Authors of posts in social media communicate their emotions and what causes them with text and images. While there is work on emotion and stimulus detection for each modality separately, it is yet unknown if the modalities contain complementary emotion information in social media. We aim at filling this research gap and contribute a novel, annotated corpus of English multimodal Reddit posts. On this resource, we develop models to automatically detect the relation between image and text, an emotion stimulus category and the emotion class. We evaluate if these tasks require both modalities and find for the image–text relations, that text alone is sufficient for most categories (complementary, illustrative, opposing): the information in the text allows to predict if an image is required for emotion understanding. The emotions of anger and sadness are best predicted with a multimodal model, while text alone is sufficient for disgust, joy, and surprise. Stimuli depicted by objects, animals, food, or a person are best predicted by image-only models, while multimodal mod- els are most effective on art, events, memes, places, or screenshots.
COVID-19 has disproportionately threatened minority communities in the U.S, not only in health but also in societal impact. However, social scientists and policymakers lack critical data to capture the dynamics of the anti-Asian hate trend and to evaluate its scale and scope. We introduce new datasets from Twitter related to anti-Asian hate sentiment before and during the pandemic. Relying on Twitter’s academic API, we retrieve hateful and counter-hate tweets from the Twitter Historical Database. To build contextual understanding and collect related racial cues, we also collect instances of heated arguments, often political, but not necessarily hateful, discussing Chinese issues. We then use the state-of-the-art hate speech classifiers to discern whether these tweets express hatred. These datasets can be used to study hate speech, general anti-Asian or Chinese sentiment, and hate linguistics by social scientists as well as to evaluate and build hate speech or sentiment analysis classifiers by computational scholars.
In many real-world machine learning applications, samples belong to a set of domains e.g., for product reviews each review belongs to a product category. In this paper, we study multi-domain imbalanced learning (MIL), the scenario that there is imbalance not only in classes but also in domains. In the MIL setting, different domains exhibit different patterns and there is a varying degree of similarity and divergence among domains posing opportunities and challenges for transfer learning especially when faced with limited or insufficient training data.We propose a novel domain-aware contrastive knowledge transfer method called DCMI to (1) identify the shared domain knowledge to encourage positive transfer among similar domains (in particular from head domains to tail domains); (2) isolate the domain-specific knowledge to minimize the negative transfer from dissimilar domains. We evaluated the performance of DCMI on three different datasets showing significant improvements in different MIL scenarios.
People associate affective meanings to words - “death” is scary and sad while “party” is connotated with surprise and joy. This raises the question if the association is purely a product of the learned affective imports inherent to semantic meanings, or is also an effect of other features of words, e.g., morphological and phonological patterns. We approach this question with an annotation-based analysis leveraging nonsense words. Specifically, we conduct a best-worst scaling crowdsourcing study in which participants assign intensity scores for joy, sadness, anger, disgust, fear, and surprise to 272 non-sense words and, for comparison of the results to previous work, to 68 real words. Based on this resource, we develop character-level and phonology-based intensity regressors. We evaluate them on both nonsense words and real words (making use of the NRC emotion intensity lexicon of 7493 words), across six emotion categories. The analysis of our data reveals that some phonetic patterns show clear differences between emotion intensities. For instance, s as a first phoneme contributes to joy, sh to surprise, p as last phoneme more to disgust than to anger and fear. In the modelling experiments, a regressor trained on real words from the NRC emotion intensity lexicon shows a higher performance (r = 0.17) than regressors that aim at learning the emotion connotation purely from nonsense words. We conclude that humans do associate affective meaning to words based on surface patterns, but also based on similarities to existing words (“juy” to “joy”, or “flike” to “like”).
In this paper, we present the SentEMO platform, a tool that provides aspect-based sentiment analysis and emotion detection of unstructured text data such as reviews, emails and customer care conversations. Currently, models have been trained for five domains and one general domain and are implemented in a pipeline approach, where the output of one model serves as the input for the next. The results are presented in three dashboards, allowing companies to gain more insights into what stakeholders think of their products and services. The SentEMO platform is available at https://sentemo.ugent.be
Deep Neural Networks (DNN) models have achieved acceptable performance in sentiment prediction of written text. However, the output of these machine learning (ML) models cannot be natively interpreted. In this paper, we study how the sentiment polarity predictions by DNNs can be explained and compare them to humans’ explanations. We crowdsource a corpus of Personal Narratives and ask human judges to annotate them with polarity and select the corresponding token chunks - the Emotion Carriers (EC) - that convey narrators’ emotions in the text. The interpretations of ML neural models are carried out through Integrated Gradients method and we compare them with human annotators’ interpretations. The results of our comparative analysis indicate that while the ML model mostly focuses on the explicit appearance of emotions-laden words (e.g. happy, frustrated), the human annotator predominantly focuses the attention on the manifestation of emotions through ECs that denote events, persons, and objects which activate narrator’s emotional state.
Stance detection infers a text author’s attitude towards a target. This is challenging when the model lacks background knowledge about the target. Here, we show how background knowledge from Wikipedia can help enhance the performance on stance detection. We introduce Wikipedia Stance Detection BERT (WS-BERT) that infuses the knowledge into stance encoding. Extensive results on three benchmark datasets covering social media discussions and online debates indicate that our model significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on target-specific stance detection, cross-target stance detection, and zero/few-shot stance detection.
By sharing parameters and providing task-independent shared features, multi-task deep neural networks are considered one of the most interesting ways for parallel learning from different tasks and domains. However, fine-tuning on one task may compromise the performance of other tasks or restrict the generalization of the shared learned features. To address this issue, we propose to use task uncertainty to gauge the effect of the shared feature changes on other tasks and prevent the model from overfitting or over-generalizing. We conducted an experiment on 16 text classification tasks, and findings showed that the proposed method consistently improves the performance of the baseline, facilitates the knowledge transfer of learned features to unseen data, and provides explicit control over the generalization of the shared model.
Many recent works in natural language processing have demonstrated ability to assess aspects of mental health from personal discourse. At the same time, pre-trained contextual word embedding models have grown to dominate much of NLP but little is known empirically on how to best apply them for mental health assessment. Using degree of depression as a case study, we do an empirical analysis on which off-the-shelf language model, individual layers, and combinations of layers seem most promising when applied to human-level NLP tasks. Notably, we find RoBERTa most effective and, despite the standard in past work suggesting the second-to-last or concatenation of the last 4 layers, we find layer 19 (sixth-to last) is at least as good as layer 23 when using 1 layer. Further, when using multiple layers, distributing them across the second half (i.e. Layers 12+), rather than last 4, of the 24 layers yielded the most accurate results.
Public opinion in social media is increasingly becoming a critical factor in pandemic control. Understanding the emotions of a population towards vaccinations and COVID-19 may be valuable in convincing members to become vaccinated. We investigated the emotions of Japanese Twitter users towards Tweets related to COVID-19 vaccination. Using the WRIME dataset, which provides emotion ratings for Japanese Tweets sourced from writers (Tweet posters) and readers, we fine-tuned a BERT model to predict levels of emotional intensity. This model achieved a training accuracy of MSE = 0.356. A separate dataset of 20,254 Japanese Tweets containing COVID-19 vaccine-related keywords was also collected, on which the fine-tuned BERT was used to perform emotion analysis. Afterwards, a correlation analysis between the extracted emotions and a set of vaccination measures in Japan was conducted.The results revealed that surprise and fear were the most intense emotions predicted by the model for writers and readers, respectively, on the vaccine-related Tweet dataset. The correlation analysis also showed that vaccinations were weakly positively correlated with predicted levels of writer joy, writer/reader anticipation, and writer/reader trust.
Domain adaptation methods often exploit domain-transferable input features, a.k.a. pivots. The task of Aspect and Opinion Term Extraction presents a special challenge for domain transfer: while opinion terms largely transfer across domains, aspects change drastically from one domain to another (e.g. from restaurants to laptops). In this paper, we investigate and establish empirically a prior conjecture, which suggests that the linguistic relations connecting opinion terms to their aspects transfer well across domains and therefore can be leveraged for cross-domain aspect term extraction. We present several analyses supporting this conjecture, via experiments with four linguistic dependency formalisms to represent relation patterns. Subsequently, we present an aspect term extraction method that drives models to consider opinion–aspect relations via explicit multitask objectives. This method provides significant performance gains, even on top of a prior state-of-the-art linguistically-informed model, which are shown in analysis to stem from the relational pivoting signal.
The main challenge in English-Malay cross-lingual emotion classification is that there are no Malay training emotion corpora. Given that machine translation could fall short in contextually complex tweets, we only limited machine translation to the word level. In this paper, we bridge the language gap between English and Malay through cross-lingual word embeddings constructed using singular value decomposition. We pre-trained our hierarchical attention model using English tweets and fine-tuned it using a set of gold standard Malay tweets. Our model uses significantly less computational resources compared to the language models. Experimental results show that the performance of our model is better than mBERT in zero-shot learning by 2.4% and Malay BERT by 0.8% when a limited number of Malay tweets is available. In exchange for 6 – 7 times less in computational time, our model only lags behind mBERT and XLM-RoBERTa by a margin of 0.9 – 4.3 % in few-shot learning. Also, the word-level attention could be transferred to the Malay tweets accurately using the cross-lingual word embeddings.
Models are increasing in size and complexity in the hunt for SOTA. But what if those 2%increase in performance does not make a difference in a production use case? Maybe benefits from a smaller, faster model outweigh those slight performance gains. Also, equally good performance across languages in multilingual tasks is more important than SOTA results on a single one. We present the biggest, unified, multilingual collection of sentiment analysis datasets. We use these to assess 11 models and 80 high-quality sentiment datasets (out of 342 raw datasets collected) in 27 languages and included results on the internally annotated datasets. We deeply evaluate multiple setups, including fine-tuning transformer-based models for measuring performance. We compare results in numerous dimensions addressing the imbalance in both languages coverage and dataset sizes. Finally, we present some best practices for working with such a massive collection of datasets and models for a multi-lingual perspective.
Masked language models (MLMs) are pre-trained with a denoising objective that is in a mismatch with the objective of downstream fine-tuning. We propose pragmatic masking and surrogate fine-tuning as two complementing strategies that exploit social cues to drive pre-trained representations toward a broad set of concepts useful for a wide class of social meaning tasks. We test our models on 15 different Twitter datasets for social meaning detection. Our methods achieve 2.34% F1 over a competitive baseline, while outperforming domain-specific language models pre-trained on large datasets. Our methods also excel in few-shot learning: with only 5% of training data (severely few-shot), our methods enable an impressive 68.54% average F1. The methods are also language agnostic, as we show in a zero-shot setting involving six datasets from three different languages.
Inferring group membership of social media users is of high interest in many domains. Group membership is typically inferred via network interactions with other members, or by the usage of in-group language. However, network information is incomplete when users or groups move between platforms, and in-group keywords lose significance as public discussion about a group increases. Similarly, using keywords to filter content and users can fail to distinguish between the various groups that discuss a topic—perhaps confounding research on public opinion and narrative trends. We present a classifier intended to distinguish members of groups from users discussing a group based on contextual usage of keywords. We demonstrate the classifier on a sample of community pairs from Reddit and focus on results related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
This paper presents the results of a replication experiment for automatic irony detection in Dutch social media text, investigating both a feature-based SVM classifier, as was done by Van Hee et al. (2017) and and a transformer-based approach. In addition to building a baseline model, an important goal of this research is to explore the implementation of common-sense knowledge in the form of implicit sentiment, as we strongly believe that common-sense and connotative knowledge are essential to the identification of irony and implicit meaning in tweets.We show promising results and the presented approach can provide a solid baseline and serve as a staging ground to build on in future experiments for irony detection in Dutch.
Research at the intersection of personality psychology, computer science, and linguistics has recently focused increasingly on modeling and predicting personality from language use. We report two major improvements in predicting personality traits from text data: (1) to our knowledge, the most comprehensive set of theory-based psycholinguistic features and (2) hybrid models that integrate a pre-trained Transformer Language Model BERT and Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BLSTM) networks trained on within-text distributions (‘text contours’) of psycholinguistic features. We experiment with BLSTM models (with and without Attention) and with two techniques for applying pre-trained language representations from the transformer model - ‘feature-based’ and ‘fine-tuning’. We evaluate the performance of the models we built on two benchmark datasets that target the two dominant theoretical models of personality: the Big Five Essay dataset (Pennebaker and King, 1999) and the MBTI Kaggle dataset (Li et al., 2018). Our results are encouraging as our models outperform existing work on the same datasets. More specifically, our models achieve improvement in classification accuracy by 2.9% on the Essay dataset and 8.28% on the Kaggle MBTI dataset. In addition, we perform ablation experiments to quantify the impact of different categories of psycholinguistic features in the respective personality prediction models.
Detecting emotion in text allows social and computational scientists to study how people behave and react to online events. However, developing these tools for different languages requires data that is not always available. This paper collects the available emotion detection datasets across 19 languages. We train a multilingual emotion prediction model for social media data, XLM-EMO. The model shows competitive performance in a zero-shot setting, suggesting it is helpful in the context of low-resource languages. We release our model to the community so that interested researchers can directly use it.
Over the years, the review helpfulness prediction task has been the subject of several works, but remains being a challenging issue in Natural Language Processing, as results vary a lot depending on the domain, on the adopted features and on the chosen classification strategy. This paper attempts to evaluate the impact of content features and classification methods for two different domains. In particular, we run our experiments for a low resource language – Portuguese –, trying to establish a benchmark for this language. We show that simple features and classical classification methods are powerful for the task of helpfulness prediction, but are largely outperformed by a convolutional neural network-based solution.
This paper presents the results that were obtained from WASSA 2022 shared task on predicting empathy, emotion, and personality in reaction to news stories. Participants were given access to a dataset comprising empathic reactions to news stories where harm is done to a person, group, or other. These reactions consist of essays and Batson’s empathic concern and personal distress scores. The dataset was further extended in WASSA 2021 shared task to include news articles, person-level demographic information (e.g. age, gender), personality information, and Ekman’s six basic emotions at essay level Participation was encouraged in four tracks: predicting empathy and distress scores, predicting emotion categories, predicting personality and predicting interpersonal reactivity. In total, 14 teams participated in the shared task. We summarize the methods and resources used by the participating teams.
Our system, IUCL, participated in the WASSA 2022 Shared Task on Empathy Detection and Emotion Classification. Our main goal in building this system is to investigate how the use of demographic attributes influences performance. Our (official) results show that our text-only systems perform very competitively, ranking first in the empathy detection task, reaching an average Pearson correlation of 0.54, and second in the emotion classification task, reaching a Macro-F of 0.572. Our systems that use both text and demographic data are less competitive.
Emotion is the essential attribute of human beings. Perceiving and understanding emotions in a human-like manner is the most central part of developing emotional intelligence. This paper describes the contribution of the LingJing team’s method to the Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment & Social Media Analysis (WASSA) 2022 shared task on Emotion Classification. The participants are required to predict seven emotions from empathic responses to news or stories that caused harm to individuals, groups, or others. This paper describes the continual pre-training method for the masked language model (MLM) to enhance the DeBERTa pre-trained language model. Several training strategies are designed to further improve the final downstream performance including the data augmentation with the supervised transfer, child-tuning training, and the late fusion method. Extensive experiments on the emotional classification dataset show that the proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods, demonstrating our method’s effectiveness. Moreover, our submission ranked Top-1 with all metrics in the evaluation phase for the Emotion Classification task.
This paper describes the participation of the SINAI research group at WASSA 2022 (Empathy and Personality Detection and Emotion Classification). Specifically, we participate in Track 1 (Empathy and Distress predictions) and Track 2 (Emotion classification). We conducted extensive experiments developing different machine learning solutions in line with the state of the art in Natural Language Processing. For Track 1, a Transformer multi-output regression model is proposed. For Track 2, we aim to explore recent techniques based on Zero-Shot Learning models including a Natural Language Inference model and GPT-3, using them in an ensemble manner with a fine-tune RoBERTa model. Our team ranked 2nd in the first track and 3rd in the second track.
This paper describes team PVG’s AI Club’s approach to the Emotion Classification shared task held at WASSA 2022. This Track 2 sub-task focuses on building models which can predict a multi-class emotion label based on essays from news articles where a person, group or another entity is affected. Baseline transformer models have been demonstrating good results on sequence classification tasks, and we aim to improve this performance with the help of ensembling techniques, and by leveraging two variations of emotion-specific representations. We observe better results than our baseline models and achieve an accuracy of 0.619 and a macro F1 score of 0.520 on the emotion classification task.
Detecting emotions in languages is important to accomplish a complete interaction between humans and machines. This paper describes our contribution to the WASSA 2022 shared task which handles this crucial task of emotion detection. We have to identify the following emotions: sadness, surprise, neutral, anger, fear, disgust, joy based on a given essay text. We are using an ensemble of ELECTRA and BERT models to tackle this problem achieving an F1 score of 62.76%. Our codebase (https://bit.ly/WASSA_shared_task) and our WandB project (https://wandb.ai/acl_wassa_pictxmanipal/acl_wassa) is publicly available.
Computational comprehension and identifying emotional components in language have been critical in enhancing human-computer connection in recent years. The WASSA 2022 Shared Task introduced four tracks and released a dataset of news stories: Track-1 for Empathy and Distress Prediction, Track-2 for Emotion classification, Track-3 for Personality prediction, and Track-4 for Interpersonal Reactivity Index prediction at the essay level. This paper describes our participation in the WASSA 2022 shared task on the tasks mentioned above. We developed multi-task deep learning methods to address Tracks 1 and 2 and machine learning models for Track 3 and 4. Our developed systems achieved average Pearson scores of 0.483, 0.05, and 0.08 for Track 1, 3, and 4, respectively, and a macro F1 score of 0.524 for Track 2 on the test set. We ranked 8th, 11th, 2nd and 2nd for tracks 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively.
This paper describes the contribution of team PHG to the WASSA 2022 shared task on Empathy Prediction and Emotion Classification. The broad goal of this task was to model an empathy score, a distress score and the type of emotion associated with the person who had reacted to the essay written in response to a newspaper article. We have used the RoBERTa model for training and top of which few layers are added to finetune the transformer. We also use few machine learning techniques to augment as well as upsample the data. Our system achieves a Pearson Correlation Coefficient of 0.488 on Task 1 (Empathy - 0.470 and Distress - 0.506) and Macro F1-score of 0.531 on Task 2.
This paper describes the LingJing team’s method to the Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment & Social Media Analysis (WASSA) 2022 shared task on Personality Prediction (PER) and Reactivity Index Prediction (IRI). In this paper, we adopt the prompt-based method with the pre-trained language model to accomplish these tasks. Specifically, the prompt is designed to provide knowledge of the extra personalized information for enhancing the pre-trained model. Data augmentation and model ensemble are adopted for obtaining better results. Extensive experiments are performed, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed method. On the final submission, our system achieves a Pearson Correlation Coefficient of 0.2301 and 0.2546 on Track 3 and Track 4 respectively. We ranked 1-st on both sub-tasks.
This paper summarises the submissions our team, SURREY-CTS-NLP has made for the WASSA 2022 Shared Task for the prediction of empathy, distress and emotion. In this work, we tested different learning strategies, like ensemble learning and multi-task learning, as well as several large language models, but our primary focus was on analysing and extracting emotion-intensive features from both the essays in the training data and the news articles, to better predict empathy and distress scores from the perspective of discourse and sentiment analysis. We propose several text feature extraction schemes to compensate the small size of training examples for fine-tuning pretrained language models, including methods based on Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) parsing, cosine similarity and sentiment score. Our best submissions achieve an average Pearson correlation score of 0.518 for the empathy prediction task and an F1 score of 0.571 for the emotion prediction task, indicating that using these schemes to extract emotion-intensive information can help improve model performance.
This paper describes our system (IREL, reffered as himanshu.1007 on Codalab) for Shared Task on Empathy Detection, Emotion Classification, and Personality Detection at 12th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment & Social Media Analysis at ACL 2022. We participated in track 2 for predicting emotion at the essay level. We propose an ensemble approach that leverages the linguistic knowledge of the RoBERTa, BART-large, and RoBERTa model finetuned on the GoEmotions dataset. Each brings in its unique advantage, as we discuss in the paper. Our proposed system achieved a Macro F1 score of 0.585 and ranked one out of thirteen teams
We build a system that leverages adapters, a light weight and efficient method for leveraging large language models to perform the task Em- pathy and Distress prediction tasks for WASSA 2022. In our experiments, we find that stacking our empathy and distress adapters on a pre-trained emotion lassification adapter performs best compared to full fine-tuning approaches and emotion feature concatenation. We make our experimental code publicly available
Twitter has slowly but surely established itself as a forum for disseminating, analysing and promoting NLP research. The trend of researchers promoting work not yet peer-reviewed (preprints) by posting concise summaries presented itself as an opportunity to collect and combine multiple modalities of data. In scope of this paper, we (1) construct a dataset of Twitter threads in which researchers promote NLP preprints and (2) evaluate whether it is possible to predict the popularity of a thread based on the content of the Twitter thread, paper content and user metadata. We experimentally show that it is possible to predict popularity of threads promoting research based on their content, and that predictive performance depends on modelling textual input, indicating that the dataset could present value for related areas of NLP research such as citation recommendation and abstractive summarization.
Style transfer is the task of paraphrasing text into a target-style domain while retaining the content. Unsupervised approaches mainly focus on training a generator to rewrite input sentences. In this work, we assume that text styles are determined by only a small proportion of words; therefore, rewriting sentences via generative models may be unnecessary. As an alternative, we consider style transfer as a sequence tagging task. Specifically, we use edit operations (i.e., deletion, insertion and substitution) to tag words in an input sentence. We train a classifier and a language model to score tagged sequences and build a conditional random field. Finally, the optimal path in the conditional random field is used as the output. The results of experiments comparing models indicate that our proposed model exceeds end-to-end baselines in terms of accuracy on both sentiment and style transfer tasks with comparable or better content preservation.
For task-oriented dialog agents, the tone of voice mediates user-agent interactions, playing a central role in the flow of a conversation. Distinct from domain-agnostic politeness constructs, in specific domains such as online stores, booking platforms, and others, agents need to be capable of adopting highly specific vocabulary, with significant impact on lexical and grammatical aspects of utterances. Then, the challenge is on improving utterances’ politeness while preserving the actual content, an utterly central requirement to achieve the task goal. In this paper, we conduct a novel assessment of politeness strategies for task-oriented dialog agents under a transfer learning scenario. We extend existing generative and rewriting politeness approaches, towards overcoming domain-shifting issues, and enabling the transfer of politeness patterns to a novel domain. Both automatic and human evaluation is conducted on customer-store interactions, over the fashion domain, from which contribute with insightful and experimentally supported lessons regarding the improvement of politeness in task-specific dialog agents.
Machine-learned models for author profiling in social media often rely on data acquired via self-reporting-based psychometric tests (questionnaires) filled out by social media users. This is an expensive but accurate data collection strategy. Another, less costly alternative, which leads to potentially more noisy and biased data, is to rely on labels inferred from publicly available information in the profiles of the users, for instance self-reported diagnoses or test results. In this paper, we explore a third strategy, namely to directly use a corpus of items from validated psychometric tests as training data. Items from psychometric tests often consist of sentences from an I-perspective (e.g., ‘I make friends easily.’). Such corpora of test items constitute ‘small data’, but their availability for many concepts is a rich resource. We investigate this approach for personality profiling, and evaluate BERT classifiers fine-tuned on such psychometric test items for the big five personality traits (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism) and analyze various augmentation strategies regarding their potential to address the challenges coming with such a small corpus. Our evaluation on a publicly available Twitter corpus shows a comparable performance to in-domain training for 4/5 personality traits with T5-based data augmentation.