranged according to the format of " structural code + pronunciation full spelling code + tone code " ; the multi-component characters in the identified characters are arranged according to the format of " structure code + split component pronunciation full spelling code + overall glyph pronunciation full spelling code”; unidentified characters are arranged according to the format of " y + identified component pronunciation full spelling + unidentified component shape code ( letter ) ".Among them, the identified component code and the unidentified component shape code are input in turn according to the specific glyph from left to right, from top to bottom, and from outside to inside. Encoding through these coding formats, the heavy code rate is low, and the input habits of most people are also taken into account. Keywords : oracle bone inscriptions ; input method ; coding

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Word Sense Disambiguation for Ancient Greek: Sourcing a training corpus through translation alignment
Alek Keersmaekers | Wouter Mercelis | Toon Van Hal

This paper seeks to leverage translations of Ancient Greek texts to enhance the performance of automatic word sense disambiguation (WSD). Satisfactory WSD in Ancient Greek is achievable, provided that the system can rely on annotated data. This study, acknowledging the challenges of manually assigning meanings to every Greek lemma, explores the strategies to derive WSD data from parallel texts using sentence and word alignment. Our results suggest that, assuming the condition of high word frequency is met, this technique permits us to automatically produce a significant volume of annotated data, although there are still significant obstacles when trying to automate this process.

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Enhancing State-of-the-Art NLP Models for Classical Arabic
Tariq Yousef | Lisa Mischer | Hamid Reza Hakimi | Maxim Romanov

Classical Arabic, like all other historical languages, lacks adequate training datasets and accurate “off-the-shelf” models that can be directly employed in the processing pipelines. In this paper, we present our in-progress work in developing and training deep learning models tailored for handling diverse tasks relevant to classical Arabic texts. Specifically, we focus on Named Entities Recognition, person relationships classification, toponym sub-classification, onomastic section boundaries detection, onomastic entities classification, as well as date recognition and classification. Our work aims to address the challenges associated with these tasks and provide effective solutions for analyzing classical Arabic texts. Although this work is still in progress, the preliminary results reported in the paper indicate excellent to satisfactory performance of the fine-tuned models, effectively meeting the intended goal for which they were trained.

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Logion: Machine-Learning Based Detection and Correction of Textual Errors in Greek Philology
Charlie Cowen-Breen | Creston Brooks | Barbara Graziosi | Johannes Haubold

We present statistical and machine-learning based techniques for detecting and correcting errors in text and apply them to the challenge of textual corruption in Greek philology. Most ancient Greek texts reach us through a long process of copying, in relay, from earlier manuscripts (now lost). In this process of textual transmission, copying errors tend to accrue. After training a BERT model on the largest premodern Greek dataset used for this purpose to date, we identify and correct previously undetected errors made by scribes in the process of textual transmission, in what is, to our knowledge, the first successful identification of such errors via machine learning. The premodern Greek BERT model we train is available for use at

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Classical Philology in the Time of AI: Exploring the Potential of Parallel Corpora in Ancient Language
Tariq Yousef | Chiara Palladino | Farnoosh Shamsian

This paper provides an overview of diverse applications of parallel corpora in ancient languages, particularly Ancient Greek. In the first part, we provide the fundamental principles of parallel corpora and a short overview of their applications in the study of ancient texts. In the second part, we illustrate how to leverage on parallel corpora to perform various NLP tasks, including automatic translation alignment, dynamic lexica induction, and Named Entity Recognition. In the conclusions, we emphasize current limitations and future work.

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Using Word Embeddings for Identifying Emotions Relating to the Body in a Neo-Assyrian Corpus
Ellie Bennett | Aleksi Sahala

Research into emotions is a developing field within Assyriology, and NLP tools for Akkadian texts offers a new perspective on the data. In this submission, we use PMI-based word embeddings to explore the relationship between parts of the body and emotions. Using data downloaded from Oracc, we ask which parts of the body were semantically linked to emotions. We do this through examining which of the top 10 results for a body part could be used to express emotions. After identifying two words for the body that have the most emotion words in their results list (libbu and kabattu), we then examine whether the emotion words in their results lists were indeed used in this manner in the Neo-Assyrian textual corpus. The results indicate that of the two body parts, kabattu was semantically linked to happiness and joy, and had a secondary emotional field of anger.

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A Neural Pipeline for POS-tagging and Lemmatizing Cuneiform Languages
Aleksi Sahala | Krister Lindén

We presented a pipeline for POS-tagging and lemmatizing cuneiform languages and evaluated its performance on Sumerian, first millennium Babylonian, Neo-Assyrian and Urartian texts extracted from Oracc. The system achieves a POS-tagging accuracy between 95-98% and a lemmatization accuracy of 94-96% depending on the language or dialect. For OOV words only, the current version can predict correct POS-tags for 83-91%, and lemmata for 68-84% of the input words. Compared with the earlier version, the current one has about 10% higher accuracy in OOV lemmatization and POS-tagging due to better neural network performance. We also tested the system for lemmatizing and POS-tagging the PROIEL Ancient Greek and Latin treebanks, achieving results similar to those with the cuneiform languages.

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Tibetan Dependency Parsing with Graph Convolutional Neural Networks
Bo An

Dependency parsing is a syntactic analysis method to analyze the dependency relationships between words in a sentence. The interconnection between words through dependency relationships is typical graph data. Traditional Tibetan dependency parsing methods typically model dependency analysis as a transition-based or sequence-labeling task, ignoring the graph information between words. To address this issue, this paper proposes a graph neural network (GNN)-based Tibetan dependency parsing method. This method treats Tibetan words as nodes and the dependency relationships between words as edges, thereby constructing the graph data of Tibetan sentences. Specifically, we use BiLSTM to learn the word representations of Tibetan, utilize GNN to model the relationships between words and employ MLP to predict the types of relationships between words. We conduct experiments on a Tibetan dependency database, and the results show that the proposed method can achieve high-quality Tibetan dependency parsing results.

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On the Development of Interlinearized Ancient Literature of Ethnic Minorities: A Case Study of the Interlinearization of Ancient Written Tibetan Literature
Congjun Long | Bo An

Ancient ethnic documents are essential to China’s ancient literature and an indispensable civilizational achievement of Chinese culture. However, few research teams are involved due to language and script literacy limitations. To address these issues, this paper proposes an interlinearized annotation strategy for ancient ethnic literature. This strategy aims to alleviate text literacy difficulties, encourage interdisciplinary researchers to participate in studying ancient ethnic literature, and improve the efficiency of ancient ethnic literature development. Concretely, the interlinearized annotation consists of original, word segmentation, Latin, annotated, and translation lines. In this paper, we take ancient Tibetan literature as an example to explore the interlinearized annotation strategy. However, manually building large-scale corpus is challenging. To build a large-scale interlinearized dataset, we propose a multi-task learning-based interlinearized annotation method, which can generate interlinearized annotation lines based on the original line. Experimental results show that after training on about 10,000 sentences (lines) of data, our model achieves 70.9% and 63.2% F1 values on the segmentation lines and annotated lines, respectively, and 18.7% BLEU on the translation lines. It dramatically enhances the efficiency of data annotation, effectively speeds up interlinearized annotation, and reduces the workload of manual annotation.


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Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text

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Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text
Ali Hürriyetoğlu | Hristo Tanev | Vanni Zavarella | Reyyan Yeniterzi | Erdem Yörük | Milena Slavcheva

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Classifying Organized Criminal Violence in Mexico using ML and LLMs
Javier Osorio | Juan Vasquez

Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools have been rapidly adopted in political science for the study of conflict and violence. In this paper, we present an application to analyze various lethal and non-lethal events conducted by organized criminal groups and state forces in Mexico. Based on a large corpus of news articles in Spanish and a set of high-quality annotations, the application evaluates different Machine Learning (ML) algorithms and Large Language Models (LLMs) to classify documents and individual sentences, and to identify specific behaviors related to organized criminal violence and law enforcement efforts. Our experiments support the growing evidence that BERT-like models achieve outstanding classification performance for the study of organized crime. This application amplifies the capacity of conflict scholars to provide valuable information related to important security challenges in the developing world.

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Where “where” Matters : Event Location Disambiguation with a BERT Language Model
Hristo Tanev | Bertrand De Longueville

The method method presented in this paper uses a BERT model for classifying location mentions in event reporting news texts into two classes: a place of an event, called main location, or another location mention, called here secondary location. Our evaluation on articles, reporting protests, shows promising results and demonstrates the feasibility of our approach and the event geolocation task in general. We evaluate our method against a simple baseline and state of the art ML models and we achieve a significant improvement in all cases by using the BERT model. In contrast to other location classification approaches, we completelly avoid lingusitic pre processing and feature engineering, which is a pre-requisite for all multi-domain and multilingual applications.

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A Multi-instance Learning Approach to Civil Unrest Event Detection on Twitter
Alexandra DeLucia | Mark Dredze | Anna L. Buczak

Social media has become an established platform for people to organize and take offline actions, often in the form of civil unrest. Understanding these events can help support pro-democratic movements. The primary method to detect these events on Twitter relies on aggregating many tweets, but this includes many that are not relevant to the task. We propose a multi-instance learning (MIL) approach, which jointly identifies relevant tweets and detects civil unrest events. We demonstrate that MIL improves civil unrest detection over methods based on simple aggregation. Our best model achieves a 0.73 F1 on the Global Civil Unrest on Twitter (G-CUT) dataset.

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MLModeler5 @ Causal News Corpus 2023: Using RoBERTa for Casual Event Classification
Amrita Bhatia | Ananya Thomas | Nitansh Jain | Jatin Bedi

Identifying cause-effect relations plays an integral role in the understanding and interpretation of natural languages. Furthermore, automated mining of causal relations from news and text about socio-political events is a stepping stone in gaining critical insights, including analyzing the scale, frequency and trends across timelines of events, as well as anticipating future ones. The Shared Task 3, part of the 6th Workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text (CASE @ RANLP 2023), involved the task of Event Causality Identification with Causal News Corpus. We describe our approach to Subtask 1, dealing with causal event classification, a supervised binary classification problem to annotate given event sentences with whether they contained any cause-effect relations. To help achieve this task, a BERT based architecture - RoBERTa was implemented. The results of this model are validated on the dataset provided by the organizers of this task.

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BoschAI @ Causal News Corpus 2023: Robust Cause-Effect Span Extraction using Multi-Layer Sequence Tagging and Data Augmentation
Timo Pierre Schrader | Simon Razniewski | Lukas Lange | Annemarie Friedrich

Understanding causality is a core aspect of intelligence. The Event Causality Identification with Causal News Corpus Shared Task addresses two aspects of this challenge: Subtask 1 aims at detecting causal relationships in texts, and Subtask 2 requires identifying signal words and the spans that refer to the cause or effect, respectively. Our system, which is based on pre-trained transformers, stacked sequence tagging, and synthetic data augmentation, ranks third in Subtask 1 and wins Subtask 2 with an F1 score of 72.8, corresponding to a margin of 13 pp. to the second-best system.

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An Evaluation Framework for Mapping News Headlines to Event Classes in a Knowledge Graph
Steve Fonin Mbouadeu | Martin Lorenzo | Ken Barker | Oktie Hassanzadeh

Mapping ongoing news headlines to event-related classes in a rich knowledge base can be an important component in a knowledge-based event analysis and forecasting solution. In this paper, we present a methodology for creating a benchmark dataset of news headlines mapped to event classes in Wikidata, and resources for the evaluation of methods that perform the mapping. We use the dataset to study two classes of unsupervised methods for this task: 1) adaptations of classic entity linking methods, and 2) methods that treat the problem as a zero-shot text classification problem. For the first approach, we evaluate off-the-shelf entity linking systems. For the second approach, we explore a) pre-trained natural language inference (NLI) models, and b) pre-trained large generative language models. We present the results of our evaluation, lessons learned, and directions for future work. The dataset and scripts for evaluation are made publicly available.

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Ometeotl@Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection 2023: Hate Speech and Text-Image Correlation Detection in Real Life Memes Using Pre-Trained BERT Models over Text
Jesus Armenta-Segura | César Jesús Núñez-Prado | Grigori Olegovich Sidorov | Alexander Gelbukh | Rodrigo Francisco Román-Godínez

Hate speech detection during times of war has become crucial in recent years, as evident with the recent Russo-Ukrainian war. In this paper, we present our submissions for both subtasks from the Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detec- tion contest at CASE 2023, RANLP 2023. We used pre-trained BERT models in both submis- sion, achieving a F1 score of 0.809 in subtask A, and F1 score of 0.567 in subtask B. In the first subtask, our result was not far from the first place, which led us to realize the lower impact of images in real-life memes about feel- ings, when compared with the impact of text. However, we observed a higher importance of images when targeting hateful feelings towards a specific entity. The source code to reproduce our results can be found at the github repository

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InterosML@Causal News Corpus 2023: Understanding Causal Relationships: Supervised Contrastive Learning for Event Classification
Rajat Patel

Causal events play a crucial role in explaining the intricate relationships between the causes and effects of events. However, comprehending causal events within discourse, text, or speech poses significant semantic challenges. We propose a contrastive learning-based method in this submission to the Causal News Corpus - Event Causality Shared Task 2023, with a specific focus on SubTask1 centered on causal event classification. In our approach we pre-train our base model using Supervised Contrastive (SuperCon) learning. Subsequently, we fine-tune the pre-trained model for the specific task of causal event classification. Our experimentation demonstrates the effectiveness of our method, achieving a competitive performance, and securing the 2nd position on the leaderboard with an F1-Score of 84.36.

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SSN-NLP-ACE@Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection 2023: Detection of Hate Speech and Targets using Logistic Regression and SVM
Avanthika K | Mrithula Kl | Thenmozhi D

In this research paper, we propose a multimodal approach to hate speech detection, directed towards the identification of hate speech and its related targets. Our method uses logistic regression and support vector machines (SVMs) to analyse textual content extracted from social media platforms. We exploit natural language processing techniques to preprocess and extract relevant features from textual content, capturing linguistic patterns, sentiment, and contextual information.

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ARC-NLP at Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection 2023: Multimodal Methods Boosted by Ensemble Learning, Syntactical and Entity Features
Umitcan Sahin | Izzet Emre Kucukkaya | Oguzhan Ozcelik | Cagri Toraman

Text-embedded images can serve as a means of spreading hate speech, propaganda, and extremist beliefs. Throughout the Russia-Ukraine war, both opposing factions heavily relied on text-embedded images as a vehicle for spreading propaganda and hate speech. Ensuring the effective detection of hate speech and propaganda is of utmost importance to mitigate the negative effect of hate speech dissemination. In this paper, we outline our methodologies for two subtasks of Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection 2023. For the first subtask, hate speech detection, we utilize multimodal deep learning models boosted by ensemble learning and syntactical text attributes. For the second subtask, target detection, we employ multimodal deep learning models boosted by named entity features. Through experimentation, we demonstrate the superior performance of our models compared to all textual, visual, and text-visual baselines employed in multimodal hate speech detection. Furthermore, our models achieve the first place in both subtasks on the final leaderboard of the shared task.

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VerbaVisor@Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection 2023: Hate Speech Detection using Transformer Model
Sarika Esackimuthu | Prabavathy Balasundaram

Hate speech detection has emerged as a critical research area in recent years due to the rise of online social platforms and the proliferation of harmful content targeting individuals or specific groups.This task highlights the importance of detecting hate speech in text-embedded images.By leveraging deep learning models,this research aims to uncover the connection between hate speech and the entities it targets.

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Lexical Squad@Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection 2023: Multimodal Hate Speech Detection using Fused Ensemble Approach
Mohammad Kashif | Mohammad Zohair | Saquib Ali

With a surge in the usage of social media postings to express opinions, emotions, and ideologies, there has been a significant shift towards the calibration of social media as a rapid medium of conveying viewpoints and outlooks over the globe. Concurrently, the emergence of a multitude of conflicts between two entities has given rise to a stream of social media content containing propaganda, hate speech, and inconsiderate views. Thus, the issue of monitoring social media postings is rising swiftly, attracting major attention from those willing to solve such problems. One such problem is Hate Speech detection. To mitigate this problem, we present our novel ensemble learning approach for detecting hate speech, by classifying text-embedded images into two labels, namely “Hate Speech” and “No Hate Speech” . We have incorporated state-of-art models including InceptionV3, BERT, and XLNet. Our proposed ensemble model yielded promising results with 75.21 and 74.96 as accuracy and F-1 score (respectively). We also present an empirical evaluation of the text-embedded images to elaborate on how well the model was able to predict and classify.

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On the Road to a Protest Event Ontology for Bulgarian: Conceptual Structures and Representation Design
Milena Slavcheva | Hristo Tanev | Onur Uca

The paper presents a semantic model of protest events, called Semantic Interpretations of Protest Events (SemInPE). The analytical framework used for building the semantic representations is inspired by the object-oriented paradigm in computer science and a cognitive approach to the linguistic analysis. The model is a practical application of the Unified Eventity Representation (UER) formalism, which is based on the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The multi-layered architecture of the model provides flexible means for building the semantic representations of the language objects along a scale of generality and specificity. Thus, it is a suitable environment for creating the elements of ontologies on various topics and for different languages.

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CSECU-DSG@Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection 2023: Transformer-based Multimodal Hierarchical Fusion Model For Multimodal Hate Speech Detection
Abdul Aziz | MD. Akram Hossain | Abu Nowshed Chy

The emergence of social media and e-commerce platforms enabled the perpetrator to spread negativity and abuse individuals or organisations worldwide rapidly. It is critical to detect hate speech in both visual and textual content so that it may be moderated or excluded from online platforms to keep it sound and safe for users. However, multimodal hate speech detection is a complex and challenging task as people sarcastically present hate speech and different modalities i.e., image and text are involved in their content. This paper describes our participation in the CASE 2023 multimodal hate speech event detection task. In this task, the objective is to automatically detect hate speech and its target from the given text-embedded image. We proposed a transformer-based multimodal hierarchical fusion model to detect hate speech present in the visual content. We jointly fine-tune a language and a vision pre-trained transformer models to extract the visual-contextualized features representation of the text-embedded image. We concatenate these features and fed them to the multi-sample dropout strategy. Moreover, the contextual feature vector is fed into the BiLSTM module and the output of the BiLSTM module also passes into the multi-sample dropout. We employed arithmetic mean fusion to fuse all sample dropout outputs that predict the final label of our proposed method. Experimental results demonstrate that our model obtains competitive performance and ranked 5th among the participants

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CSECU-DSG @ Causal News Corpus 2023: Leveraging RoBERTa and DeBERTa Transformer Model with Contrastive Learning for Causal Event Classification
MD. Akram Hossain | Abdul Aziz | Abu Nowshed Chy

Cause-effect relationships play a crucial role in human cognition, and distilling cause-effect relations from text helps in ameliorating causal networks for predictive tasks. There are many NLP applications that can benefit from this task, including natural language-based financial forecasting, text summarization, and question-answering. However, due to the lack of syntactic clues, the ambivalent semantic meaning of words, complex sentence structure, and implicit meaning of numerical entities in the text make it one of the challenging tasks in NLP. To address these challenges, CASE-2023 introduced a shared task 3 task focusing on event causality identification with causal news corpus. In this paper, we demonstrate our participant systems for this task. We leverage two transformers models including DeBERTa and Twitter-RoBERTa along with the weighted average fusion technique to tackle the challenges of subtask 1 where we need to identify whether a text belongs to either causal or not. For subtask 2 where we need to identify the cause, effect, and signal tokens from the text, we proposed a unified neural network of DeBERTa and DistilRoBERTa transformer variants with contrastive learning techniques. The experimental results showed that our proposed method achieved competitive performance among the participants’ systems.

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NEXT: An Event Schema Extension Approach for Closed-Domain Event Extraction Models
Elena Tuparova | Petar Ivanov | Andrey Tagarev | Svetla Boytcheva | Ivan Koychev

Event extraction from textual data is a NLP research task relevant to a plethora of domains. Most approaches aim to recognize events from a predefined event schema, consisting of event types and their corresponding arguments. For domains, such as disinformation, where new event types emerge frequently, there is a need to adapt such fixed event schemas to accommodate for new event types. We present NEXT (New Event eXTraction) - a resource-sparse approach to extending a close-domain model to novel event types, that requires a very small number of annotated samples for fine-tuning performed on a single GPU. Furthermore, our results suggest that this approach is suitable not only for extraction of new event types, but also for recognition of existing event types, as the use of this approach on a new dataset leads to improved recall for all existing events while retaining precision.

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Negative documents are positive: Improving event extraction performance using overlooked negative data
Osman Mutlu | Ali Hürriyetoğlu

The scarcity of data poses a significant challenge in closed-domain event extraction, as is common in complex NLP tasks. This limitation primarily arises from the intricate nature of the annotation process. To address this issue, we present a multi-task model structure and training approach that leverages the additional data, which is found as not having any event information at document and sentence levels, generated during the event annotation process. By incorporating this supplementary data, our proposed framework demonstrates enhanced robustness and, in some scenarios, improved performance. A particularly noteworthy observation is that including only negative documents in addition to the original data contributes to performance enhancement. Our findings offer promising insights into leveraging extra data to mitigate data scarcity challenges in closed-domain event extraction.

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IIC_Team@Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection 2023: Detection of Hate Speech and Targets using Xlm-Roberta-base
Karanpreet Singh | Vajratiya Vajrobol | Nitisha Aggarwal

Hate speech has emerged as a pressing issue on social media platforms, fueled by the increasing availability of multimodal data and easy internet access. Addressing this problem requires collaborative efforts from researchers, policymakers, and online platforms. In this study, we investigate the detection of hate speech in multimodal data, comprising text-embedded images, by employing advanced deep learning models. The main objective is to identify effective strategies for hate speech detection and content moderation. We conducted experiments using four state-of-the-art classifiers: XLM-Roberta-base, BiLSTM, XLNet base cased, and ALBERT, on the CrisisHateMM[4] dataset, consisting of over 4700 text-embedded images related to the Russia-Ukraine conflict. The best findings reveal that XLM-Roberta-base exhibits superior performance, outperforming other classifiers across all evaluation metrics, including an impressive F1 score of 84.62 for sub-task 1 and 69.73 for sub-task 2. The future scope of this study lies in exploring multimodal approaches to enhance hate speech detection accuracy, integrating ethical considerations to address potential biases, promoting fairness, and safeguarding user rights. Additionally, leveraging larger and more diverse datasets will contribute to developing more robust and generalised hate speech detection solutions.

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Event Causality Identification - Shared Task 3, CASE 2023
Fiona Anting Tan | Hansi Hettiarachchi | Ali Hürriyetoğlu | Nelleke Oostdijk | Onur Uca | Surendrabikram Thapa | Farhana Ferdousi Liza

The Event Causality Identification Shared Task of CASE 2023 is the second iteration of a shared task centered around the Causal News Corpus. Two subtasks were involved: In Subtask 1, participants were challenged to predict if a sentence contains a causal relation or not. In Subtask 2, participants were challenged to identify the Cause, Effect, and Signal spans given an input causal sentence. For both subtasks, participants uploaded their predictions for a held-out test set, and ranking was done based on binary F1 and macro F1 scores for Subtask 1 and 2, respectively. This paper includes an overview of the work of the ten teams that submitted their results to our competition and the six system description papers that were received. The highest F1 scores achieved for Subtask 1 and 2 were 84.66% and 72.79%, respectively.

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Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection - Shared Task 4, CASE 2023
Surendrabikram Thapa | Farhan Jafri | Ali Hürriyetoğlu | Francielle Vargas | Roy Ka-Wei Lee | Usman Naseem

Ensuring the moderation of hate speech and its targets emerges as a critical imperative within contemporary digital discourse. To facilitate this imperative, the shared task Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection was organized in the sixth CASE workshop co-located at RANLP 2023. The shared task has two subtasks. The sub-task A required participants to pose hate speech detection as a binary problem i.e. they had to detect if the given text-embedded image had hate or not. Similarly, sub-task B required participants to identify the targets of the hate speech namely individual, community, and organization targets in text-embedded images. For both sub-tasks, the participants were ranked on the basis of the F1-score. The best F1-score in sub-task A and sub-task B were 85.65 and 76.34 respectively. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the performance of 13 teams that submitted the results in Subtask A and 10 teams in Subtask B.

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Detecting and Geocoding Battle Events from Social Media Messages on the Russo-Ukrainian War: Shared Task 2, CASE 2023
Hristo Tanev | Nicolas Stefanovitch | Andrew Halterman | Onur Uca | Vanni Zavarella | Ali Hurriyetoglu | Bertrand De Longueville | Leonida Della Rocca

The purpose of the shared task 2 at the Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text (CASE) 2023 workshop was to test the abilities of the participating models and systems to detect and geocode armed conflicts events in social media messages from Telegram channels reporting on the Russo Ukrainian war. The evaluation followed an approach which was introduced in CASE 2021 (Giorgi et al., 2021): For each system we consider the correlation of the spatio-temporal distribution of its detected events and the events identified for the same period in the ACLED (Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project) database (Raleigh et al., 2010). We use ACLED for the ground truth, since it is a well established standard in the field of event extraction and political trend analysis, which relies on human annotators for the encoding of security events using a fine grained taxonomy. Two systems participated in this shared task, we report in this paper on both the shared task and the participating systems.

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Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text (CASE 2023): Workshop and Shared Task Report
Ali Hürriyetoğlu | Hristo Tanev | Osman Mutlu | Surendrabikram Thapa | Fiona Anting Tan | Erdem Yörük

We provide a summary of the sixth edition of the CASE workshop that is held in the scope of RANLP 2023. The workshop consists of regular papers, three keynotes, working papers of shared task participants, and shared task overview papers. This workshop series has been bringing together all aspects of event information collection across technical and social science fields. In addition to contributing to the progress in text based event extraction, the workshop provides a space for the organization of a multimodal event information collection task.


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Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Terminology in NLP and Translation Studies (ConTeNTS) Incorporating the 16th Workshop on Building and Using Comparable Corpora (BUCC)

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Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Terminology in NLP and Translation Studies (ConTeNTS) Incorporating the 16th Workshop on Building and Using Comparable Corpora (BUCC)
Amal Haddad Haddad | Ayla Rigouts Terryn | Ruslan Mitkov | Reinhard Rapp | Pierre Zweigenbaum | Serge Sharoff

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Bilingual Terminology Alignment Using Contextualized Embeddings
Imene Setha | Hassina Aliane

Terminology Alignment faces big challenges in NLP because of the dynamic nature of terms. Fortunately, over these last few years, Deep Learning models showed very good progress with several NLP tasks such as multilingual data resourcing, glossary building, terminology understanding. . . etc. In this work, we propose a new method for terminology alignment from a comparable corpus (Arabic/French languages) for the Algerian culture field. We aim to improve bilingual alignment based on contextual information of a term and to create a significant term bank i.e. a bilingual Arabic-French dictionary. We propose to create word embeddings for both Arabic and French languages using ELMO model focusing on contextual features of terms. Then, we mapp those embeddings using Seq2seq model. We use multilingual-BERT and All-MiniLM-L6 as baseline mod- els to compare terminology alignment results. Lastly we study the performance of these models by applying evaluation methods. Experimentation’s showed quite satisfying alignment results.

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Termout: a tool for the semi-automatic creation of term databases
Rogelio Nazar | Nicolas Acosta

We propose a tool for the semi-automatic production of terminological databases, divided in the steps of corpus processing, terminology extraction, database population and management. With this tool it is possible to obtain a draft macrostructure (a lemma-list) and data for the microstructural level, such as grammatical (morphosyntactic patterns, gender, formation process) and semantic information (hypernyms, equivalence in another language, definitions and synonyms). In this paper we offer an overall description of the software and an evaluation of its performance, for which we used a linguistics corpus in English and Spanish.

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Use of NLP Techniques in Translation by ChatGPT: Case Study
Feyza Dalayli

Use of NLP Techniques in Translation by ChatGPT: Case Study Natural Language Processing (NLP) refers to a field of study within the domain of artificial intelligence (AI) and computational linguistics that focuses on the interaction between computers and human language. NLP seeks to develop computational models and algorithms capable of understanding, analyzing, and generating natural language text and speech (Brown et al., 1990). At its core, NLP aims to bridge the gap between human language and machine understanding by employing various techniques from linguistics, computer science, and statistics. It involves the application of linguistic and computational theories to process, interpret, and extract meaningful information from unstructured textual data (Bahdanau, Cho and Bengio, 2015). Researchers and practitioners in NLP employ diverse methodologies, including rule-based approaches, statistical models, machine learning techniques (such as neural networks), and more recently, deep learning architectures. These methodologies enable the development of robust algorithms that can learn from large-scale language data to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of language processing systems (Nilsson, 2010). NLP has numerous real-world applications across various domains, including information retrieval, virtual assistants, chatbots, social media analysis, sentiment monitoring, automated translation services, and healthcare, among others (kaynak). As the field continues to advance, NLP strives to overcome challenges such as understanding the nuances of human language, handling ambiguity, context sensitivity, and incorporating knowledge from diverse sources to enable machines to effectively communicate and interact with humans in a more natural and intuitive manner. Natural Language Processing (NLP) and translation are interconnected fields that share a symbiotic relationship, as NLP techniques and methodologies greatly contribute to the advancement and effectiveness of machine translation systems. NLP, a subfield of artificial intelligence (AI), focuses on the interaction between computers and human language. It encompasses a wide range of tasks, including text analysis, syntactic and semantic parsing, sentiment analysis, information extraction, and machine translation (Bahdanau, Cho and Bengio, 2014). NMT models employ deep learning architectures, such as recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and more specifically, long short-term memory (LSTM) networks, to learn the mapping between source and target language sentences. These models are trained on large-scale parallel corpora, consisting of aligned sentence pairs in different languages. The training process involves optimizing model parameters to minimize the discrepancy between predicted translations and human-generated translations (Wu et al., 2016) NLP techniques are crucial at various stages of machine translation. Preprocessing techniques, such as tokenization, sentence segmentation, and morphological analysis, help break down input text into meaningful linguistic units, making it easier for translation models to process and understand the content. Syntactic and semantic parsing techniques aid in capturing the structural and semantic relationships within sentences, improving the overall coherence and accuracy of translations. Furthermore, NLP-based methods are employed for handling specific translation challenges, such as handling idiomatic expressions, resolving lexical ambiguities, and addressing syntactic divergences between languages. For instance, statistical alignment models, based on NLP algorithms, enable the identification of correspondences between words or phrases in source and target languages, facilitating the generation of more accurate translations (kaynak). Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of NLP techniques in enhancing machine translation quality. For example, Bahdanau et al. (2015) introduced the attention mechanism, an NLP technique that enables NMT models to focus on relevant parts of the source sentence during translation. This attention mechanism significantly improved the translation quality of neural machine translation models. ChatGPT is a language model developed by OpenAI that utilizes the principles of Natural Language Processing (NLP) for various tasks, including translations. NLP is a field of artificial intelligence that focuses on the interaction between computers and human language. It encompasses a range of techniques and algorithms for processing, analyzing, and understanding natural language. When it comes to translation, NLP techniques can be applied to facilitate the conversion of text from one language to another. ChatGPT employs a sequence-to-sequence model, a type of neural network architecture commonly used in machine translation tasks. This model takes an input sequence in one language and generates a corresponding output sequence in the target language (OpenAI, 2023). The training process for ChatGPT involves exposing the model to large amounts of multilingual data, allowing it to learn patterns, syntax, and semantic relationships across different languages. This exposure enables the model to develop a general understanding of language structures and meanings, making it capable of performing translation tasks. To enhance translation quality, ChatGPT leverages the Transformer architecture, which has been highly successful in NLP tasks. Transformers utilize attention mechanisms, enabling the model to focus on different parts of the input sequence during the translation process. This attention mechanism allows the model to capture long-range dependencies and improve the overall coherence and accuracy of translations. Additionally, techniques such as subword tokenization, which divides words into smaller units, are commonly employed in NLP translation systems like ChatGPT. Subword tokenization helps handle out-of-vocabulary words and improves the model’s ability to handle rare or unknown words (GPT-4 Technical Report, 2023). As can be seen, there have been significant developments in artificial intelligence translations thanks to NLP. However, it is not possible to say that it has fully reached the quality of translation made by people. The only goal in artificial intelligence translations is to reach translations made by humans. In general, there are some fundamental differences between human and ChatGPT translations. Human-made translations and translations generated by ChatGPT (or similar language models) have several key differences (Kelly and Zetzsche, 2014; Koehn, 2010; Sutskever, Vinyals and Le, 2014; Costa-jussà and Fonollosa, 2018) Translation Quality: Human translators are capable of producing high-quality translations with a deep understanding of both the source and target languages. They can accurately capture the nuances, cultural references, idioms, and context of the original text. On the other hand, ChatGPT translations can sometimes be less accurate or may not fully grasp the intended meaning due to the limitations of the training data and the model’s inability to comprehend context in the same way a human can. While ChatGPT can provide reasonable translations, they may lack the finesse and precision of a human translator. Natural Language Processing: Human translators are skilled at processing and understanding natural language, taking into account the broader context, cultural implications, and the intended audience. They can adapt their translations to suit the target audience, tone, and purpose of the text. ChatGPT, although trained on a vast amount of text data, lacks the same level of natural language understanding. It often relies on pattern matching and statistical analysis to generate translations, which can result in less nuanced or contextually appropriate outputs. Subject Matter Expertise: Human translators often specialize in specific domains or subject areas, allowing them to have deep knowledge and understanding of technical or specialized terminology. They can accurately translate complex or industry-specific texts, ensuring the meaning is preserved. ChatGPT, while having access to a wide range of general knowledge, may struggle with domain-specific vocabulary or terminology, leading to inaccuracies or incorrect translations in specialized texts. Cultural Sensitivity: Human translators are well-versed in the cultural nuances of both the source and target languages. They can navigate potential pitfalls, adapt the translation to the cultural context, and avoid unintended offensive or inappropriate language choices. ChatGPT lacks this level of cultural sensitivity and may produce translations that are culturally tone-deaf or insensitive, as it lacks the ability to understand the subtleties and implications of language choices. Revision and Editing: Human translators go through an iterative process of revision and editing to refine their translations, ensuring accuracy, clarity, and quality. They can self-correct errors and refine their translations based on feedback or additional research. ChatGPT, while capable of generating translations, does not have the same ability to self-correct or improve based on feedback. It generates translations in a single pass, without the iterative refinement process that humans can employ. In summary, while ChatGPT can be a useful tool for generating translations, human-made translations generally outperform machine-generated translations in terms of quality, accuracy, contextuality, cultural sensitivity, and domain-specific expertise. In conclusion, NLP and machine translation are closely intertwined, with NLP providing essential tools, methodologies, and techniques that contribute to the development and improvement of machine translation systems. The integration of NLP methods has led to significant advancements in translation accuracy, fluency, and the ability to handle various linguistic complexities. As NLP continues to evolve, its impact on the field of machine translation is expected to grow, enabling the creation of more sophisticated and context-aware translation systems. On the basis of all this information, in this research, it is aimed to compare the translations from English to Turkish made by ChatGPT, one of the most advanced artificial intelligences, with the translations made by humans. In this context, an academic 1 page English text was chosen. The text was translated by both ChatGPT and a translator who is an academic in the field of translation and has 10 years of experience. Afterwards, two different translations were examined comparatively by 5 different translators who are experts in their fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with these translators. The aim of this study is to reveal the role of artificial intelligence tools in translation, which are increasing day by day and suggesting that there will be no need for language learning in the future. On the other hand, many translators argue that artificial intelligence and human translations can be understood. Therefore, if artificial intelligence is successful, there will be no profession called translator in the future. This research seems to be very useful in terms of shedding light on the future. The method of this research is semi-structured in-depth interview. References Bahdanau, D., Cho, K. and Bengio Y. (2015). Neural machine translation by jointly learning to align and translate. In International Conference on Learning Representations. Brown, P. F., Cocke, J., Pietra, S. A. D., Pietra, V. J. D., Jelinek, F., Lafferty, J. D., Mercer, R. L., and Roossin, P. S. A. (1990) statistical approach to machine translation. Computational linguistics 16, 2, 79–85. Costa-jussà, M. R., & Fonollosa, J. A. R. (2018). “An Overview of Neural Machine Translation.” IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems. GPT-4 Technical Report (2023). Kelly, N. and Zetzsche, J. (2014). Found in Translation: How Language Shapes Our Lives and Transforms the World. USA: Penguin Book. Koehn, P. (2010). “Statistical Machine Translation.” Cambridge University Press. Nilsson, N. J. (2010). The Quest For AI- A History Of Ideas And Achievements. nilsson/. OpenAI (2023). Sutskever, I., Vinyals, O., & Le, Q. V. (2014). “Sequence to Sequence Learning with Neural Networks.” Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems. Wu,Y. Schuster, M., Chen, Z., Le, Q. V. and Norouzi M. (2016). Google’s Neural Machine Translation System: Bridging the Gap between Human and Machine Translation.

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On the Evaluation of Terminology Translation Errors in NMT and PB-SMT in the Legal Domain: a Study on the Translation of Arabic Legal Documents into English and French
Khadija Ait ElFqih | Johanna Monti

In the translation process, terminological resources are used to solve translation problems, so information on terminological equivalence is crucial to make the most appropriate choices in terms of translation equivalence. In the context of Machine translation, indeed, neural models have improved the state-of-the-art in Machine Translation considerably in recent years. However, they still underperform in domain-specific fields and in under-resourced languages. This is particularly evident in translating legal terminology for Arabic, where current Machine Translation outputs do not adhere to the contextual, linguistic, cultural, and terminological constraints posed by translating legal terms in Arabic. In this paper, we conduct a comparative qualitative evaluation and comprehensive error analysis on legal terminology translation in Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation and Neural Machine Translation in two translation language pairs: Arabic-English and Arabic-French. We propose an error typology taking the legal terminology translation from Arabic into account. We demonstrate our findings, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches in the area of legal terminology translation for Arabic. We also introduce a multilingual gold standard dataset that we developed using our Arabic legal corpus. This dataset serves as a reliable benchmark and/or reference during the evaluation process to decide the degree of adequacy and fluency of the Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation and Neural Machine Translation systems.

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Automatic Student Answer Assessment using LSA
Teodora Mihajlov

Implementing technology in a modern-day classroom is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we created a system for an automatic assessment of student answers using Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – a method with an underlying assumption that words with similar meanings will appear in the same contexts. The system will be used within digital lexical flash-cards for L2 vocabulary acquisition in a CLIL classroom. Results presented in this paper indicate that while LSA does well in creating semantic spaces for longer texts, it somewhat struggles with detecting topics in short texts. After obtaining LSA semantic spaces, answer accuracy was assessed by calculating the cosine similarity between a student’s answer and the golden standard. The answers were classified by accuracy using KNN, for both binary and multinomial classification. The results of KNN classification are as follows: precision P = 0.73, recall R = 1.00, F1 = 0.85 for binary classification, and P = 0.50, R = 0.47, F1 = 0.46 score for the multinomial classifier. The results are to be taken with a grain of salt, due to a small test and training dataset.

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Semantic Specifics of Bulgarian Verbal Computer Terms
Maria Todorova

This paper represents a description of Bulgarian verbal computer terms with a view to the specifics of their translation in English. The study employs a subset of 100 verbs extracted from the Bulgarian WordNet (BulNet) and from the internet. The analysis of their syntactic and semantic structure is a part of a study of the general lexis of Bulgarian. The aim of the paper is to (1) identify some problem areas of the description and translation of general lexis verbs, (2) offer an approach to the semantic description of metaphor-based terms from the perspective of Frame Semantics; (3) raise questions about the definition of general lexis with respect to Bulgarian and across languages.

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BanMANI: A Dataset to Identify Manipulated Social Media News in Bangla
Mahammed Kamruzzaman | Md. Minul Islam Shovon | Gene Kim

Initial work has been done to address fake news detection and misrepresentation of news in the Bengali language. However, no work in Bengali yet addresses the identification of specific claims in social media news that falsely manipulate a related news article. At this point, this problem has been tackled in English and a few other languages, but not in the Bengali language. In this paper, we curate a dataset of social media content labeled with information manipulation relative to reference articles, called BanMANI. The dataset collection method we describe works around the limitations of the available NLP tools in Bangla. We expect these techniques will carry over to building similar datasets in other low-resource languages. BanMANI forms the basis both for evaluating the capabilities of existing NLP systems and for training or fine-tuning new models specifically on this task. In our analysis, we find that this task challenges current LLMs both under zero-shot and fine-tuned set- things

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Supervised Feature-based Classification Approach to Bilingual Lexicon Induction from Specialised Comparable Corpora
Ayla Rigouts Terryn

This study, submitted to the BUCC2023 shared task on bilingual term alignment in comparable specialised corpora, introduces a supervised, feature-based classification approach. The approach employs both static cross-lingual embeddings and contextual multilingual embeddings, combined with surface-level indicators such as Levenshtein distance and term length, as well as linguistic information. Results exhibit improved performance over previous methodologies, illustrating the merit of integrating diverse features. However, the error analysis also reveals remaining challenges.


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Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Speech and Language Technologies for Dravidian Languages

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Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Speech and Language Technologies for Dravidian Languages
Bharathi R. Chakravarthi | Ruba Priyadharshini | Anand Kumar M | Sajeetha Thavareesan | Elizabeth Sherly

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On the Errors in Code-Mixed Tamil-English Offensive Span Identification
Manikandan Ravikiran | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi

In recent times, offensive span identification in code-mixed Tamil-English language has seen traction with the release of datasets, shared tasks, and the development of multiple methods. However, the details of various errors shown by these methods are currently unclear. This paper presents a detailed analysis of various errors in state-of-the-art Tamil-English offensive span identification methods. Our study reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the widely used sequence labeling and zero-shot models for offensive span identification. In the due process, we identify data-related errors, improve data annotation and release additional diagnostic data to evaluate models’ quality and stability. Disclaimer: This paper contains examples that may be considered profane, vulgar, or offensive. The examples do not represent the views of the authors or their employers/graduate schools towards any person(s), group(s), practice(s), or entity/entities. Instead, they emphasize the complexity of various errors and linguistic research challenges.

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Hate and Offensive Keyword Extraction from CodeMix Malayalam Social Media Text Using Contextual Embedding
Mariya Raphel | Premjith B | Sreelakshmi K | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi

This paper focuses on identifying hate and offensive keywords from codemix Malayalam social media text. As part of this work, a dataset for hate and offensive keyword extraction for codemix Malayalam language was created. Two different methods were experimented to extract Hate and Offensive language (HOL) keywords from social media text. In the first method, intrinsic evaluation was performed on the dataset to identify the hate and offensive keywords. Three different approaches namely – unigram approach, bigram approach and trigram approach were performed to extract the HOL keywords, sequence of HOL words and the sequence that contribute HOL meaning even in the absence of a HOL word. Five different transformer models were used in each of the pproaches for extracting the embeddings for the ngrams. Later, HOL keywords were extracted based on the similarity score obtained using the cosine similarity. Out of the five transformer models, the best results were obtained with multilingual BERT. In the second method, multilingual BERT transformer model was fine tuned with the dataset to develop a HOL keyword tagger model. This work is a new beginning for HOL keyword identification in Dravidian language – Malayalam.

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Acoustic Analysis of the Fifth Liquid in Malayalam
Punnoose A K

This paper investigates the claim of rhoticity of the fifth liquid in Malayalam using various acoustic characteristics. The Malayalam liquid phonemes are analyzed in terms of the smoothness of the pitch window, formants, formant bandwidth, the effect on surrounding vowels, duration, and classification patterns by an unrelated classifier. We report, for the fifth liquid, a slight similarity in terms of pitch smoothness with one of the laterals, similarity with the laterals in terms of F1 for males, and similarity with the laterals and one of the rhotics in terms of F1 for females. The similarity in terms of formant bandwidth between the fifth liquid and the other liquids is inconclusive. Similarly, the effect of the fifth liquid on the surrounding vowels is inconclusive. No similarity is observed between the fifth liquid and the other liquids in phoneme duration. Classification of the fifth liquid section implies higher order signal level similarity with both laterals and rhotics.

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Transformer-based Context Aware Morphological Analyzer for Telugu
Priyanka Dasari | Abhijith Chelpuri | Nagaraju Vuppala | Mounika Marreddy | Parameshwari Krishnamurthy | Radhika Mamidi

This paper addresses the challenges faced by Indian languages in leveraging deep learning for natural language processing (NLP) due to limited resources, annotated datasets, and Transformer-based architectures. We specifically focus on Telugu and aim to construct a Telugu morph analyzer dataset comprising 10,000 sentences. Furthermore, we assess the performance of established multi-lingual Transformer models (m-Bert, XLM-R, IndicBERT) and mono-lingual Transformer models trained from scratch on an extensive Telugu corpus comprising 80,15,588 sentences (BERT-Te). Our findings demonstrate the efficacy of Transformer-based representations pretrained on Telugu data in improving the performance of the Telugu morph analyzer, surpassing existing multi-lingual approaches. This highlights the necessity of developing dedicated corpora, annotated datasets, and machine learning models in a mono-lingual setting. We present benchmark results for the Telugu morph analyzer achieved through simple fine-tuning on our dataset.

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Improving Reinfocement Learning Agent Training using Text based Guidance: A study using Commands in Dravidian Languages
Nikhil Chowdary Paleti | Sai Aravind Vadlapudi | Sai Aashish Menta | Sai Akshay Menta | Vishnu Vardhan Gorantla V N S L | Janakiram Chandu | Soman K P | Sachin Kumar S

Reinforcement learning (RL) agents have achieved remarkable success in various domains, such as game-playing and protein structure prediction. However, most RL agents rely on exploration to find optimal solutions without explicit guidance. This paper proposes a methodology for training RL agents using text-based instructions in Dravidian Languages, including Telugu, Tamil, and Malayalam along with using the English language. The agents are trained in a modified Lunar Lander environment, where they must follow specific paths to successfully land the lander. The methodology involves collecting a dataset of human demonstrations and textual instructions, encoding the instructions into numerical representations using text-based embeddings, and training RL agents using state-of-the-art algorithms. The results demonstrate that the trained Soft Actor-Critic (SAC) agent can effectively understand and generalize instructions in different languages, outperforming other RL algorithms such as Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) and Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG).

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Social Media Data Analysis for Malayalam YouTube Comments: Sentiment Analysis and Emotion Detection using ML and DL Models
Abeera V P | Dr. Sachin Kumar | Dr. Soman K P

In this paper, we present a study on social media data analysis of Malayalam YouTube comments, specifically focusing on sentiment analysis and emotion detection. Our research aims to investigate the effectiveness of various machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) models in addressing these two tasks. For sentiment analysis, we collected a dataset consisting of 3064 comments, while for two-class emotion detection, we used a dataset of 817 comments. In the sentiment analysis phase, we explored multiple ML and DL models, including traditional algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVM), Naïve Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), MLP Classifier, Decision Tree, and Random Forests. Additionally, we utilized DL models such as Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), LSTM, and GRU. To enhance the performance of these models, we preprocessed the Malayalam YouTube comments by tokenizing and removing stop words. Experimental results revealed that DL models achieved higher accuracy compared to ML models, indicating their ability to capture the complex patterns and nuances in the Malayalam language. Furthermore, we extended our analysis to emotion detection, which involved dealing with limited annotated data. This task is closely related to social media data analysis. For emotion detection, we employed the same ML models used in the sentiment analysis phase. Our dataset of 817 comments was annotated with two emotions: Happy and Sad. We trained the models to classify the comments into these emotion classes and analyzed the accuracy of the different models.

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Findings of the Second Shared Task on Offensive Span Identification from Code-Mixed Tamil-English Comments
Manikandan Ravikiran | Ananth Ganesh | Anand Kumar M | R Rajalakshmi | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi

Maintaining effective control over offensive content is essential on social media platforms to foster constructive online discussions. Yet, when it comes to code-mixed Dravidian languages, the current prevalence of offensive content moderation is restricted to categorizing entire comments, failing to identify specific portions that contribute to the offensiveness. Such limitation is primarily due to the lack of annotated data and open source systems for offensive spans. To alleviate this issue, in this shared task, we offer a collection of Tamil-English code-mixed social comments that include offensive comments. This paper provides an overview of the released dataset, the algorithms employed, and the outcomes achieved by the systems submitted for this task.

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Overview of the shared task on Fake News Detection from Social Media Text
Malliga S | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Kogilavani S V | Santhiya Pandiyan | Prasanna Kumar Kumaresan | Balasubramanian Palani | Muskaan Singh

This document contains the instructions for preparing a manuscript for the proceedings of RANLP 2023. The document itself conforms to its own specifications and is therefore an example of what your manuscript should look like. These instructions should be used for both papers submitted for review and for final versions of accepted papers. Authors are asked to conform to all the directions reported in this document.

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Findings of the Shared Task on Sentiment Analysis in Tamil and Tulu Code-Mixed Text
Asha Hegde | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Hosahalli Lakshmaiah Shashirekha | Rahul Ponnusamy | Subalalitha Cn | Lavanya S K | Thenmozhi D. | Martha Karunakar | Shreya Shreeram | Sarah Aymen

In recent years, there has been a growing focus on Sentiment Analysis (SA) of code-mixed Dravidian languages. However, the majority of social media text in these languages is code-mixed, presenting a unique challenge. Despite this, there is currently lack of research on SA specifically tailored for code-mixed Dravidian languages, highlighting the need for further exploration and development in this domain. In this view, “Sentiment Analysis in Tamil and Tulu- DravidianLangTech” shared task at Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP)- 2023 is organized. This shred consists two language tracks: code-mixed Tamil and Tulu and Tulu text is first ever explored in public domain for SA. We describe the task, its organization, and the submitted systems followed by the results. 57 research teams registered for the shared task and We received 27 systems each for code-mixed Tamil and Tulu texts. The performance of the systems (developed by participants) has been evaluated in terms of macro average F1 score. The top system for code-mixed Tamil and Tulu texts scored macro average F1 score of 0.32, and 0.542 respectively. The high quality and substantial quantity of submissions demonstrate a significant interest and attention in the analysis of code-mixed Dravidian languages. However, the current state of the art in this domain indicates the need for further advancements and improvements to effectively address the challenges posed by code-mixed Dravidian language SA.

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Findings of the Shared Task on Multimodal Abusive Language Detection and Sentiment Analysis in Tamil and Malayalam
Premjith B | Jyothish Lal G | Sowmya V | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Rajeswari Natarajan | Nandhini K | Abirami Murugappan | Bharathi B | Kaushik M | Prasanth Sn | Aswin Raj R | Vijai Simmon S

This paper summarizes the shared task on multimodal abusive language detection and sentiment analysis in Dravidian languages as part of the third Workshop on Speech and Language Technologies for Dravidian Languages at RANLP 2023. This shared task provides a platform for researchers worldwide to submit their models on two crucial social media data analysis problems in Dravidian languages - abusive language detection and sentiment analysis. Abusive language detection identifies social media content with abusive information, whereas sentiment analysis refers to the problem of determining the sentiments expressed in a text. This task aims to build models for detecting abusive content and analyzing fine-grained sentiment from multimodal data in Tamil and Malayalam. The multimodal data consists of three modalities - video, audio and text. The datasets for both tasks were prepared by collecting videos from YouTube. Sixty teams participated in both tasks. However, only two teams submitted their results. The submissions were evaluated using macro F1-score.

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Overview of Shared-task on Abusive Comment Detection in Tamil and Telugu
Ruba Priyadharshini | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Malliga S | Subalalitha Cn | Kogilavani S V | Premjith B | Abirami Murugappan | Prasanna Kumar Kumaresan

This paper discusses the submissions to the shared task on abusive comment detection in Tamil and Telugu codemixed social media text conducted as part of the third Workshop on Speech and Language Technologies for Dravidian Languages at RANLP 20239. The task encourages researchers to develop models to detect the contents containing abusive information in Tamil and Telugu codemixed social media text. The task has three subtasks - abusive comment detection in Tamil, Tamil-English and Telugu-English. The dataset for all the tasks was developed by collecting comments from YouTube. The submitted models were evaluated using macro F1-score, and prepared the rank list accordingly.

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CoPara: The First Dravidian Paragraph-level n-way Aligned Corpus
Nikhil E | Mukund Choudhary | Radhika Mamidi

We present CoPara, the first publicly available paragraph-level (n-way aligned) multilingual parallel corpora for Dravidian languages. The collection contains 2856 paragraph/passage pairs between English and four Dravidian languages. We source the parallel paragraphs from the New India Samachar magazine and align them with English as a pivot language. We do human and artificial evaluations to validate the high-quality alignment and richness of the parallel paragraphs of a range of lengths. To show one of the many ways this dataset can be wielded, we finetuned IndicBART, a seq2seq NMT model on all XX-En pairs of languages in CoPara which perform better than existing sentence-level models on standard benchmarks (like BLEU) on sentence level translations and longer text too. We show how this dataset can enrich a model trained for a task like this, with more contextual cues and beyond sentence understanding even in low-resource settings like that of Dravidian languages. Finally, the dataset and models are made available publicly at CoPara to help advance research in Dravidian NLP, parallel multilingual, and beyond sentence-level tasks like NMT, etc.

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Sanjana Kolar | Rohit Kumar

This research investigates the effectiveness of Chat- GPT, an AI language model by OpenAI, in translating English into Hindi, Telugu, and Kannada languages, aimed at assisting tourists in India’s linguistically diverse environment. To measure the translation quality, a test set of 50 questions from diverse fields such as general knowledge, food, and travel was used. These were assessed by five volunteers for accuracy and fluency, and the scores were subsequently converted into a BLEU score. The BLEU score evaluates the closeness of a machine-generated translation to a human translation, with a higher score indicating better translation quality. The Hindi translations outperformed others, showcasing superior accuracy and fluency, whereas Telugu translations lagged behind. Human evaluators rated both the accuracy and fluency of translations, offering a comprehensive perspective on the language model’s performance.

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Enhancing Telugu News Understanding: Comparative Study of ML Algorithms for Category Prediction
Manish Rama Gopal Nadella | Venkata Krishna Rayalu Garapati | Eswar Sudhan S.k. | Gouthami Jangala | Soman K.p. | Sachin Kumar

As one of the most extensively used languages in India, Telugu has a sizable audience and a huge library of news articles. Predicting the categories of Telugu news items not only helps with efficient organization but also makes it possible to do trend research, advertise in a certain demographic, and provide individualized recommendations. In order to identify the most effective method for accurate Telugu news category prediction, this study compares and contrasts various machine learning (ML) techniques, including support vector machines (SVM), random forests, and naive Bayes. Accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score will be utilized as performance indicators to gauge how well these algorithms perform. The outcomes of this comparative analysis will address the particular difficulties and complexities of the Telugu language and add to the body of knowledge on news category prediction. For Telugu-speaking consumers, the study intends to improve news organization and recommendation systems, giving them more relevant and customized news consumption experiences. Our result emphasize that, although other models can be taken into account for further research and comparison, W2Vec-skip gram with polynomial SVM is the best performing combination.

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Revisiting Automatic Speech Recognition for Tamil and Hindi Connected Number Recognition
Rahul Mishra | Senthil Raja Gunaseela Boopathy | Manikandan Ravikiran | Shreyas Kulkarni | Mayurakshi Mukherjee | Ananth Ganesh | Kingshuk Banerjee

Automatic Speech Recognition and its applications are rising in popularity across applications with reasonable inference results. Recent state-of-the-art approaches, often employ significantly large-scale models to show high accuracy for ASR as a whole but often do not consider detailed analysis of performance across low-resource languages applications. In this preliminary work, we propose to revisit ASR in the context of Connected Number Recognition (CNR). More specifically, we (i) present a new dataset HCNR collected to understand various errors of ASR models for CNR, (ii) establish preliminary benchmark and baseline model for CNR, (iii) explore error mitigation strategies and their after-effects on CNR. In the due process, we also compare with end-to-end large scale ASR models for reference, to show its effectiveness.

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Poorvi@DravidianLangTech: Sentiment Analysis on Code-Mixed Tulu and Tamil Corpus
Poorvi Shetty

Sentiment analysis in code-mixed languages poses significant challenges, particularly for highly under-resourced languages such as Tulu and Tamil. Existing corpora, primarily sourced from YouTube comments, suffer from class imbalance across sentiment categories. Moreover, the limited number of samples in these corpus hampers effective sentiment classification. This study introduces a new corpus tailored for sentiment analysis in Tulu code-mixed texts. The research applies standard pre-processing techniques to ensure data quality and consistency and handle class imbalance. Subsequently, multiple classifiers are employed to analyze the sentiment of the code-mixed texts, yielding promising results. By leveraging the new corpus, the study contributes to advancing sentiment analysis techniques in under-resourced code-mixed languages. This work serves as a stepping stone towards better understanding and addressing the challenges posed by sentiment analysis in highly under-resourced languages.

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NLP_SSN_CSE@DravidianLangTech: Fake News Detection in Dravidian Languages using Transformer Models
Varsha Balaji | Shahul Hameed T | Bharathi B

The proposed system procures a systematic workflow in fake news identification utilizing machine learning classification in order to recognize and distinguish between real and made-up news. Using the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK), the procedure starts with data preprocessing, which includes operations like text cleaning, tokenization, and stemming. This guarantees that the data is translated into an analytically-ready format. The preprocessed data is subsequently supplied into transformer models like M-BERT, Albert, XLNET, and BERT. By utilizing their extensive training on substantial datasets to identify complex patterns and significant traits that discriminate between authentic and false news pieces, these transformer models excel at capturing contextual information. The most successful model among those used is M-BERT, which boasts an astounding F1 score of 0.74. This supports M-BERT’s supremacy over its competitors in the field of fake news identification, outperforming them in terms of performance. The program can draw more precise conclusions and more effectively counteract the spread of false information because of its comprehension of contextual nuance. Organizations and platforms can strengthen their fake news detection systems and their attempts to stop the spread of false information by utilizing M-BERT’s capabilities.

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AbhiPaw@DravidianLangTech: Multimodal Abusive Language Detection and Sentiment Analysis
Abhinaba Bala | Parameswari Krishnamurthy

Detecting abusive language in multimodal videos has become a pressing need in ensuring a safe and inclusive online environment. This paper focuses on addressing this challenge through the development of a novel approach for multimodal abusive language detection in Tamil videos and sentiment analysis for Tamil/Malayalam videos. By leveraging state-of-the-art models such as Multiscale Vision Transformers (MViT) for video analysis, OpenL3 for audio analysis, and the bert-base-multilingual-cased model for textual analysis, our proposed framework integrates visual, auditory, and textual features. Through extensive experiments and evaluations, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our model in accurately detecting abusive content and predicting sentiment categories. The limited availability of effective tools for performing these tasks in Dravidian Languages has prompted a new avenue of research in these domains.

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Athena@DravidianLangTech: Abusive Comment Detection in Code-Mixed Languages using Machine Learning Techniques
Hema M | Anza Prem | Rajalakshmi Sivanaiah | Angel Deborah S

The amount of digital material that is disseminated through various social media platforms has significantly increased in recent years. Online networks have gained popularity in recent years and have established themselves as goto resources for news, information, and entertainment. Nevertheless, despite the many advantages of using online networks, mounting evidence indicates that an increasing number of malicious actors are taking advantage of these networks to spread poison and hurt other people. This work aims to detect abusive content in youtube comments written in the languages like Tamil, Tamil-English (codemixed), Telugu-English (code-mixed). This work was undertaken as part of the “DravidianLangTech@ RANLP 2023” shared task. The Macro F1 values for the Tamil, Tamil-English, and Telugu-English datasets were 0.28, 0.37, and 0.6137 and secured 5th, 7th, 8th rank respectively.

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AlphaBrains@DravidianLangTech: Sentiment Analysis of Code-Mixed Tamil and Tulu by Training Contextualized ELMo Word Representations
Toqeer Ehsan | Amina Tehseen | Kengatharaiyer Sarveswaran | Amjad Ali

Sentiment analysis in natural language processing (NLP), endeavors to computationally identify and extract subjective information from textual data. In code-mixed text, sentiment analysis presents a unique challenge due to the mixing of languages within a single textual context. For low-resourced languages such as Tamil and Tulu, predicting sentiment becomes a challenging task due to the presence of text comprising various scripts. In this research, we present the sentiment analysis of code-mixed Tamil and Tulu Youtube comments. We have developed a Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory (BiLSTM) networks based models for both languages which further uses contextualized word embeddings at input layers of the models. For that purpose, ELMo embeddings have been trained on larger unannotated code-mixed text like corpora. Our models performed with macro average F1-scores of 0.2877 and 0.5133 on Tamil and Tulu code-mixed datasets respectively.

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HARMONY@DravidianLangTech: Transformer-based Ensemble Learning for Abusive Comment Detection
Amrish Raaj P | Abirami Murugappan | Lysa Packiam R S | Deivamani M

Millions of posts and comments are created every minute as a result of the widespread use of social media and easy access to the internet.It is essential to create an inclusive environment and forbid the use of abusive language against any individual or group of individuals.This paper describes the approach of team HARMONY for the “Abusive Comment Detection” shared task at the Third Workshop on Speech and Language Technologies for Dravidian Languages.A Transformer-based ensemble learning approach is proposed for detecting abusive comments in code-mixed (Tamil-English) language and Tamil language. The proposed architecture achieved rank 2 in Tamil text classification sub task and rank 3 in code mixed text classification sub task with macro-F1 score of 0.41 for Tamil and 0.50 for code-mixed data.

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Avalanche at DravidianLangTech: Abusive Comment Detection in Code Mixed Data Using Machine Learning Techniques with Under Sampling
Rajalakshmi Sivanaiah | Rajasekar S | Srilakshmisai K | Angel Deborah S | Mirnalinee ThankaNadar

In recent years, the growth of online platforms and social media has given rise to a concerning increase in the presence of abusive content. This poses significant challenges for maintaining a safe and inclusive digital environment. In order to resolve this issue, this paper experiments an approach for detecting abusive comments. We are using a combination of pipelining and vectorization techniques, along with algorithms such as the stochastic gradient descent (SGD) classifier and support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We conducted experiments on an Tamil-English code mixed dataset to evaluate the performance of this approach. Using the stochastic gradient descent classifier algorithm, we achieved a weighted F1 score of 0.76 and a macro score of 0.45 for development dataset. Furthermore, by using the support vector machine classifier algorithm, we obtained a weighted F1 score of 0.78 and a macro score of 0.42 for development dataset. With the test dataset, SGD approach secured 5th rank with 0.44 macro F1 score, while SVM scored 8th rank with 0.35 macro F1 score in the shared task. The top rank team secured 0.55 macro F1 score.

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DeepBlueAI@DravidianLangTech-RANLP 2023
Zhipeng Luo | Jiahui Wang

This paper presents a study on the language understanding of the Dravidian languages. Three specific tasks related to text classification are focused on in this study, including abusive comment detection, sentiment analysis and fake news detection. The paper provides a detailed description of the tasks, including dataset information and task definitions, as well as the model architectures and training details used to tackle them. Finally, the competition results are presented, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach for handling these challenging NLP tasks in the context of the Dravidian languages.

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Selam@DravidianLangTech:Sentiment Analysis of Code-Mixed Dravidian Texts using SVM Classification
Selam Kanta | Grigori Sidorov

Sentiment analysis in code-mixed text written in Dravidian languages. Specifically, Tamil- English and Tulu-English. This paper describes the system paper of the RANLP-2023 shared task. The goal of this shared task is to develop systems that accurately classify the sentiment polarity of code-mixed comments and posts. be provided with development, training, and test data sets containing code-mixed text in Tamil- English and Tulu-English. The task involves message-level polarity classification, to classify YouTube comments into positive, negative, neutral, or mixed emotions. This Code- Mix was compiled by RANLP-2023 organizers from posts on social media. We use classification techniques SVM and achieve an F1 score of 0.147 for Tamil-English and 0.518 for Tulu- English.

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LIDOMA@DravidianLangTech: Convolutional Neural Networks for Studying Correlation Between Lexical Features and Sentiment Polarity in Tamil and Tulu Languages
Moein Tash | Jesus Armenta-Segura | Zahra Ahani | Olga Kolesnikova | Grigori Sidorov | Alexander Gelbukh

With the prevalence of code-mixing among speakers of Dravidian languages, DravidianLangTech proposed the shared task on Sentiment Analysis in Tamil and Tulu at RANLP 2023. This paper presents the submission of LIDOMA, which proposes a methodology that combines lexical features and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to address the challenge. A fine-tuned 6-layered CNN model is employed, achieving macro F1 scores of 0.542 and 0.199 for Tulu and Tamil, respectively

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nlpt malayalm@DravidianLangTech : Fake News Detection in Malayalam using Optimized XLM-RoBERTa Model
Eduri Raja | Badal Soni | Sami Kumar Borgohain

The paper demonstrates the submission of the team nlpt_malayalm to the Fake News Detection in Dravidian Languages-DravidianLangTech@LT-EDI-2023. The rapid dissemination of fake news and misinformation in today’s digital age poses significant societal challenges. This research paper addresses the issue of fake news detection in the Malayalam language by proposing a novel approach based on the XLM-RoBERTa base model. The objective is to develop an effective classification model that accurately differentiates between genuine and fake news articles in Malayalam. The XLM-RoBERTa base model, known for its multilingual capabilities, is fine-tuned using the prepared dataset to adapt it specifically to the nuances of the Malayalam language. A thorough analysis is also performed to identify any biases or limitations in the model’s performance. The results demonstrate that the proposed model achieves a remarkable macro-averaged F-Score of 87% in the Malayalam fake news dataset, ranking 2nd on the respective task. This indicates its high accuracy and reliability in distinguishing between real and fake news in Malayalam.

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ML&AI_IIITRanchi@DravidianLangTech: Fine-Tuning IndicBERT for Exploring Language-specific Features for Sentiment Classification in Code-Mixed Dravidian Languages
Kirti Kumari | Shirish Shekhar Jha | Zarikunte Kunal Dayanand | Praneesh Sharma

Code-mixing presents challenges to sentiment analysis due to limited availability of annotated data found on low-resource languages such as Tulu. To address this issue, comprehensive work was done in creating a gold-standard labeled corpus that incorporates both languages while facilitating accurate analyses of sentiments involved. Encapsulated within this research was the employed use of varied techniques including data collection, cleaning processes as well as preprocessing leading up to effective annotation along with finding results using fine tuning indic bert and performing experiments over tf-idf plus bag of words. The outcome is an invaluable resource for developing custom-tailored models meant solely for analyzing sentiments involved with code mixed texts across Tamil and Tulu domain limits; allowing a focused insight into what makes up such expressions. Remarkably, the adoption of hybrid models yielded promising outcomes, culminating in a 10th rank achievement for Tulu, and a 14thrank achievement for Tamil, supported by an macro F1 score of 0.471 and 0.124 respectively.

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ML&AI_IIITRanchi@DravidianLangTech:Leveraging Transfer Learning for the discernment of Fake News within the Linguistic Domain of Dravidian Language
Kirti Kumari | Shirish Shekhar Jha | Zarikunte Kunal Dayanand | Praneesh Sharma

The primary focus of this research endeavor lies in detecting and mitigating misinformation within the intricate framework of the Dravidian language. A notable feat was achieved by employing fine-tuning methodologies on the highly acclaimed Indic BERT model, securing a commendable fourth rank in a prestigious competition organized by DravidianLangTech 2023 while attaining a noteworthy macro F1-Score of 0.78. To facilitate this undertaking, a diverse and comprehensive dataset was meticulously gathered from prominent social media platforms, including but not limited to Facebook and Twitter. The overarching objective of this collaborative initiative was to proficiently discern and categorize news articles into either the realm of veracity or deceit through the astute application of advanced machine learning techniques, coupled with the astute exploitation of the distinctive linguistic idiosyncrasies inherent to the Dravidian language.

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NITK-IT-NLP@DravidianLangTech: Impact of Focal Loss on Malayalam Fake News Detection using Transformers
Hariharan R L | Anand Kumar M

Fake News Detection in Dravidian Languages is a shared task that identifies youtube comments in the Malayalam language for fake news detection. In this work, we have proposed a transformer-based model with cross-entropy loss and focal loss, which classifies the comments into fake or authentic news. We have used different transformer-based models for the dataset with modifications in the experimental setup, out of which the fine-tuned model, which is based on MuRIL with focal loss, achieved the best overall macro F1-score of 0.87, and we got second position in the final leaderboard.

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VEL@DravidianLangTech: Sentiment Analysis of Tamil and Tulu
Kishore Kumar Ponnusamy | Charmathi Rajkumar | Prasanna Kumar Kumaresan | Elizabeth Sherly | Ruba Priyadharshini

We participated in the Sentiment Analysis in Tamil and Tulu - DravidianLangTech 2023-RANLP 2023 task in the team name of VEL. This research focuses on addressing the challenge of detecting sentiment analysis in social media code-mixed comments written in Tamil and Tulu languages. Code-mixed text in social media often deviates from strict grammar rules and incorporates non-native scripts, making sentiment identification a complex task. To tackle this issue, we employ pre-processing techniques to remove unnecessary content and develop a model specifically designed for sentiment analysis detection. Additionally, we explore the effectiveness of traditional machine-learning models combined with feature extraction techniques. Our best model logistic regression configurations achieve impressive macro F1 scores of 0.43 on the Tamil test set and 0.51 on the Tulu test set, indicating promising results in accurately detecting instances of sentiment in code-mixed comments.

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hate-alert@DravidianLangTech: Multimodal Abusive Language Detection and Sentiment Analysis in Dravidian Languages
Shubhankar Barman | Mithun Das

The use of abusive language on social media platforms is a prevalent issue that requires effective detection. Researchers actively engage in abusive language detection and sentiment analysis on social media platforms. However, most of the studies are in English. Hence, there is a need to develop models for low-resource languages. Further, the multimodal content in social media platforms is expanding rapidly. Our research aims to address this gap by developing a multimodal abusive language detection and performing sentiment analysis for Tamil and Malayalam, two under-resourced languages, based on the shared task Multimodal Abusive Language Detection and Sentiment Analysis in Dravidian Languages: DravidianLangTech@RANLP 2023”. In our study, we conduct extensive experiments utilizing multiple deep-learning models to detect abusive language in Tamil and perform sentiment analysis in Tamil and Malayalam. For feature extraction, we use the mBERT transformer-based model for texts, the ViT model for images and MFCC for audio. In the abusive language detection task, we achieved a weighted average F1 score of 0.5786, securing the first rank in this task. For sentiment analysis, we achieved a weighted average F1 score of 0.357 for Tamil and 0.233 for Malayalam, ranking first in this task.

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Supernova@DravidianLangTech 2023@Abusive Comment Detection in Tamil and Telugu - (Tamil, Tamil-English, Telugu-English)
Ankitha Reddy | Pranav Moorthi | Ann Maria Thomas

This paper focuses on using Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers with TF-IDF feature extraction to classify whether a comment is abusive or not.The paper tries to identify abusive content in regional languages.The dataset analysis presents the distribution of target variables in the Tamil-English, Telugu-English, and Tamil datasets.The methodology section describes the preprocessing steps, including consistency, removal of special characters and emojis, removal of stop words, and stemming of data. Overall, the study contributes to the field of abusive comment detection in Tamil and Telugu languages.

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AbhiPaw@ DravidianLangTech: Abusive Comment Detection in Tamil and Telugu using Logistic Regression
Abhinaba Bala | Parameswari Krishnamurthy

Abusive comments in online platforms have become a significant concern, necessitating the development of effective detection systems. However, limited work has been done in low resource languages, including Dravidian languages. This paper addresses this gap by focusing on abusive comment detection in a dataset containing Tamil, Tamil-English and Telugu-English code-mixed comments. Our methodology involves logistic regression and explores suitable embeddings to enhance the performance of the detection model. Through rigorous experimentation, we identify the most effective combination of logistic regression and embeddings. The results demonstrate the performance of our proposed model, which contributes to the development of robust abusive comment detection systems in low resource language settings. Keywords: Abusive comment detection, Dravidian languages, logistic regression, embeddings, low resource languages, code-mixed dataset.

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AbhiPaw@ DravidianLangTech: Fake News Detection in Dravidian Languages using Multilingual BERT
Abhinaba Bala | Parameswari Krishnamurthy

This study addresses the challenge of detecting fake news in Dravidian languages by leveraging Google’s MuRIL (Multilingual Representations for Indian Languages) model. Drawing upon previous research, we investigate the intricacies involved in identifying fake news and explore the potential of transformer-based models for linguistic analysis and contextual understanding. Through supervised learning, we fine-tune the “muril-base-cased” variant of MuRIL using a carefully curated dataset of labeled comments and posts in Dravidian languages, enabling the model to discern between original and fake news. During the inference phase, the fine-tuned MuRIL model analyzes new textual content, extracting contextual and semantic features to predict the content’s classification. We evaluate the model’s performance using standard metrics, highlighting the effectiveness of MuRIL in detecting fake news in Dravidian languages and contributing to the establishment of a safer digital ecosystem. Keywords: fake news detection, Dravidian languages, MuRIL, transformer-based models, linguistic analysis, contextual understanding.

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Habesha@DravidianLangTech: Utilizing Deep and Transfer Learning Approaches for Sentiment Analysis.
Mesay Gemeda Yigezu | Tadesse Kebede | Olga Kolesnikova | Grigori Sidorov | Alexander Gelbukh

This research paper focuses on sentiment analysis of Tamil and Tulu texts using a BERT model and an RNN model. The BERT model, which was pretrained, achieved satisfactory performance for the Tulu language, with a Macro F1 score of 0.352. On the other hand, the RNN model showed good performance for Tamil language sentiment analysis, obtaining a Macro F1 score of 0.208. As future work, the researchers aim to fine-tune the models to further improve their results after the training process.

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Habesha@DravidianLangTech: Abusive Comment Detection using Deep Learning Approach
Mesay Gemeda Yigezu | Selam Kanta | Olga Kolesnikova | Grigori Sidorov | Alexander Gelbukh

This research focuses on identifying abusive language in comments. The study utilizes deep learning models, including Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), to analyze linguistic patterns. Specifically, the LSTM model, a type of RNN, is used to understand the context by capturing long-term dependencies and intricate patterns in the input sequences. The LSTM model achieves better accuracy and is enhanced through the addition of a dropout layer and early stopping. For detecting abusive language in Telugu and Tamil-English, an LSTM model is employed, while in Tamil abusive language detection, a word-level RNN is developed to identify abusive words. These models process text sequentially, considering overall content and capturing contextual dependencies.

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SADTech@DravidianLangTech: Multimodal Sentiment Analysis of Tamil and Malayalam
Abhinav Patil | Sam Briggs | Tara Wueger | Daniel D. O’Connell

We present several models for sentiment analysis of multimodal movie reviews in Tamil and Malayalam into 5 separate classes: highly negative, negative, neutral, positive, and highly positive, based on the shared task, “Multimodal Abusive Language Detection and Sentiment Analysis” at RANLP-2023. We use transformer language models to build text and audio embeddings and then compare the performance of multiple classifier models trained on these embeddings: a Multinomial Naive Bayes baseline, a Logistic Regression, a Random Forest, and an SVM. To account for class imbalance, we use both naive resampling and SMOTE. We found that without resampling, the baseline models have the same performance as a naive Majority Class Classifier. However, with resampling, logistic regression and random forest both demonstrate gains over the baseline.

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MUCS@DravidianLangTech2023: Sentiment Analysis in Code-mixed Tamil and Tulu Texts using fastText
Rachana K | Prajnashree M | Asha Hegde | H. L Shashirekha

Sentiment Analysis (SA) is a field of computational study that focuses on analyzing and understanding people’s opinions, attitudes, and emotions towards an entity. An entity could be an individual, an event, a topic, a product etc., which is most likely to be covered by reviews and such reviews can be found in abundance on social media platforms. The increase in the number of social media users and the growing amount of user-generated code-mixed content such as reviews, comments, posts etc., on social media have resulted in a rising demand for efficient tools capable of effectively analyzing such content to detect the sentiments. However, SA of social media text is challenging due to the complex nature of the code-mixed text. To tackle this issue, in this paper, we team MUCS, describe learning models submitted to “Sentiment Analysis in Tamil and Tulu” -DravidianLangTech@Recent Advances In Natural Language Processing (RANLP) 2023. Using fastText embeddings to train the Machine Learning (ML) models to perform SA in code-mixed Tamil and Tulu texts, the proposed methodology exhibited F1 scores of 0.14 and 0.204 securing 13th and 15th rank for Tamil and Tulu texts respectively.

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MUCS@DravidianLangTech2023: Leveraging Learning Models to Identify Abusive Comments in Code-mixed Dravidian Languages
Asha Hegde | Kavya G | Sharal Coelho | Hosahalli Lakshmaiah Shashirekha

Abusive language detection in user-generated online content has become a pressing concern due to its negative impact on users and challenges for policy makers. Online platforms are faced with the task of moderating abusive content to mitigate societal harm, adhere to legal requirements, and foster inclusivity. Despite numerous methods developed for automated detection of abusive language, the problem continues to persist. This ongoing challenge necessitates further research and development to enhance the effectiveness of abusive content detection systems and implement proactive measures to create safer and more respectful online spaces. To address the automatic detection of abusive languages in social media platforms, this paper describes the models submitted by our team - MUCS to the shared task “Abusive Comment Detection in Tamil and Telugu” at DravidianLangTech - in Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP) 2023. This shared task addresses the abusive comment detection in code-mixed Tamil, Telugu, and romanized Tamil (Tamil-English) texts. Two distinct models: i) AbusiveML - a model implemented utilizing Linear Support Vector Classifier (LinearSVC) algorithm fed with n-grams of words and character sequences within word boundary (char_wb) features and ii) AbusiveTL - a Transfer Learning (TL ) model with three different Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) models along with random oversampling to deal with data imbalance, are submitted to the shared task for detecting abusive language in the given code-mixed texts. The AbusiveTL model fared well among these two models, with macro F1 scores of 0.46, 0.74, and 0.49 for code-mixed Tamil, Telugu, and Tamil-English texts respectively.

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MUNLP@DravidianLangTech2023: Learning Approaches for Sentiment Analysis in Code-mixed Tamil and Tulu Text
Asha Hegde | Kavya G | Sharal Coelho | Pooja Lamani | Hosahalli Lakshmaiah Shashirekha

Sentiment Analysis (SA) examines the subjective content of a statement, such as opinions, assessments, feelings, or attitudes towards a subject, person, or a thing. Though several models are developed for SA in high-resource languages like English, Spanish, German, etc., uder-resourced languages like Dravidian languages are less explored. To address the challenges of SA in low resource Dravidian languages, in this paper, we team MUNLP describe the models submitted to “Sentiment Analysis in Tamil and Tulu- DravidianLangTech” shared task at Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP)-2023. n-gramsSA, EmbeddingsSA and BERTSA are the models proposed for SA shared task. Among all the models, BERTSA exhibited a maximum macro F1 score of 0.26 for code-mixed Tamil texts securing 2nd place in the shared task. EmbeddingsSA exhibited maximum macro F1 score of 0.53 securing 2nd place for Tulu code-mixed texts.

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MUCSD@DravidianLangTech2023: Predicting Sentiment in Social Media Text using Machine Learning Techniques
Sharal Coelho | Asha Hegde | Pooja Lamani | Kavya G | Hosahalli Lakshmaiah Shashirekha

User-generated social media texts are a blend of resource-rich languages like English and low-resource Dravidian languages like Tamil, Kannada, Tulu, etc. These texts referred to as code-mixing texts are enriching social media since they are written in two or more languages using either a common language script or various language scripts. However, due to the complex nature of the code-mixed text, in this paper, we - team MUCSD, describe a Machine learning (ML) models submitted to “Sentiment Analysis in Tamil and Tulu” shared task at DravidianLangTech@RANLP 2023. The proposed methodology makes use of ML models such as Linear Support Vector Classifier (LinearSVC), LR, and ensemble model (LR, DT, and SVM) to perform SA in Tamil and Tulu languages. The proposed LinearSVC model’s predictions submitted to the shared tasks, obtained 8th and 9th rank for Tamil-English and Tulu-English respectively.

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MUCS@DravidianLangTech2023: Malayalam Fake News Detection Using Machine Learning Approach
Sharal Coelho | Asha Hegde | Kavya G | Hosahalli Lakshmaiah Shashirekha

Social media is widely used to spread fake news, which affects a larger population. So it is considered as a very important task to detect fake news spread on social media platforms. To address the challenges in the identification of fake news in the Malayalam language, in this paper, we - team MUCS, describe the Machine Learning (ML) models submitted to “Fake News Detection in Dravidian Languages” at DravidianLangTech@RANLP 2023 shared task. Three different models, namely, Multinomial Naive Bayes (MNB), Logistic Regression (LR), and Ensemble model (MNB, LR, and SVM) are trained using Term Frequency - Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) of word unigrams. Among the three models ensemble model performed better with a macro F1-score of 0.83 and placed 3rd rank in the shared task.

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KEC_AI_NLP@DravidianLangTech: Abusive Comment Detection in Tamil Language
Kogilavani Shanmugavadivel | Malliga Subramanian | Shri Durga R | Srigha S | Sree Harene J S | Yasvanth Bala P

Our work aims to identify the negative comments that is associated with Counter-speech,Xenophobia, Homophobia,Transphobia, Misandry, Misogyny, None-of-the-above categories, In order to identify these categories from the given dataset, we propose three different models such as traditional machine learning techniques, deep learning model and transfer Learning model called BERT is also used to analyze the texts. In the Tamil dataset, we are training the models with Train dataset and test the models with Validation data. Our Team Participated in the shared task organised by DravidianLangTech and secured 4th rank in the task of abusive comment detection in Tamil with a macro- f1 score of 0.35. Also, our run was submitted for abusive comment detection in code-mixed languages (Tamil-English) and secured 6th rank with a macro-f1 score of 0.42.

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KEC_AI_NLP@DravidianLangTech: Sentiment Analysis in Code Mixture Language
Kogilavani Shanmugavadivel | Malliga Subaramanian | VetriVendhan S | Pramoth Kumar M | Karthickeyan S | Kavin Vishnu N

Sentiment Analysis is a process that involves analyzing digital text to determine the emo- tional tone, such as positive, negative, neu- tral, or unknown. Sentiment Analysis of code- mixed languages presents challenges in natural language processing due to the complexity of code-mixed data, which combines vocabulary and grammar from multiple languages and cre- ates unique structures. The scarcity of anno- tated data and the unstructured nature of code- mixed data are major challenges. To address these challenges, we explored various tech- niques, including Machine Learning models such as Decision Trees, Random Forests, Lo- gistic Regression, and Gaussian Na ̈ıve Bayes, Deep Learning model, such as Long Short- Term Memory (LSTM), and Transfer Learning model like BERT, were also utilized. In this work, we obtained the dataset from the Dravid- ianLangTech shared task by participating in a competition and accessing train, development and test data for Tamil Language. The results demonstrated promising performance in senti- ment analysis of code-mixed text. Among all the models, deep learning model LSTM pro- vides best accuracy of 0.61 for Tamil language.

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CSSCUTN@DravidianLangTech:Abusive comments Detection in Tamil and Telugu
Kathiravan Pannerselvam | Saranya Rajiakodi | Rahul Ponnusamy | Sajeetha Thavareesan

Code-mixing is a word or phrase-level act of interchanging two or more languages during a conversation or in written text within a sentence. This phenomenon is widespread on social media platforms, and understanding the underlying abusive comments in a code-mixed sentence is a complex challenge. We present our system in our submission for the DravidianLangTech Shared Task on Abusive Comment Detection in Tamil and Telugu. Our approach involves building a multiclass abusive detection model that recognizes 8 different labels. The provided samples are code-mixed Tamil-English text, where Tamil is represented in romanised form. We focused on the Multiclass classification subtask, and we leveraged Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), and Logistic Regression (LR). Our method exhibited its effectiveness in the shared task by earning the ninth rank out of all competing systems for the classification of abusive comments in the code-mixed text. Our proposed classifier achieves an impressive accuracy of 0.99 and an F1-score of 0.99 for a balanced dataset using TF-IDF with SVM. It can be used effectively to detect abusive comments in Tamil, English code-mixed text


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Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Human Evaluation of NLP Systems

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Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Human Evaluation of NLP Systems
Anya Belz | Maja Popović | Ehud Reiter | Craig Thomson | João Sedoc

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A Manual Evaluation Method of Neural MT for Indigenous Languages
Linda Wiechetek | Flammie Pirinen | Per Kummervold

Indigenous language expertise is not encoded in written text in the same way as it is for languages that have a long literal tradition. In many cases it is, on the contrary, mostly conserved orally. Therefore the evaluation of neural MT systems solely based on an algorithm learning from written texts is not adequate to measure the quality of a system that is used by the language community. If extensively using tools based on a big amount of non-native language this can even contribute to language change in a way that is not desired by the language community. It can also pollute the internet with automatically created texts that outweigh native texts. We propose a manual evaluation method focusing on flow and content separately, and additionally we use existing rule-based NLP to evaluate other factors such as spelling, grammar and grammatical richness. Our main conclusion is that language expertise of a native speaker is necessary to properly evaluate a given system. We test the method by manually evaluating two neural MT tools for an indigenous low resource language. We present an experiment on two different neural translations to and from North Sámi, an indigenous language of North Europe.

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Hierarchical Evaluation Framework: Best Practices for Human Evaluation
Iva Bojic | Jessica Chen | Si Yuan Chang | Qi Chwen Ong | Shafiq Joty | Josip Car

Human evaluation plays a crucial role in Natural Language Processing (NLP) as it assesses the quality and relevance of developed systems, thereby facilitating their enhancement. However, the absence of widely accepted human evaluation metrics in NLP hampers fair comparisons among different systems and the establishment of universal assessment standards. Through an extensive analysis of existing literature on human evaluation metrics, we identified several gaps in NLP evaluation methodologies. These gaps served as motivation for developing our own hierarchical evaluation framework. The proposed framework offers notable advantages, particularly in providing a more comprehensive representation of the NLP system’s performance. We applied this framework to evaluate the developed Machine Reading Comprehension system, which was utilized within a human-AI symbiosis model. The results highlighted the associations between the quality of inputs and outputs, underscoring the necessity to evaluate both components rather than solely focusing on outputs. In future work, we will investigate the potential time-saving benefits of our proposed framework for evaluators assessing NLP systems.

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Designing a Metalanguage of Differences Between Translations: A Case Study for English-to-Japanese Translation
Tomono Honda | Atsushi Fujita | Mayuka Yamamoto | Kyo Kageura

In both the translation industry and translation education, analytic and systematic assessment of translations plays a vital role. However, due to lack of a scheme for describing differences between translations, such assessment has been realized only in an ad-hoc manner. There is prior work on a scheme for describing differences between translations, but it has coverage and objectivity issues. To alleviate these issues and realize more fine-grained analyses, we developed an improved scheme by referring to diverse types of translations and adopting hierarchical linguistic units for analysis, taking English-to-Japanese translation as an example.

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The 2023 ReproNLP Shared Task on Reproducibility of Evaluations in NLP: Overview and Results
Anya Belz | Craig Thomson

This paper presents an overview of, and the results from, the 2023 Shared Task on Reproducibility of Evaluations in NLP (ReproNLP’23), following on from two previous shared tasks on reproducibility of evaluations in NLG, ReproGen’21 and ReproGen’22. This shared task series forms part of an ongoing research programme designed to develop theory and practice of reproducibility assessment in NLP and machine learning, all against a background of an interest in reproducibility that con- tinues to grow in the two fields. This paper describes the ReproNLP’23 shared task, summarises results from the reproduction studies submitted, and provides comparative analysis of the results.

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Some lessons learned reproducing human evaluation of a data-to-text system
Javier González Corbelle | Jose Alonso | Alberto Bugarín-Diz

This paper presents a human evaluation reproduction study regarding the data-to-text generation task. The evaluation focuses in counting the supported and contradicting facts generated by a neural data-to-text model with a macro planning stage. The model is tested generating sport summaries for the ROTOWIRE dataset. We first describe the approach to reproduction that is agreed in the context of the ReproHum project. Then, we detail the entire configuration of the original human evaluation and the adaptations that had to be made to reproduce such an evaluation. Finally, we compare the reproduction results with those reported in the paper that was taken as reference.

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Unveiling NLG Human-Evaluation Reproducibility: Lessons Learned and Key Insights from Participating in the ReproNLP Challenge
Lewis Watson | Dimitra Gkatzia

Human evaluation is crucial for NLG systems as it provides a reliable assessment of the quality, effectiveness, and utility of generated language outputs. However, concerns about the reproducibility of such evaluations have emerged, casting doubt on the reliability and generalisability of reported results. In this paper, we present the findings of a reproducibility study on a data-to-text system, conducted under two conditions: (1) replicating the original setup as closely as possible with evaluators from AMT, and (2) replicating the original human evaluation but this time, utilising evaluators with a background in academia. Our experiments show that there is a loss of statistical significance between the original and reproduction studies, i.e. the human evaluation results are not reproducible. In addition, we found that employing local participants led to more robust results. We finally discuss lessons learned, addressing the challenges and best practices for ensuring reproducibility in NLG human evaluations.

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How reproducible is best-worst scaling for human evaluation? A reproduction of ‘Data-to-text Generation with Macro Planning’
Emiel van Miltenburg | Anouck Braggaar | Nadine Braun | Debby Damen | Martijn Goudbeek | Chris van der Lee | Frédéric Tomas | Emiel Krahmer

This paper is part of the larger ReproHum project, where different teams of researchers aim to reproduce published experiments from the NLP literature. Specifically, ReproHum focuses on the reproducibility of human evaluation studies, where participants indicate the quality of different outputs of Natural Language Generation (NLG) systems. This is necessary because without reproduction studies, we do not know how reliable earlier results are. This paper aims to reproduce the second human evaluation study of Puduppully & Lapata (2021), while another lab is attempting to do the same. This experiment uses best-worst scaling to determine the relative performance of different NLG systems. We found that the worst performing system in the original study is now in fact the best performing system across the board. This means that we cannot fully reproduce the original results. We also carry out alternative analyses of the data, and discuss how our results may be combined with the other reproduction study that is carried out in parallel with this paper.

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Human Evaluation Reproduction Report for Data-to-text Generation with Macro Planning
Mohammad Arvan | Natalie Parde

This paper presents a partial reproduction study of Data-to-text Generation with Macro Planning by Puduppully et al. (2021). This work was conducted as part of the ReproHum project, a multi-lab effort to reproduce the results of NLP papers incorporating human evaluations. We follow the same instructions provided by the authors and the ReproHum team to the best of our abilities. We collect preference ratings for the following evaluation criteria in order: conciseness, coherence, and grammaticality. Our results are highly correlated with the original experiment. Nonetheless, we believe the presented results are insufficent to conclude that the Macro system proposed and developed by the original paper is superior compared to other systems. We suspect combining our results with the three other reproductions of this paper through the ReproHum project will paint a clearer picture. Overall, we hope that our work is a step towards a more transparent and reproducible research landscape.

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Challenges in Reproducing Human Evaluation Results for Role-Oriented Dialogue Summarization
Takumi Ito | Qixiang Fang | Pablo Mosteiro | Albert Gatt | Kees van Deemter

There is a growing concern regarding the reproducibility of human evaluation studies in NLP. As part of the ReproHum campaign, we conducted a study to assess the reproducibility of a recent human evaluation study in NLP. Specifically, we attempted to reproduce a human evaluation of a novel approach to enhance Role-Oriented Dialogue Summarization by considering the influence of role interactions. Despite our best efforts to adhere to the reported setup, we were unable to reproduce the statistical results as presented in the original paper. While no contradictory evidence was found, our study raises questions about the validity of the reported statistical significance results, and/or the comprehensiveness with which the original study was reported. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive account of our reproduction study, detailing the methodologies employed, data collection, and analysis procedures. We discuss the implications of our findings for the broader issue of reproducibility in NLP research. Our findings serve as a cautionary reminder of the challenges in conducting reproducible human evaluations and prompt further discussions within the NLP community.

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A Reproduction Study of the Human Evaluation of Role-Oriented Dialogue Summarization Models
Mingqi Gao | Jie Ruan | Xiaojun Wan

This paper reports a reproduction study of the human evaluation of role-oriented dialogue summarization models, as part of the ReproNLP Shared Task 2023 on Reproducibility of Evaluations in NLP. We outline the disparities between the original study’s experimental design and our reproduction study, along with the outcomes obtained. The inter-annotator agreement within the reproduction study is observed to be lower, measuring 0.40 as compared to the original study’s 0.48. Among the six conclusions drawn in the original study, four are validated in our reproduction study. We confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach on the overall metric, albeit with slightly poorer relative performance compared to the original study. Furthermore, we raise an open-ended inquiry: how can subjective practices in the original study be identified and addressed when conducting reproduction studies?

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h_da@ReproHumn – Reproduction of Human Evaluation and Technical Pipeline
Margot Mieskes | Jacob Georg Benz

How reliable are human evaluation results? Is it possible to replicate human evaluation? This work takes a closer look at the evaluation of the output of a Text-to-Speech (TTS) system. Unfortunately, our results indicate that human evaluation is not as straightforward to replicate as expected. Additionally, we also present results on reproducing the technical background of the TTS system and discuss potential reasons for the reproduction failure.

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Reproducing a Comparative Evaluation of German Text-to-Speech Systems
Manuela Hürlimann | Mark Cieliebak

This paper describes the reproduction of a human evaluation in Language-Agnostic Meta- Learning for Low-Resource Text-to-Speech with Articulatory Features reported in Lux and Vu (2022). It is a contribution to the ReproNLP 2023 Shared Task on Reproducibility of Evaluations in NLP. The original evaluation assessed the naturalness of audio generated by different Text-to-Speech (TTS) systems for German, and our goal was to repeat the experiment with a different set of evaluators. We reproduced the evaluation based on data and instructions provided by the original authors, with some uncertainty concerning the randomisation of question order. Evaluators were recruited via email to relevant mailing lists and we received 157 responses over the course of three weeks. Our initial results show low reproducibility, but when we assume that the systems of the original and repeat evaluation experiment have been transposed, the reproducibility assessment improves markedly. We do not know if and at what point such a transposition happened; however, an initial analysis of our audio and video files provides some evidence that the system assignment in our repeat experiment is correct.

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With a Little Help from the Authors: Reproducing Human Evaluation of an MT Error Detector
Ondrej Platek | Mateusz Lango | Ondrej Dusek

This work presents our efforts to reproduce the results of the human evaluation experiment presented in the paper of Vamvas and Sennrich (2022), which evaluated an automatic system detecting over- and undertranslations (translations containing more or less information than the original) in machine translation (MT) outputs. Despite the high quality of the documentation and code provided by the authors, we discuss some problems we found in reproducing the exact experimental setup and offer recommendations for improving reproducibility. Our replicated results generally confirm the conclusions of the original study, but in some cases statistically significant differences were observed, suggesting a high variability of human annotation.

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HumEval’23 Reproduction Report for Paper 0040: Human Evaluation of Automatically Detected Over- and Undertranslations
Filip Klubička | John D. Kelleher

This report describes a reproduction of a human evaluation study evaluating automatically detected over- and undertranslations obtained using neural machine translation approaches. While the scope of the original study is much broader, a human evaluation is included as part of its system evaluation. We attempt an exact reproduction of this human evaluation, pertaining to translations on the the English-German language pair. While encountering minor logistical challenges, with all the source material being publicly available and some additional instructions provided by the original authors, we were able to reproduce the original experiment with only minor differences in the results.

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Same Trends, Different Answers: Insights from a Replication Study of Human Plausibility Judgments on Narrative Continuations
Yiru Li | Huiyuan Lai | Antonio Toral | Malvina Nissim

We reproduced the human-based evaluation of the continuation of narratives task presented by Chakrabarty et al. (2022). This experiment is performed as part of the ReproNLP Shared Task on Reproducibility of Evaluations in NLP (Track C). Our main goal is to reproduce the original study under conditions as similar as possible. Specifically, we follow the original experimental design and perform human evaluations of the data from the original study, while describing the differences between the two studies. We then present the results of these two studies together with an analysis of similarities between them. Inter-annotator agreement (Krippendorff’s alpha) in the reproduction study is lower than in the original study, while the human evaluation results of both studies have the same trends, that is, our results support the findings in the original study.

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Reproduction of Human Evaluations in: “It’s not Rocket Science: Interpreting Figurative Language in Narratives”
Saad Mahamood

We describe in this paper an attempt to reproduce some of the human of evaluation results from the paper “It’s not Rocket Science: Interpreting Figurative Language in Narratives”. In particular, we describe the methodology used to reproduce the chosen human evaluation, the challenges faced, and the results that were gathered. We will also make some recommendations on the learnings obtained from this reproduction attempt and what improvements are needed to enable more robust reproductions of future NLP human evaluations.


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Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Language Technology for Equality, Diversity and Inclusion

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Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Language Technology for Equality, Diversity and Inclusion
Bharathi R. Chakravarthi | B. Bharathi | Joephine Griffith | Kalika Bali | Paul Buitelaar

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An Exploration of Zero-Shot Natural Language Inference-Based Hate Speech Detection
Nerses Yuzbashyan | Nikolay Banar | Ilia Markov | Walter Daelemans

Conventional techniques for detecting online hate speech rely on the availability of a sufficient number of annotated instances, which can be costly and time consuming. For this reason, zero-shot or few-shot detection can offer an attractive alternative. In this paper, we explore a zero-shot detection approach based on natural language inference (NLI) models. Since the performance of the models in this approach depends heavily on the choice of a hypothesis, our goal is to determine which factors affect the quality of detection. We conducted a set of experiments with three NLI models and four hate speech datasets. We demonstrate that a zero-shot NLI-based approach is competitive with approaches that require supervised learning, yet they are highly sensitive to the choice of hypothesis. In addition, our experiments indicate that the results for a set of hypotheses on different model-data pairs are positively correlated, and that the correlation is higher for different datasets when using the same model than it is for different models when using the same dataset. These results suggest that if we find a hypothesis that works well for a specific model and domain or for a specific type of hate speech, we can use that hypothesis with the same model also within a different domain. While, another model might require different suitable hypotheses in order to demonstrate high performance.

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English2BSL: A Rule-Based System for Translating English into British Sign Language
Phoebe Alexandra Pinney | Riza Batista-Navarro

British Sign Language (BSL) is a complex language with its own vocabulary and grammatical structure, separate from English. Despite its long-standing and widespread use by Deaf communities within the UK, thus far, there have been no effective tools for translating written English into BSL. This overt lack of available resources made learning the language highly inaccessible for most people, exacerbating the communication barrier between hearing and Deaf individuals. This paper introduces a rule-based translation system, designed with the ambitious aim of creating the first web application that is not only able to translate sentences in written English into a BSL video output, but can also serve as a learning aid to empower the development of BSL proficiency.

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Multilingual Models for Sentiment and Abusive Language Detection for Dravidian Languages
Anand Kumar M

This paper presents the TFIDF based LSTM and Hierarchical Attention Networks (HAN) for code-mixed abusive comment detection and sentiment analysis for Dravidian languages. The traditional TF-IDF-based techniques have out- performed the Hierarchical Attention models in both the sentiment analysis and abusive language detection tasks. The Tulu sentiment analysis system demonstrated better performance for the Positive and Neutral classes, whereas the Tamil sentiment analysis system exhibited lower performance overall. This highlights the need for more balanced datasets and additional research to enhance the accuracy of sentiment analysis in the Tamil language. In terms of abusive language detection, the TF-IDF-LSTM models generally outperformed the Hierarchical Attention models. However, the mixed models displayed better performance for specific classes such as “Homophobia” and “Xenophobia.” This implies that considering both code-mixed and original script data can offer a different perspective for research in social media analysis.

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Overview of the shared task on Detecting Signs of Depression from Social Media Text
Kayalvizhi S | Thenmozhi D. | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Jerin Mahibha C | Kogilavani S V | Pratik Anil Rahood

Social media has become a vital platform for personal communication. Its widespread use as a primary means of public communication offers an exciting opportunity for early detection and management of mental health issues. People often share their emotions on social media, but understanding the true depth of their feelings can be challenging. Depression, a prevalent problem among young people, is of particular concern due to its link with rising suicide rates. Identifying depression levels in social media texts is crucial for timely support and prevention of negative outcomes. However, it’s a complex task because human emotions are dynamic and can change significantly over time. The DepSign-LT-EDI@RANLP 2023 shared task aims to classify social media text into three depression levels: “Not Depressed,” “Moderately Depressed,” and “Severely Depressed.” This overview covers task details, dataset, methodologies used, and results analysis. Roberta-based models emerged as top performers, with the best result achieving an impressive macro F1-score of 0.584 among 31 participating teams.

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Overview of the Second Shared Task on Speech Recognition for Vulnerable Individuals in Tamil
Bharathi B | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Subalalitha Cn | Sripriya Natarajan | Rajeswari Natarajan | S Suhasini | Swetha Valli

This paper manifest the overview of the shared task on Speech Recognition for Vulnerable individuals in Tamil(LT-EDI-ACL2023). Task is provided with an Tamil dataset, which is collected from elderly people of three different genders, male, female and transgender. The audio samples were recorded from the public locations like hospitals, markets, vegetable shop, etc. The dataset is released in two phase, training and testing phase. The partcipants were asked to use different models and methods to handle audio signals and submit the result as transcription of the test samples given. The result submitted by the participants was evaluated using WER (Word Error Rate). The participants used the transformer-based model for automatic speech recognition. The results and different pre-trained transformer based models used by the participants is discussed in this overview paper.

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Overview of Second Shared Task on Homophobia and Transphobia Detection in Social Media Comments
Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Rahul Ponnusamy | Malliga S | Paul Buitelaar | Miguel Angel Garc ́ıa-Cumbreras | Salud Mar ́ıa Jimenez-Zafra | Jose Antonio Garcia-Diaz | Rafael Valencia-Garcia | Nitesh Jindal

We present an overview of the second shared task on homophobia/transphobia Detection in social media comments. Given a comment, a system must predict whether or not it contains any form of homophobia/transphobia. The shared task included five languages: English, Spanish, Tamil, Hindi, and Malayalam. The data was given for two tasks. Task A was given three labels, and Task B fine-grained seven labels. In total, 75 teams enrolled for the shared task in Codalab. For task A, 12 teams submitted systems for English, eight teams for Tamil, eight teams for Spanish, and seven teams for Hindi. For task B, nine teams submitted for English, 7 teams for Tamil, 6 teams for Malayalam. We present and analyze all submissions in this paper.

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Overview of the Shared Task on Hope Speech Detection for Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion
Prasanna Kumar Kumaresan | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Subalalitha Cn | Miguel Ángel García-Cumbreras | Salud María Jiménez Zafra | José Antonio García-Díaz | Rafael Valencia-García | Momchil Hardalov | Ivan Koychev | Preslav Nakov | Daniel García-Baena | Kishore Kumar Ponnusamy

Hope serves as a powerful driving force that encourages individuals to persevere in the face of the unpredictable nature of human existence. It instills motivation within us to remain steadfast in our pursuit of important goals, regardless of the uncertainties that lie ahead. In today’s digital age, platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube have emerged as prominent social media outlets where people freely express their views and opinions. These platforms have also become crucial for marginalized individuals seeking online assistance and support[1][2][3]. The outbreak of the pandemic has exacerbated people’s fears around the world, as they grapple with the possibility of losing loved ones and the lack of access to essential services such as schools, hospitals, and mental health facilities.

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Computer, enhence: POS-tagging improvements for nonbinary pronoun use in Swedish
Henrik Björklund | Hannah Devinney

Part of Speech (POS) taggers for Swedish routinely fail for the third person gender-neutral pronoun “hen”, despite the fact that it has been a well-established part of the Swedish language since at least 2014. In addition to simply being a form of gender bias, this failure can have negative effects on other tasks relying on POS information. We demonstrate the usefulness of semi-synthetic augmented datasets in a case study, retraining a POS tagger to correctly recognize “hen” as a personal pronoun. We evaluate our retrained models for both tag accuracy and on a downstream task (dependency parsing) in a classicial NLP pipeline. Our results show that adding such data works to correct for the disparity in performance. The accuracy rate for identifying “hen” as a pronoun can be brought up to acceptable levels with only minor adjustments to the tagger’s vocabulary files. Performance parity to gendered pronouns can be reached after retraining with only a few hundred examples. This increase in POS tag accuracy also results in improvements for dependency parsing sentences containing hen.

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Evaluating the Impact of Stereotypes and Language Combinations on Gender Bias Occurrence in NMT Generic Systems
Bertille Triboulet | Pierrette Bouillon

Machine translation, and more specifically neural machine translation (NMT), have been proven to be subject to gender bias in recent years. Many studies have focused on evaluating and reducing this phenomenon, mainly through the analysis of occupational nouns’ translation for the same type of language combinations. In this paper, we reproduce a similar test set than in previous studies to investigate the influence of stereotypes and language combinations’ nature (formed with English, French and Italian) on gender bias occurrence in NMT. Similarly to previous studies, we confirm stereotypes as a major source of gender bias, especially in female contexts, while observing bias even in language combinations traditionally less examined.

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KaustubhSharedTask@LT-EDI 2023: Homophobia-Transphobia Detection in Social Media Comments with NLPAUG-driven Data Augmentation
Kaustubh Lande | Rahul Ponnusamy | Prasanna Kumar Kumaresan | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi

Our research in Natural Language Processing (NLP) aims to detect hate speech comments specifically targeted at the LGBTQ+ community within the YouTube platform shared task conducted by LTEDI workshop. The dataset provided by the organizers exhibited a high degree of class imbalance, and to mitigate this, we employed NLPAUG, a data augmentation library. We employed several classification methods and reported the results using recall, precision, and F1-score metrics. The classification models discussed in this paper include a Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BiLSTM) model trained with Word2Vec embeddings, a BiLSTM model trained with Twitter GloVe embeddings, transformer models such as BERT, DistiBERT, RoBERTa, and XLM-RoBERTa, all of which were trained and fine-tuned. We achieved a weighted F1-score of 0.699 on the test data and secured fifth place in task B with 7 classes for the English language.

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JudithJeyafreeda@LT-EDI-2023: Using GPT model for recognition of Homophobia/Transphobia detection from social media
Judith Jeyafreeda Andrew

Homophobia and Transphobia is defined as hatred or discomfort towards Gay, Lesbian, Transgender or Bisexual people. With the increase in social media, communication has become free and easy. This also means that people can also express hatred and discomfort towards others. Studies have shown that these can cause mental health issues. Thus detection and masking/removal of these comments from the social media platforms can help with understanding and improving the mental health of LGBTQ+ people. In this paper, GPT2 is used to detect homophobic and/or transphobic comments in social media comments. The comments used in this paper are from five (English, Spanish, Tamil, Malayalam and Hindi) languages. The results show that detecting comments in English language is easier when compared to the other languages.

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iicteam@LT-EDI-2023: Leveraging pre-trained Transformers for Fine-Grained Depression Level Detection in Social Media
Vajratiya Vajrobol | Nitisha Aggarwal | Karanpreet Singh

Depression is a prevalent mental illness characterized by feelings of sadness and a lack of interest in daily activities. Early detection of depression is crucial to prevent severe consequences, making it essential to observe and treat the condition at its onset. At ACL-2022, the DepSign-LT-EDI project aimed to identify signs of depression in individuals based on their social media posts, where people often share their emotions and feelings. Using social media postings in English, the system categorized depression signs into three labels: “not depressed,” “moderately depressed,” and “severely depressed.” To achieve this, our team has applied MentalRoBERTa, a model trained on big data of mental health. The test results indicated a macro F1-score of 0.439, ranking the fourth in the shared task.

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JA-NLP@LT-EDI-2023: Empowering Mental Health Assessment: A RoBERTa-Based Approach for Depression Detection
Jyoti Kumari | Abhinav Kumar

Depression, a widespread mental health disorder, affects a significant portion of the global population. Timely identification and intervention play a crucial role in ensuring effective treatment and support. Therefore, this research paper proposes a fine-tuned RoBERTa-based model for identifying depression in social media posts. In addition to the proposed model, Sentence-BERT is employed to encode social media posts into vector representations. These encoded vectors are then utilized in eight different popular classical machine learning models. The proposed fine-tuned RoBERTa model achieved a best macro F1-score of 0.55 for the development dataset and a comparable score of 0.41 for the testing dataset. Additionally, combining Sentence-BERT with Naive Bayes (S-BERT + NB) outperformed the fine-tuned RoBERTa model, achieving a slightly higher macro F1-score of 0.42. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach in detecting depression from social media posts.

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Team-KEC@LT-EDI: Detecting Signs of Depression from Social Media Text
Malliga S | Kogilavani Shanmugavadivel | Arunaa S | Gokulkrishna R | Chandramukhii A

The rise of social media has led to a drastic surge in the dissemination of hostile and toxic content, fostering an alarming proliferation of hate speech, inflammatory remarks, and abusive language. The exponential growth of social media has facilitated the widespread circulation of hostile and toxic content, giving rise to an unprecedented influx of hate speech, incendiary language, and abusive rhetoric. The study utilized different techniques to represent the text data in a numerical format. Word embedding techniques aim to capture the semantic and syntactic information of the text data, which is essential in text classification tasks. The study utilized various techniques such as CNN, BERT, and N-gram to classify social media posts into depression and non-depression categories. Text classification tasks often rely on deep learning techniques such as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), while the BERT model, which is pre-trained, has shown exceptional performance in a range of natural language processing tasks. To assess the effectiveness of the suggested approaches, the research employed multiple metrics, including accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score. The outcomes of the investigation indicate that the suggested techniques can identify symptoms of depression with an average accuracy rate of 56%.

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cantnlp@LT-EDI-2023: Homophobia/Transphobia Detection in Social Media Comments using Spatio-Temporally Retrained Language Models
Sidney Wong | Matthew Durward | Benjamin Adams | Jonathan Dunn

This paper describes our multiclass classification system developed as part of the LT-EDI@RANLP-2023 shared task. We used a BERT-based language model to detect homophobic and transphobic content in social media comments across five language conditions: English, Spanish, Hindi, Malayalam, and Tamil. We retrained a transformer-based cross-language pretrained language model, XLM-RoBERTa, with spatially and temporally relevant social media language data. We found the inclusion of this spatio-temporal data improved the classification performance for all language and task conditions when compared with the baseline. We also retrained a subset of models with simulated script-mixed social media language data with varied performance. The results from the current study suggests that transformer-based language classification systems are sensitive to register-specific and language-specific retraining.

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NLP_CHRISTINE@LT-EDI-2023: RoBERTa & DeBERTa Fine-tuning for Detecting Signs of Depression from Social Media Text
Christina Christodoulou

The paper describes the system for the 4th Shared task on “Detecting Signs of Depression from Social Media Text” at LT-EDI@RANLP 2023, which aimed to identify signs of depression on English social media texts. The solution comprised data cleaning and pre-processing, the use of additional data, a method to deal with data imbalance as well as fine-tuning of two transformer-based pre-trained language models, RoBERTa-Large and DeBERTa-V3-Large. Four model architectures were developed by leveraging different word embedding pooling methods, namely a RoBERTa-Large bidirectional GRU model using GRU pooling and three DeBERTa models using CLS pooling, mean pooling and max pooling, respectively. Although ensemble learning of DeBERTa’s pooling methods through majority voting was employed for better performance, the RoBERTa bidirectional GRU model managed to receive the 8th place out of 31 submissions with 0.42 Macro-F1 score.

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IIITDWD@LT-EDI-2023 Unveiling Depression: Using pre-trained language models for Harnessing Domain-Specific Features and Context Information
Shankar Biradar | Sunil Saumya | Sanjana Kavatagi

Depression has become a common health problem impacting millions of individuals globally. Workplace stress and an unhealthy lifestyle have increased in recent years, leading to an increase in the number of people experiencing depressive symptoms. The spread of the epidemic has further exacerbated the problem. Early detection and precise prediction of depression are critical for early intervention and support for individuals at risk. However, due to the social stigma associated with the illness, many people are afraid to consult healthcare specialists, making early detection practically impossible. As a result, alternative strategies for depression prediction are being investigated, one of which is analyzing users’ social media posting behaviour. The organizers of LT-EDI@RANLP carried out a shared Task to encourage research in this area. Our team participated in the shared task and secured 21st rank with a macro F1 score 0f 0.36. This article provides a summary of the model presented in the shared task.

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CIMAT-NLP@LT-EDI-2023: Finegrain Depression Detection by Multiple Binary Problems Approach
María de Jesús García Santiago | Fernando Sánchez Vega | Adrián Pastor López Monroy

This work described the work of the team CIMAT-NLP on the Shared task of Detecting Signs of Depression from Social Media Text at LT-EDI@RANLP 2023, which consists of depression classification on three levels: “not depression”, “moderate” depression and “severe” depression on text from social media. In this work, we proposed two approaches: (1) a transformer model which can handle big text without truncation of its length, and (2) an ensemble of six binary Bag of Words. Our team placed fourth in the competition and found that models trained with our approaches could place second

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SIS@LT-EDI-2023: Detecting Signs of Depression from Social Media Text
Sulaksha B K | Shruti Krishnaveni S | Ivana Steeve | Monica Jenefer B

Various biological, genetic, psychological or social factors that feature a target oriented life with chronic stress and frequent traumatic experiences, lead to pessimism and apathy. The massive scale of depression should be dealt with as a disease rather than a ‘phase’ that is neglected by the majority. However, not a lot of people are aware of depression and its impact. Depression is a serious issue that should be treated in the right way. Many people dealing with depression do not realize that they have it due to the lack of awareness. This paper aims to address this issue with a tool built on the blocks of machine learning. This model analyzes the public social media texts and detects the signs of depression under three labels namely “not depressed”, “moderately depressed”, and “severely depressed” with high accuracy. The ensembled model uses three learners namely Multi-Layered Perceptron, Support Vector Machine and Multinomial Naive Bayes Classifier. The distinctive feature in this model is that it uses Artificial Neural Networks, Classifiers, Regression and Voting Classifiers to compute the final result or output.

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TEAM BIAS BUSTERS@LT-EDI-2023: Detecting Signs of Depression with Generative Pretrained Transformers
Andrew Nedilko

This paper describes our methodology adopted to participate in the multi-class classification task under the auspices of the Third Workshop on Language Technology for Equality, Diversity, Inclusion (LT-EDI) in the Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP) 2023 conference. The overall objective was to employ ML algorithms to detect signs of depression in English social media content, classifying each post into one of three categories: no depression, moderate depression, and severe depression. To accomplish this we utilized generative pretrained transformers (GPTs), leveraging the full-scale OpenAI API. Our strategy incorporated prompt engineering for zero-shot and few-shot learning scenarios with ChatGPT and fine-tuning a GPT-3 model. The latter approach yielded the best results which allowed us to outperform our benchmark XGBoost classifier based on character-level features on the dev set and score a macro F1 score of 0.419 on the final blind test set.

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RANGANAYAKI@LT-EDI: Hope Speech Detection using Capsule Networks
Ranganayaki Em | Abirami Murugappan | Lysa Packiam R S | Deivamani M

HOPE speeches convey uplifting and motivating messages that help enhance mental health and general well-being. Hope speech detection has gained popularity in the field of natural language processing as it gives people the motivation they need to face challenges in life. The momentum behind this technology has been fueled by the demand for encouraging reinforcement online. In this paper, a deep learning approach is proposed in which four different word embedding techniques are used in combination with capsule networks, and a comparative analysis is performed to obtain results. Oversampling is used to address class imbalance problem. The dataset used in this paper is a part of the LT-EDI RANLP 2023 Hope Speech Detection shared task. The approach proposed in this paper achieved a Macro Average F1 score of 0.49 and 0.62 in English and Hindi-English code mix test data, which secured 2nd and 3rd rank respectively in the above mentioned share task.

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TechSSN1 at LT-EDI-2023: Depression Detection and Classification using BERT Model for Social Media Texts
Venkatasai Ojus Yenumulapalli | Vijai Aravindh R | Rajalakshmi Sivanaiah | Angel Deborah S

Depression is a severe mental health disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness and anxiety, a decline in cognitive functioning resulting in drastic changes in a human’s psychological and physical well-being. However, depression is curable completely when treated at a suitable time and treatment resulting in the rejuvenation of an individual. The objective of this paper is to devise a technique for detecting signs of depression from English social media comments as well as classifying them based on their intensity into severe, moderate, and not depressed categories. The paper illustrates three approaches that are developed when working toward the problem. Of these approaches, the BERT model proved to be the most suitable model with an F1 macro score of 0.407, which gave us the 11th rank overall.

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SANBAR@LT-EDI-2023:Automatic Speech Recognition: vulnerable old-aged and transgender people in Tamil
Saranya S | Bharathi B

An Automatic Speech Recognition systems for Tamil are designed to convert spoken lan- guage or speech signals into written Tamil text. Seniors go to banks, clinics and authoritative workplaces to address their regular necessities. A lot of older people are not aware of the use of the facilities available in public places or office. They need a person to help them. Like- wise, transgender people are deprived of pri- mary education because of social stigma, so speaking is the only way to help them meet their needs. In order to build speech enabled systems, spontaneous speech data is collected from seniors and transgender people who are deprived of using these facilities for their own benefit. The proposed system is developed with pretraind models are IIT Madras transformer ASR model and akashsivanandan/wav2vec2- large-xls-r-300m-tamil model. Both pretrained models are used to evaluate the test speech ut- terances, and obtainted the WER as 37.7144% and 40.55% respectively.

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ASR_SSN_CSE@LTEDI- 2023: Pretrained Transformer based Automatic Speech Recognition system for Elderly People
Suhasini S | Bharathi B

Submission of the paper for the result submitted in Shared Task on Speech Recognition for Vulnerable Individuals in Tamil- LT-EDI-2023. The task is to develop an automatic speech recognition system for Tamil language. The dataset provided in the task is collected from the elderly people who converse in Tamil language. The proposed ASR system is designed with pre-trained model. The pre-trained model used in our system is fine-tuned with Tamil common voice dataset. The test data released from the task is given to the proposed system, now the transcriptions are generated for the test samples and the generated transcriptions is submitted to the task. The result submitted is evaluated by task, the evaluation metric used is Word Error Rate (WER). Our Proposed system attained a WER of 39.8091%.

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SSNTech2@LT-EDI-2023: Homophobia/Transphobia Detection in Social Media Comments Using Linear Classification Techniques
Vaidhegi D | Priya M | Rajalakshmi Sivanaiah | Angel Deborah S | Mirnalinee ThankaNadar

The abusive content on social media networks is causing destructive effects on the mental well-being of online users. Homophobia refers to the fear, negative attitudes and feeling towards homosexuality. Transphobia refer to negative attitudes, hatred and prejudice towards transsexual people. Even though, some parts of the society have started to accept homosexuality and transsexuality, there are still a large set of the population opposing it. Hate speech targeting LGBTQ+ individuals, known as homophobia/transphobia speech, has become a growing concern. This has led to a toxic and unwelcoming environment for LGBTQ+ people on online platforms. This poses a significant societal issue, hindering the progress of equality, diversity, and inclusion. The identification of homophobic and transphobic comments on social media platforms plays a crucial role in creating a safer environment for all social media users. In order to accomplish this, we built a machine learning model using SGD and SVM classifier. Our approach yielded promising results, with a weighted F1-score of 0.95 on the English dataset and we secured 4th rank in this task.

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IJS@LT-EDI : Ensemble Approaches to Detect Signs of Depression from Social Media Text
Jaya Caporusso | Thi Hong Hanh Tran | Senja Pollak

This paper presents our ensembling solutions for detecting signs of depression in social media text, as part of the Shared Task at LT-EDI@RANLP 2023. By leveraging social media posts in English, the task involves the development of a system to accurately classify them as presenting signs of depression of one of three levels: “severe”, “moderate”, and “not depressed”. We verify the hypothesis that combining contextual information from a language model with local domain-specific features can improve the classifier’s performance. We do so by evaluating: (1) two global classifiers (support vector machine and logistic regression); (2) contextual information from language models; and (3) the ensembling results.

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VEL@LT-EDI-2023: Automatic Detection of Hope Speech in Bulgarian Language using Embedding Techniques
Rahul Ponnusamy | Malliga S | Sajeetha Thavareesan | Ruba Priyadharshini | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi

Many people may find motivation in their lives by spreading content on social media that is encouraging or hopeful. Creating an effective model that helps in accurately predicting the target class is a challenging task. The problem of Hope speech identification is dealt with in this work using machine learning and deep learning methods. This paper presents the description of the system submitted by our team(VEL) to the Hope Speech Detection for Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion(HSD-EDI) LT-EDI-RANLP 2023 shared task for the Bulgarian language. The main goal of this shared task is to identify the given text into the Hope speech or Non-Hope speech category. The proposed method used the H2O deep learning model with MPNet embeddings and achieved the second rank for the Bulgarian language with the Macro F1 score of 0.69.

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Cordyceps@LT-EDI: Patching Language-Specific Homophobia/Transphobia Classifiers with a Multilingual Understanding
Dean Ninalga

Detecting transphobia, homophobia, and various other forms of hate speech is difficult. Signals can vary depending on factors such as language, culture, geographical region, and the particular online platform. Here, we present a joint multilingual (M-L) and language-specific (L-S) approach to homophobia and transphobic hate speech detection (HSD). M-L models are needed to catch words, phrases, and concepts that are less common or missing in a particular language and subsequently overlooked by L-S models. Nonetheless, L-S models are better situated to understand the cultural and linguistic context of the users who typically write in a particular language. Here we construct a simple and successful way to merge the M-L and L-S approaches through simple weight interpolation in such a way that is interpretable and data-driven. We demonstrate our system on task A of the “Shared Task on Homophobia/Transphobia Detection in social media comments” dataset for homophobia and transphobic HSD. Our system achieves the best results in three of five languages and achieves a 0.997 macro average F1-score on Malayalam texts.

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Cordyceps@LT-EDI : Depression Detection with Reddit and Self-training
Dean Ninalga

Depression is debilitating, and not uncommon. Indeed, studies of excessive social media users show correlations with depression, ADHD, and other mental health concerns. Given that there is a large number of people with excessive social media usage, then there is a significant population of potentially undiagnosed users and posts that they create. In this paper, we propose a depression detection system using a semi-supervised learning technique. Namely, we use a trained model to classify a large number of unlabelled social media posts from Reddit, then use these generated labels to train a more powerful classifier. We demonstrate our framework on Detecting Signs of Depression from Social Media Text - LT-EDI@RANLP 2023 shared task, where our framework ranks 3rd overall.

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TechWhiz@LT-EDI-2023: Transformer Models to Detect Levels of Depression from Social Media Text
Madhumitha M | Jerin Mahibha C | Thenmozhi D.

Depression is a mental fitness disorder from persistent reactions of unhappiness, void, and a deficit of interest in activities. It can influence differing facets of one’s life, containing their hopes, sympathy, and nature. Depression can stem from a sort of determinant, in the way that ancestral willingness, life occurrences, and social circumstances. In current years, the influence of social media on mental fitness has become an increasing concern. Excessive use of social media and the negative facets that guide it, can exacerbate or cause impressions of distress. The nonstop exposure to cautiously curated lives, social comparison, cyberbullying, and the pressure to meet unreal standards can impact an individual’s pride, social connections, and overall well-being. We participated in the shared task at DepSignLT-EDI@RANLP 2023 and have proposed a model that identifies the levels of depression from social media text using the data set shared for the task. Different transformer models like ALBERT and RoBERTa are used by the proposed model for implementing the task. The macro F1 score obtained by ALBERT model and RoBERTa model are 0.258 and 0.143 respectively.

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CSE_SPEECH@LT-EDI-2023Automatic Speech Recognition vulnerable old-aged and transgender people in Tamil
Varsha Balaji | Archana Jp | Bharathi B

This paper centers on utilizing Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) for defenseless old-aged and transgender people in Tamil. The Amrrs/wav2vec2-large-xlsr-53-tamil show accomplishes a Word Error Rate (WER) of 40%. By leveraging this demonstration, ASR innovation upgrades availability and inclusivity, helping those with discourse impedances, hearing impedances, and cognitive inabilities. Assist refinements are vital to diminish error and move forward the client involvement. This inquiry emphasizes the significance of ASR, particularly the Amrrs/wav2vec2-large-xlsr-53-tamil show, in encouraging successful communication and availability for defenseless populaces in Tamil.

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VTUBGM@LT-EDI-2023: Hope Speech Identification using Layered Differential Training of ULMFit
Sanjana M. Kavatagi | Rashmi R. Rachh | Shankar S. Biradar

Hope speech embodies optimistic and uplifting sentiments, aiming to inspire individuals to maintain faith in positive progress and actively contribute to a better future. In this article, we outline the model presented by our team, VTUBGM, for the shared task “Hope Speech Detection for Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion” at LT-EDI-RANLP 2023. This task entails classifying YouTube comments, which is a classification problem at the comment level. The task was conducted in four different languages: Bulgarian, English, Hindi, and Spanish. VTUBGM submitted a model developed through layered differential training of the ULMFit model. As a result, a macro F1 score of 0.48 was obtained and ranked 3rd in the competition.

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ML&AI_IIITRanchi@LT-EDI-2023: Identification of Hope Speech of YouTube comments in Mixed Languages
Kirti Kumari | Shirish Shekhar Jha | Zarikunte Kunal Dayanand | Praneesh Sharma

Hope speech analysis refers to the examination and evaluation of speeches or messages that aim to instill hope, inspire optimism, and motivate individuals or communities. It involves analyzing the content, language, rhetorical devices, and delivery techniques used in a speech to understand how it conveys hope and its potential impact on the audience. The objective of this study is to classify the given text comments as Hope Speech or Not Hope Speech. The provided dataset consists of YouTube comments in four languages: English, Hindi, Spanish, Bulgarian; with pre-defined classifications. Our approach involved pre-processing the dataset and using the TF-IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency) method.

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ML&AI_IIITRanchi@LT-EDI-2023: Hybrid Model for Text Classification for Identification of Various Types of Depression
Kirti Kumari | Shirish Shekhar Jha | Zarikunte Kunal Dayanand | Praneesh Sharma

DepSign–LT–EDI@RANLP–2023 is a dedicated task that addresses the crucial issue of identifying indications of depression in individuals through their social media posts, which serve as a platform for expressing their emotions and sentiments. The primary objective revolves around accurately classifying the signs of depression into three distinct categories: “not depressed,” “moderately depressed,” and “severely depressed.” Our study entailed the utilization of machine learning algorithms, coupled with a diverse range of features such as sentence embeddings, TF-IDF, and Bag-of- Words. Remarkably, the adoption of hybrid models yielded promising outcomes, culminating in a 10th rank achievement, supported by macro F1-Score of 0.408. This research underscores the effectiveness and potential of employing advanced text classification methodologies to discern and identify signs of depression within social media data. The findings hold implications for the development of mental health monitoring systems and support mechanisms, contributing to the well-being of individuals in need.

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VEL@LT-EDI: Detecting Homophobia and Transphobia in Code-Mixed Spanish Social Media Comments
Prasanna Kumar Kumaresan | Kishore Kumar Ponnusamy | Kogilavani S V | Subalalitha Cn | Ruba Priyadharshini | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi

Our research aims to address the task of detecting homophobia and transphobia in social media code-mixed comments written in Spanish. Code-mixed text in social media often violates strict grammar rules and incorporates non-native scripts, posing challenges for identification. To tackle this problem, we perform pre-processing by removing unnecessary content and establishing a baseline for detecting homophobia and transphobia. Furthermore, we explore the effectiveness of various traditional machine-learning models with feature extraction and pre-trained transformer model techniques. Our best configurations achieve macro F1 scores of 0.84 on the test set and 0.82 on the development set for Spanish, demonstrating promising results in detecting instances of homophobia and transphobia in code-mixed comments.

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TechSSN4@LT-EDI-2023: Depression Sign Detection in Social Media Postings using DistilBERT Model
Krupa Elizabeth Thannickal | Sanmati P | Rajalakshmi Sivanaiah | Angel Deborah S

As world population increases, more people are living to the age when depression or Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) commonly occurs. Consequently, the number of those who suffer from such disorders is rising. There is a pressing need for faster and reliable diagnosis methods. This paper proposes the method to analyse text input from social media posts of subjects to determine the severity class of depression. We have used the DistilBERT transformer to process these texts and classify the individuals across three severity labels - ‘not depression’, ‘moderate’ and ‘severe’. The results showed the macro F1-score of 0.437 when the model was trained for 5 epochs with a comparative performance across the labels.The team acquired 6th rank while the top team scored macro F1-score as 0.470. We hope that this system will support further research into the early identification of depression in individuals to promote effective medical research and related treatments.

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The Mavericks@LT-EDI-2023: Detection of signs of Depression from social Media Texts using Navie Bayse approach
Sathvika V S | Vaishnavi Vaishnavi S | Angel Deborah S | Rajalakshmi Sivanaiah | Mirnalinee ThankaNadar

Social media platforms have revolutionized the landscape of communication, providing individuals with an outlet to express their thoughts, emotions, and experiences openly. This paper focuses on the development of a model to determine whether individuals exhibit signs of depression based on their social media texts. With the aim of optimizing performance and accuracy, a Naive Bayes approach was chosen for the detection task.The Naive Bayes algorithm, a probabilistic classifier, was applied to extract features and classify the texts. The model leveraged linguistic patterns, sentiment analysis, and other relevant features to capture indicators of depression within the texts. Preprocessing techniques, including tokenization, stemming, and stop-word removal, were employed to enhance the quality of the input data.The performance of the Naive Bayes model was evaluated using standard metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score, it acheived a macro- avergaed F1 score of 0.263.

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hate-alert@LT-EDI-2023: Hope Speech Detection Using Transformer-Based Models
Mithun Das | Shubhankar Barman | Subhadeep Chatterjee

Social media platforms have become integral to our daily lives, facilitating instant sharing of thoughts and ideas. While these platforms often host inspiring, motivational, and positive content, the research community has recognized the significance of such messages by labeling them as “hope speech”. In light of this, we delve into the detection of hope speech on social media platforms. Specifically, we explore various transformer-based model setups for the LT-EDI shared task at RANLP 2023. We observe that the performance of the models varies across languages. Overall, the finetuned m-BERT model showcases the best performance among all the models across languages. Our models secured the first position in Bulgarian and Hindi languages and achieved the third position for the Spanish language in the respective task.

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TERCET@LT-EDI-2023: Hope Speech Detection for Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion
Priyadharshini Thandavamurthi | Samyuktaa Sivakumar | Shwetha Sureshnathan | Thenmozhi D. | Bharathi B | Gayathri Gl

Hope is a cheerful and optimistic state of mind which has its basis in the expectation of positive outcomes. Hope speech reflects the same as they are positive words that can motivate and encourage a person to do better. Non-hope speech reflects the exact opposite. They are meant to ridicule or put down someone and affect the person negatively. The shared Task on Hope Speech Detection for Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion at LT-EDI - RANLP 2023 was created with data sets in English, Spanish, Bulgarian and Hindi. The purpose of this task is to classify human-generated comments on the platform, YouTube, as Hope speech or non-Hope speech. We employed multiple traditional models such as SVM (support vector machine), Random Forest classifier, Naive Bayes and Logistic Regression. Support Vector Machine gave the highest macro average F1 score of 0.49 for the training data set and a macro average F1 score of 0.50 for the test data set.

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Interns@LT-EDI : Detecting Signs of Depression from Social Media Text
Koushik L | Hariharan R. L | Anand Kumar M

This submission presents our approach for depression detection in social media text. The methodology includes data collection, preprocessing - SMOTE, feature extraction/selection - TF-IDF and Glove, model development- SVM, CNN and Bi-LSTM, training, evaluation, optimisation, and validation. The proposed methodology aims to contribute to the accurate detection of depression.

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Tercet@LT-EDI-2023: Homophobia/Transphobia Detection in social media comment
Shwetha Sureshnathan | Samyuktaa Sivakumar | Priyadharshini Thandavamurthi | Thenmozhi D. | Bharathi B | Kiruthika Chandrasekaran

The advent of social media platforms has revo- lutionized the way we interact, share, learn , ex- press and build our views and ideas. One major challenge of social media is hate speech. Homo- phobia and transphobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings towards people based on their sexual orientation or gender iden- tity. Homophobia refers to the fear, hatred, or prejudice against homosexuality, while trans- phobia involves discrimination against trans- gender individuals. Natural Language Process- ing can be used to identify homophobic and transphobic texts and help make social media a safer place. In this paper, we explore us- ing Support Vector Machine , Random Forest Classifier and Bert Model for homophobia and transphobia detection. The best model was a combination of LaBSE and SVM that achieved a weighted F1 score of 0.95.

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DeepLearningBrasil@LT-EDI-2023: Exploring Deep Learning Techniques for Detecting Depression in Social Media Text
Eduardo Garcia | Juliana Gomes | Adalberto Ferreira Barbosa Junior | Cardeque Henrique Bittes de Alvarenga Borges | Nadia Félix Felipe da Silva

In this paper, we delineate the strategy employed by our team, DeepLearningBrasil, which secured us the first place in the shared task DepSign-LT-EDI@RANLP-2023 with the advantage of 2.4%. The task was to classify social media texts into three distinct levels of depression - “not depressed,” “moderately depressed,” and “severely depressed.” Leveraging the power of the RoBERTa and DeBERTa models, we further pre-trained them on a collected Reddit dataset, specifically curated from mental health-related Reddit’s communities (Subreddits), leading to an enhanced understanding of nuanced mental health discourse. To address lengthy textual data, we introduced truncation techniques that retained the essence of the content by focusing on its beginnings and endings. Our model was robust against unbalanced data by incorporating sample weights into the loss. Cross-validation and ensemble techniques were then employed to combine our k-fold trained models, delivering an optimal solution. The accompanying code is made available for transparency and further development.

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MUCS@LT-EDI2023: Learning Approaches for Hope Speech Detection in Social Media Text
Asha Hegde | Kavya G | Sharal Coelho | Hosahalli Lakshmaiah Shashirekha

Hope plays a significant role in shaping human thoughts and actions and hope content has received limited attention in the realm of social media data analysis. The exploration of hope content helps to uncover the valuable insights into users’ aspirations, expectations, and emotional states. By delving into the analysis of hope content on social media platforms, researchers and analysts can gain a deeper understanding of how hope influences individuals’ behaviors, decisions, and overall well-being in the digital age. However, this area is rarely explored even for resource-high languages. To address the identification of hope text in social media platforms, this paper describes the models submitted by the team MUCS to “Hope Speech Detection for Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion (LT-EDI)” shared task organized at Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP) - 2023. This shared task aims to classify a comment/post in English and code-mixed texts in three languages, namely, Bulgarian, Spanish, and Hindi into one of the two predefined categories, namely, “Hope speech” and “Non Hope speech”. Two models, namely: i) Hope_BERT - Linear Support Vector Classifier (LinearSVC) model trained by combining Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) embeddings and Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) of character n-grams with word boundary (char_wb) for English and ii) Hope_mBERT - LinearSVC model trained by combining Multilingual BERT (mBERT) embeddings and TF-IDF of char_wb for Bulgarian, Spanish, and Hindi code-mixed texts are proposed for the shared task to classify the given text into Hope or Non-Hope categories. The proposed models obtained 1st, 1st, 2nd, and 5th ranks for Spanish, Bulgarian, Hindi, and English texts respectively.

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MUCS@LT-EDI2023: Homophobic/Transphobic Content Detection in Social Media Text using mBERT
Asha Hegde | Kavya G | Sharal Coelho | Hosahalli Lakshmaiah Shashirekha

Homophobic/Transphobic (H/T) content includes hate speech, discrimination text, and abusive comments against Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Intersex (LGBTQ) individuals. With the increase in user generated text in social media, there has been an increase in code-mixed H/T content, which poses challenges for efficient analysis and detection of H/T content on social media. The complex nature of code-mixed text necessitates the development of advanced tools and techniques to effectively tackle this issue in social media platforms. To tackle this issue, in this paper, we - team MUCS, describe the transformer based models submitted to “Homophobia/Transphobia Detection in social media comments” shared task in Language Technology for Equality, Diversity and Inclusion (LT-EDI) at Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP)-2023. The proposed methodology makes use of resampling the training data to handle the data imbalance and this resampled data is used to fine-tune the Multilingual Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (mBERT) models. These models obtained 11th, 5th, 3rd, 3rd, and 7th ranks for English, Tamil, Malayalam, Spanish, and Hindi respectively in Task A and 8th, 2nd, and 2nd ranks for English, Tamil, and Malayalam respectively in Task B.

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MUCS@LT-EDI2023: Detecting Signs of Depression in Social Media Text
Sharal Coelho | Asha Hegde | Kavya G | Hosahalli Lakshmaiah Shashirekha

Depression can lead to significant changes in individuals’ posts on social media which is a important task to identify. Automated techniques must be created for the identification task as manually analyzing the growing volume of social media data is time-consuming. To address the signs of depression posts on social media, in this paper, we - team MUCS, describe a Transfer Learning (TL) model and Machine Learning (ML) models submitted to “Detecting Signs of Depression from Social Media Text” shared task organised by DepSign-LT-EDI@RANLP-2023. The TL model is trained using raw text Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) and the ML model is trained using Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) features separately. Among these three models, the TL model performed better with a macro averaged F1-score of 0.361 and placed 20th rank in the shared task.

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KEC_AI_NLP_DEP @ LT-EDI : Detecting Signs of Depression From Social Media Texts
Kogilavani Shanmugavadivel | Malliga Subramanian | Vasantharan K | Prethish Ga | Sankar S | Sabari S

The goal of this study is to use machine learning approaches to detect depression indications in social media articles. Data gathering, pre-processing, feature extraction, model training, and performance evaluation are all aspects of the research. The collection consists of social media messages classified into three categories: not depressed, somewhat depressed, and severely depressed. The study contributes to the growing field of social media data-driven mental health analysis by stressing the use of feature extraction algorithms for obtaining relevant information from text data. The use of social media communications to detect depression has the potential to increase early intervention and help for people at risk. Several feature extraction approaches, such as TF-IDF, Count Vectorizer, and Hashing Vectorizer, are used to quantitatively represent textual data. These features are used to train and evaluate a wide range of machine learning models, including Logistic Regression, Random Forest, Decision Tree, Gaussian Naive Bayes, and Multinomial Naive Bayes. To assess the performance of the models, metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, F1 score, and the confusion matrix are utilized. The Random Forest model with Count Vectorizer had the greatest accuracy on the development dataset, coming in at 92.99 percent. And with a macro F1-score of 0.362, we came in 19th position in the shared task. The findings show that machine learning is effective in detecting depression markers in social media articles.

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Flamingos_python@LT-EDI-2023: An Ensemble Model to Detect Severity of Depression
Abirami P S | Amritha S | Pavithra Meganathan | Jerin Mahibha C

The prevalence of depression is increasing globally, and there is a need for effective screening and detection tools. Social media platforms offer a rich source of data for mental health research. The paper aims to detect the signs of depression of a person from their social media postings wherein people share their feelings and emotions. The task is to create a system that, given social media posts in English, should classify the level of depression as ‘not depressed’, ‘moderately depressed’ or ‘severely depressed’. The paper presents the solution for the Shared Task on Detecting Signs of Depression from Social Media Text at LT-EDI@RANLP 2023. The proposed system aims to develop a machine learning model using machine learning algorithms like SVM, Random forest and Naive Bayes to detect signs of depression from social media text. The model is trained on a dataset of social media posts to detect the level of depression of the individuals as ‘not depressed’, ‘moderately depressed’ or ‘severely depressed’. The dataset is pre-processed to remove duplicates and irrelevant features, and then, feature engineering techniques is used to extract meaningful features from the text data. The model is trained on these features to classify the text into the three categories. The performance of the model is evaluated using metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score. The ensemble model is used to combine these algorithms which gives accuracy of 90.2% and the F1 score is 0.90. The results of the proposed approach could potentially aid in the early detection and prevention of depression for individuals who may be at risk.


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Proceedings of the First Workshop on NLP Tools and Resources for Translation and Interpreting Applications

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Proceedings of the First Workshop on NLP Tools and Resources for Translation and Interpreting Applications
Raquel Lázaro Gutiérrez | Antonio Pareja | Ruslan Mitkov

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Natural Language Processing tools and resources for translation and interpreting applications. Introduction
Raquel Lazaro Gutierrez

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Machine translation, translation errors, and adequacy: Spanish-English vs. Spanish-Romanian
Laura Monguilod | Bianca Vitalaru

This paper has two objectives: 1. To analyse the adequacy of using neural machine translation (NMT) for the translation of health information (from Spanish into English and Romanian) used in Spanish public health campaigns; and 2. To compare results considering these two linguistic combinations. Results show that post-editing is essential to improve the quality of the translations for both language combinations since they cannot be used as a primary resource for informing foreign users without post-editing. Moreover, Romanian translations require more post-editing. However, using NMT for informative texts combined with human post-editing can be used as a strategy to benefit from the potential of MT while at the same time ensuring the quality of the public service translations depending on the language combination and on the amount of time allotted for the task.

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Cross-Lingual Idiom Sense Clustering in German and English
Mohammed Absar

Idioms are expressions with non-literal and non-compositional meanings. For this reason, they pose a unique challenge for various NLP tasks including Machine Translation and Sentiment Analysis. In this paper, we propose an approach to clustering idioms in different languages by their sense. We leverage pre-trained cross-lingual transformer models and fine-tune them to produce cross-lingual vector representations of idioms according to their sense.

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Performance Evaluation on Human-Machine Teaming Augmented Machine Translation Enabled by GPT-4
Ming Qian

Translation has been modeled as a multiple-phase process where pre-editing analyses guide meaning transfer and interlingual restructure. Present-day machine translation (MT) tools provide no means for source text analyses. Generative AI with Large language modeling (LLM), equipped with prompt engineering and fine-tuning capabilities, can enable augmented MT solutions by explicitly including AI or human generated analyses/instruction, and/or human-generated reference translation as pre-editing or interactive inputs. Using an English-to-Chinese translation piece that had been carefully studied during a translator slam event, Four types of translation outputs on 20 text segments were evaluated: human-generated translation, Google Translate MT, instruction-augmented MT using GPT4-LLM, and Human-Machine-Teaming (HMT)-augmented translation based on both human reference translation and instruction using GPT4-LLM. While human translation had the best performance, both augmented MT approaches performed better than un-augmented MT. The HMT-augmented MT performed better than instruction-augmented MT because it combined the guidance and knowledge provided by both human reference translation and style instruction. However, since it is unrealistic to generate sentence-by-sentence human translation as MT input, better approaches to HMT-augmented MT need to be invented. The evaluation showed that generative AI with LLM can enable new MT workflow facilitating pre-editing analyses and interactive restructuring and achieving better performance.

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The Interpretation System of African Languages in the Senegalese Parliament Debates
Jean Christophe Faye

The present work deals with the interpretation system of local languages in the Senegalese parliament. In other words, it is devoted to the implementation of the simultaneous interpretation system in the Senegalese Parliament debates. The Senegalese parliament, in cooperation with the European Parliament and the European Union, implemented, some years ago, a system of interpretation devoted to translating (into) six local languages. But what does the interpretation system consist in? What motivates the choice of six local languages and not more or less than six? Why does the Senegalese parliament implement such system in a country whose official language is French? What are the linguistic consequences of this interpretation system on the local and foreign languages spoken in the Senegalese parliament? How is the recruitment of interpreters done? To answer these questions, we have explored the documents and writings related to the implementation of the simultaneous interpretation system in the Senegalese parliament, in particular, and of the interpretation system, in general. Field surveys as well as interviews of some deputies, some interpreters and other people from the administration have also been organized and analyzed in this study. This research has helped us have a lot of information and collect data for the corpus. After the data collection, we have moved on to data analysis and we have ended up with results that we have presented in the body of the text.

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Ngambay-French Neural Machine Translation (sba-Fr)
Toadoum Sari Sakayo | Angela Fan | Lema Logamou Seknewna

In Africa, and the world at large, there is an increasing focus on developing Neural Machine Translation (NMT) systems to overcome language barriers. NMT for Low-resource language is particularly compelling as it involves learning with limited labelled data. However, obtaining a well-aligned parallel corpus for low-resource languages can be challenging. The disparity between the technological advancement of a few global languages and the lack of research on NMT for local languages in Chad is striking. End-to-end NMT trials on low-resource Chad languages have not been attempted. Additionally, there is a dearth of online and well-structured data gathering for research in Natural Language Processing, unlike some African languages. However, a guided approach for data gathering can produce bitext data for many Chadian language translation pairs with well-known languages that have ample data. In this project, we created the first sba-Fr Dataset, which is a corpus of Ngambay-to-French translations, and fine-tuned three pre-trained models using this dataset. Our experiments show that the M2M100 model outperforms other models with high BLEU scores on both original and original+synthetic data. The publicly available bitext dataset can be used for research purposes.

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Machine Translation of literary texts: genres, times and systems
Ana Isabel Cespedosa Vázquez | Ruslan Mitkov

Machine Translation (MT) has taken off dramatically in recent years due to the advent of Deep Learning methods and Neural Machine Translation (NMT) has enhanced the quality of automatic translation significantly. While most work has covered the automatic translation of technical, legal and medical texts, the application of MT to literary texts and the human role in this process have been underexplored. In an effort to bridge the gap of this under-researched area, this paper presents the results of a study which seeks to evaluate the performance of three MT systems applied to two different literary genres, two novels (1984 by George Orwell and Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen) and two poems (I Felt a Funeral in my Brain by Emily Dickinson and Siren Song by Margaret Atwood) representing different literary periods and timelines. The evaluation was conducted by way of the automatic evaluation metric BLEU to objectively assess the performance that the MT system shows on each genre. The limitations of this study are also outlined.

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sTMS Cloud – A Boutique Translation Project Management System
Nenad Angelov

Demonstration of a Cloud-based Translation Project Management System, called sTMS, de- veloped with the financial support of Opera- tional Programme “Innovation and Competi- tiveness” 2014 2020 (OPIC) focusing to en- hance the operational activities of LSPs and MLPs. The idea behind was to concentrate mainly on the management processes, and not to integrate CAT or MT tools, because we be- lieve that the more functional such systems be- come, the harder to technically support and easy to operate they become. The key features sTMS provides are developed as a result of the broad experience of Project Managers, the increased requirements of our customers, the digital capabilities of our vendors and as last to meet the constantly changing environment of the translation industry.

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Leveraging Large Language Models to Extract Terminology
Julie Giguere

Large Language Models (LLMs) have brought us efficient tools for various natural language processing (NLP) tasks. This paper explores the application of LLMs for extracting domain-specific terms from textual data. We will present the advantages and limitations of using LLMs for this task and will highlight the significant improvements they offer over traditional terminology extraction methods such as rule-based and statistical approaches.

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ChatGPT for translators: a survey
Constantin Orăsan

This article surveys the most important ways in which translators can use ChatGPT. The focus is on scenarios where ChatGPT supports the work of translators, rather than tries to replace them. A discussion of issues that translators need to consider when using large language models, and ChatGPT in particular, is also provided.


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Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Text Simplification, Accessibility and Readability

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Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Text Simplification, Accessibility and Readability
Sanja Štajner | Horacio Saggio | Matthew Shardlow | Fernando Alva-Manchego

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Using ChatGPT as a CAT tool in Easy Language translation
Silvana Deilen | Sergio Hernández Garrido | Ekaterina Lapshinova-Koltunski | Christiane Maaß

This study sets out to investigate the feasibility of using ChatGPT to translate citizen-oriented administrative texts into German Easy Language, a simplified, rule-based language variety that is adapted to the needs of people with reading impairments. We use ChatGPT to translate selected texts from websites of German public authorities using two strategies, i.e. linguistic and holistic. We analyse the quality of the generated texts based on different criteria, such as correctness, readability, and syntactic complexity. The results indicated that the generated texts are easier than the standard texts, but that they still do not fully meet the established Easy Language standards. Additionally, the content is not always rendered correctly.

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Context-aware Swedish Lexical Simplification
Emil Graichen | Arne Jonsson

We present results from the development and evaluation of context-aware Lexical simplification (LS) systems for the Swedish language. Three versions of LS models, LäsBERT, LäsBERT-baseline, and LäsGPT, were created and evaluated on a newly constructed Swedish LS evaluation dataset. The LS systems demonstrated promising potential in aiding audiences with reading difficulties by providing context-aware word replacements. While there were areas for improvement, particularly in complex word identification, the systems showed agreement with human annotators on word replacements.

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TextSimplifier: A Modular, Extensible, and Context Sensitive Simplification Framework for Improved Natural Language Understanding
Sandaru Seneviratne | Eleni Daskalaki | Hanna Suominen

Natural language understanding is fundamental to knowledge acquisition in today’s information society. However, natural language is often ambiguous with frequent occurrences of complex terms, acronyms, and abbreviations that require substitution and disambiguation, for example, by “translation” from complex to simpler text for better understanding. These tasks are usually difficult for people with limited reading skills, second language learners, and non-native speakers. Hence, the development of text simplification systems that are capable of simplifying complex text is of paramount importance. Thus, we conducted a user study to identify which components are essential in a text simplification system. Based on our findings, we proposed an improved text simplification framework, covering a broader range of aspects related to lexical simplification — from complexity identification to lexical substitution and disambiguation — while supplementing the simplified outputs with additional information for better understandability. Based on the improved framework, we developed TextSimplifier, a modularised, context-sensitive, end-to-end simplification framework, and engineered its web implementation. This system targets lexical simplification that identifies complex terms and acronyms followed by their simplification through substitution and disambiguation for better understanding of complex language.

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Cross-lingual Mediation: Readability Effects
Maria Kunilovskaya | Ruslan Mitkov | Eveline Wandl-Vogt

This paper explores the readability of translated and interpreted texts compared to the original source texts and target language texts in the same domain. It was shown in the literature that translated and interpreted texts could exhibit lexical and syntactic properties that make them simpler, and hence, easier to process than their sources or comparable non-translations. In translation, this effect is attributed to the tendency to simplify and disambiguate the message. In interpreting, it can be enhanced by the temporal and cognitive constraints. We use readability annotations from the Newsela corpus to formulate a number of classification and regression tasks and fine-tune a multilingual pre-trained model on these tasks, obtaining models that can differentiate between complex and simple sentences. Then, the models are applied to predict the readability of sources, targets, and comparable target language originals in a zero-shot manner. Our test data – parallel and comparable – come from English-German bidirectional interpreting and translation subsets from the Europarl corpus. The results confirm the difference in readability between translated/interpreted targets against sentences in standard originally-authored source and target languages. Besides, we find consistent differences between the translation directions in the English-German language pair.

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Simplification by Lexical Deletion
Matthew Shardlow | Piotr Przybyła

Lexical simplification traditionally focuses on the replacement of tokens with simpler alternatives. However, in some cases the goal of this task (simplifying the form while preserving the meaning) may be better served by removing a word rather than replacing it. In fact, we show that existing datasets rely heavily on the deletion operation. We propose supervised and unsupervised solutions for lexical deletion based on classification, end-to-end simplification systems and custom language models. We contribute a new silver-standard corpus of lexical deletions (called SimpleDelete), which we mine from simple English Wikipedia edit histories and use to evaluate approaches to detecting superfluous words. The results show that even unsupervised approaches (TerseBERT) can achieve good performance in this new task. Deletion is one part of the wider lexical simplification puzzle, which we show can be isolated and investigated.

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Comparing Generic and Expert Models for Genre-Specific Text Simplification
Zihao Li | Matthew Shardlow | Fernando Alva-Manchego

We investigate how text genre influences the performance of models for controlled text simplification. Regarding datasets from Wikipedia and PubMed as two different genres, we compare the performance of genre-specific models trained by transfer learning and prompt-only GPT-like large language models. Our experiments showed that: (1) the performance loss of genre-specific models on general tasks can be limited to 2%, (2) transfer learning can improve performance on genre-specific datasets up to 10% in SARI score from the base model without transfer learning, (3) simplifications generated by the smaller but more customized models show similar performance in simplicity and a better meaning reservation capability to the larger generic models in both automatic and human evaluations.

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Automatic Text Simplification for People with Cognitive Disabilities: Resource Creation within the ClearText Project
Isabel Espinosa-Zaragoza | José Abreu-Salas | Paloma Moreda | Manuel Palomar

This paper presents the ongoing work conducted within the ClearText project, specifically focusing on the resource creation for the simplification of Spanish for people with cognitive disabilities. These resources include the CLEARSIM corpus and the Simple.Text tool. On the one hand, a description of the corpus compilation process with the help of APSA is detailed along with information regarding whether these texts are bronze, silver or gold standard simplification versions from the original text. The goal to reach is 18,000 texts in total by the end of the project. On the other hand, we aim to explore Large Language Models (LLMs) in a sequence-to-sequence setup for text simplification at the document level. Therefore, the tool’s objectives, technical aspects, and the preliminary results derived from early experimentation are also presented. The initial results are subject to improvement, given that experimentation is in a very preliminary stage. Despite showcasing flaws inherent to generative models (e.g. hallucinations, repetitive text), we examine the resolutions (or lack thereof) of complex linguistic phenomena that can be learned from the corpus. These issues will be addressed throughout the remainder of this project. The expected positive results from this project that will impact society are three-fold in nature: scientific-technical, social, and economic.

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Towards Sentence-level Text Readability Assessment for French
Duy Van Ngo | Yannick Parmentier

In this paper, we report on some experiments aimed at exploring the relation between document-level and sentence-level readability assessment for French. These were run on an open-source tailored corpus, which was automatically created by aggregating various sources from children’s literature. On top of providing the research community with a freely available corpus, we report on sentence readability scores obtained when applying both classical approaches (aka readability formulas) and state-of-the-art deep learning techniques (e.g. fine-tuning of large language models). Results show a relatively strong correlation between document-level and sentence-level readability, suggesting ways to reduce the cost of building annotated sentence-level readability datasets.

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Document-level Text Simplification with Coherence Evaluation
Laura Vásquez-Rodríguez | Matthew Shardlow | Piotr Przybyła | Sophia Ananiadou

We present a coherence-aware evaluation of document-level Text Simplification (TS), an approach that has not been considered in TS so far. We improve current TS sentence-based models to support a multi-sentence setting and the implementation of a state-of-the-art neural coherence model for simplification quality assessment. We enhanced English sentence simplification neural models for document-level simplification using 136,113 paragraph-level samples from both the general and medical domains to generate multiple sentences. Additionally, we use document-level simplification, readability and coherence metrics for evaluation. Our contributions include the introduction of coherence assessment into simplification evaluation with the automatic evaluation of 34,052 simplifications, a fine-tuned state-of-the-art model for document-level simplification, a coherence-based analysis of our results and a human evaluation of 300 samples that demonstrates the challenges encountered when moving towards document-level simplification.

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LSLlama: Fine-Tuned LLaMA for Lexical Simplification
Anthony Baez | Horacio Saggion

Generative Large Language Models (LLMs), such as GPT-3, have become increasingly effective and versatile in natural language processing (NLP) tasks. One such task is Lexical Simplification, where state-of-the-art methods involve complex, multi-step processes which can use both deep learning and non-deep learning processes. LLaMA, an LLM with full research access, holds unique potential for the adaption of the entire LS pipeline. This paper details the process of fine-tuning LLaMA to create LSLlama, which performs comparably to previous LS baseline models LSBert and UniHD.

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LC-Score: Reference-less estimation of Text Comprehension Difficulty
Paul Tardy | Charlotte Roze | Paul Poupet

Being able to read and understand written text is critical in a digital era. However, studies shows that a large fraction of the population experiences comprehension issues. In this context, further initiatives in accessibility are required to improve the audience text comprehension. However, writers are hardly assisted nor encouraged to produce easy-to-understand content. Moreover, Automatic Text Simplification (ATS) model development suffers from the lack of metric to accurately estimate comprehension difficulty. We present LC-SCORE, a simple approach for training text comprehension metric for any text without reference i.e. predicting how easy to understand a given text is on a [0, 100] scale. Our objective with this scale is to quantitatively capture the extend to which a text suits to the Langage Clair (LC, Clear Language) guidelines, a French initiative closely related to English Plain Language. We explore two approaches: (i) using linguistically motivated indicators used to train statistical models, and (ii) neural learning directly from text leveraging pre-trained language models. We introduce a simple proxy task for comprehension difficulty training as a classification task. To evaluate our models, we run two distinct human annotation experiments, and find that both approaches (indicator based and neural) outperforms commonly used readability and comprehension metrics such as FKGL.

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On Operations in Automatic Text Simplification
Rémi Cardon | Adrien Bibal

This paper explores the literature of automatic text simplification (ATS) centered on the notion of operations. Operations are the processed of applying certain modifications to a given text in order to transform it. In ATS, the intent of the transformation is to simplify the text. This paper overviews and structures the domain by showing how operations are defined and how they are exploited. We extensively discuss the most recent works on this notion and perform preliminary experiments to automatize operations recognition with large language models (LLMs). Through our overview of the literature and the preliminary experiment with LLMs, this paper provides insights on the topic that can help lead to new directions in ATS research.

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An automated tool with human supervision to adapt difficult texts into Plain Language
Paul Poupet | Morgane Hauguel | Erwan Boehm | Charlotte Roze | Paul Tardy

In this paper, we present an automated tool with human supervision to write in plain language or to adapt difficult texts into plain language. It can be used on a web version and as a plugin for Word/Outlook plugins. At the publication date, it is only available in the French language. This tool has been developed for 3 years and has been used by 400 users from private companies and from public administrations. Text simplification is automatically performed with the manual approval of the user, at the lexical, syntactic, and discursive levels. Screencast of the demo can be found at the following link:

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Beyond Vocabulary: Capturing Readability from Children’s Difficulty
Arif Ahmed

Readability formulae targeting children have been developed, but their appropriateness can still be improved, for example by taking into account suffixation. Literacy research has identified the suffixation phenomenon makes children’s reading difficult, so we analyze the effectiveness of suffixation within the context of readability. Our analysis finds that suffixation is potentially effective for readability assessment. Moreover, we find that existing readability formulae fail to discern lower grade levels for texts from different existing corpora.