Other Workshops and Events (2024)


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Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Speech, Vision, and Language Technologies for Dravidian Languages

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Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Speech, Vision, and Language Technologies for Dravidian Languages
Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Ruba Priyadharshini | Anand Kumar Madasamy | Sajeetha Thavareesan | Elizabeth Sherly | Rajeswari Nadarajan | Manikandan Ravikiran

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A Few-Shot Multi-Accented Speech Classification for Indian Languages using Transformers and LLM’s Fine-Tuning Approaches
Jairam R | Jyothish G | Premjith B

Accented speech classification plays a vital role in the advancement of high-quality automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology. For certain applications, like multi-accented speech classification, it is not always viable to obtain data with accent variation, especially for resource-poor languages. This is one of the major reasons that contributes to the underperformance of the speech classification systems. Therefore, in order to handle speech variability in Indian language speaker accents, we propose a few-shot learning paradigm in this study. It learns generic feature embeddings using an encoder from a pre-trained whisper model and a classification head for classification. The model is refined using LLM’s fine-tuning techniques, such as LoRA and QLoRA, for the six Indian English accents in the Indic Accent Dataset. The experimental findings show that the accuracy of the model is greatly increased by the few-shot learning paradigm’s effectiveness combined with LLM’s fine-tuning techniques. In optimal settings, the model’s accuracy can reach 94% when the trainable parameters are set to 5%.

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Neural Machine Translation for Malayalam Paraphrase Generation
Christeena Varghese | Sergey Koshelev | Ivan Yamshchikov

This study explores four methods of generating paraphrases in Malayalam, utilizing resources available for English paraphrasing and pre-trained Neural Machine Translation (NMT) models. We evaluate the resulting paraphrases using both automated metrics, such as BLEU, METEOR, and cosine similarity, as well as human annotation. Our findings suggest that automated evaluation measures may not be fully appropriate for Malayalam, as they do not consistently align with human judgment. This discrepancy underscores the need for more nuanced paraphrase evaluation approaches especially for highly agglutinative languages.

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From Dataset to Detection: A Comprehensive Approach to Combating Malayalam Fake News
Devika K | Hariprasath .s.b | Haripriya B | Vigneshwar E | Premjith B | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi

Identifying fake news hidden as real news is crucial to fight misinformation and ensure reliable information, especially in resource-scarce languages like Malayalam. To recognize the unique challenges of fake news in languages like Malayalam, we present a dataset curated specifically for classifying fake news in Malayalam. This fake news is categorized based on the degree of misinformation, marking the first of its kind in this language. Further, we propose baseline models employing multilingual BERT and diverse machine learning classifiers. Our findings indicate that logistic regression trained on LaBSE features demonstrates promising initial performance with an F1 score of 0.3393. However, addressing the significant data imbalance remains essential for further improvement in model accuracy.

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Social Media Fake News Classification Using Machine Learning Algorithm
Girma Bade | Olga Kolesnikova | Grigori Sidorov | José Oropeza

The rise of social media has facilitated easier communication, information sharing, and current affairs updates. However, the prevalence of misleading and deceptive content, commonly referred to as fake news, poses a significant challenge. This paper focuses on the classification of fake news in Malayalam, a Dravidian language, utilizing natural language processing (NLP) techniques. To develop a model, we employed a random forest machine learning method on a dataset provided by a shared task(DravidianLangTech@EACL 2024)1. When evaluated by the separate test dataset, our developed model achieved a 0.71 macro F1 measure.

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Exploring the impact of noise in low-resource ASR for Tamil
Vigneshwar Lakshminarayanan | Emily Prud’hommeaux

The use of deep learning algorithms has resulted in significant progress in automatic speech recognition (ASR). Robust high-accuracy ASR models typically require thousands or tens of thousands of hours of speech data, but even the strongest models tend fail under noisy conditions. Unsurprisingly, the impact of noise on accuracy is more drastic in low-resource settings. In this paper, we investigate the impact of noise on ASR in a low-resource setting. We explore novel methods for developing noise-robust ASR models using a a small dataset for Tamil, a widely-spoken but under-resourced Dravidian languages. We add various noises to the audio data to determine the impact of different kinds of noise (e.g., punctuated vs. constant, man-made vs natural) We also explore the relationship between different data augmentation methods are better suited to handling different types of noise. Our results show that all noises, regardless of the type, had an impact on ASR performance, and that upgrading the architecture alone could not mitigate the impact of noise. SpecAugment, the most common data augmentation method, was not as helpful as raw data augmentation, in which noise is explicitly added to the training data. Raw data augmentation enhances ASR performance on both clean data and noise-mixed data.

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SetFit: A Robust Approach for Offensive Content Detection in Tamil-English Code-Mixed Conversations Using Sentence Transfer Fine-tuning
Kathiravan Pannerselvam | Saranya Rajiakodi | Sajeetha Thavareesan | Sathiyaraj Thangasamy | Kishore Ponnusamy

Code-mixed languages are increasingly prevalent on social media and online platforms, presenting significant challenges in offensive content detection for natural language processing (NLP) systems. Our study explores how effectively the Sentence Transfer Fine-tuning (Set-Fit) method, combined with logistic regression, detects offensive content in a Tamil-English code-mixed dataset. We compare our model’s performance with five other NLP models: Multilingual BERT (mBERT), LSTM, BERT, IndicBERT, and Language-agnostic BERT Sentence Embeddings (LaBSE). Our model, SetFit, outperforms these models in accuracy, achieving an impressive 89.72%, significantly higher than other models. These results suggest the sentence transformer model’s substantial potential for detecting offensive content in codemixed languages. Our study provides valuable insights into the sentence transformer model’s ability to identify various types of offensive material in Tamil-English online conversations, paving the way for more advanced NLP systems tailored to code-mixed languages.

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Findings of the First Shared Task on Offensive Span Identification from Code-Mixed Kannada-English Comments
Manikandan Ravikiran | Ratnavel Rajalakshmi | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Anand Kumar Madasamy | Sajeetha Thavareesan

Effectively managing offensive content is crucial on social media platforms to encourage positive online interactions. However, addressing offensive contents in code-mixed Dravidian languages faces challenges, as current moderation methods focus on flagging entire comments rather than pinpointing specific offensive segments. This limitation stems from a lack of annotated data and accessible systems designed to identify offensive language sections. To address this, our shared task presents a dataset comprising Kannada-English code-mixed social comments, encompassing offensive comments. This paper outlines the dataset, the utilized algorithms, and the results obtained by systems participating in this shared task.

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Findings of the Shared Task on Hate and Offensive Language Detection in Telugu Codemixed Text (HOLD-Telugu)@DravidianLangTech 2024
Premjith B | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Prasanna Kumar Kumaresan | Saranya Rajiakodi | Sai Karnati | Sai Mangamuru | Chandu Janakiram

This paper examines the submissions of various participating teams to the task on Hate and Offensive Language Detection in Telugu Codemixed Text (HOLD-Telugu) organized as part of DravidianLangTech 2024. In order to identify the contents containing harmful information in Telugu codemixed social media text, the shared task pushes researchers and academicians to build models. The dataset for the task was created by gathering YouTube comments and annotated manually. A total of 23 teams participated and submitted their results to the shared task. The rank list was created by assessing the submitted results using the macro F1-score.

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Findings of the Shared Task on Multimodal Social Media Data Analysis in Dravidian Languages (MSMDA-DL)@DravidianLangTech 2024
Premjith B | Jyothish G | Sowmya V | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | K Nandhini | Rajeswari Natarajan | Abirami Murugappan | Bharathi B | Saranya Rajiakodi | Rahul Ponnusamy | Jayanth Mohan | Mekapati Reddy

This paper presents the findings of the shared task on multimodal sentiment analysis, abusive language detection and hate speech detection in Dravidian languages. Through this shared task, researchers worldwide can submit models for three crucial social media data analysis challenges in Dravidian languages: sentiment analysis, abusive language detection, and hate speech detection. The aim is to build models for deriving fine-grained sentiment analysis from multimodal data in Tamil and Malayalam, identifying abusive and hate content from multimodal data in Tamil. Three modalities make up the multimodal data: text, audio, and video. YouTube videos were gathered to create the datasets for the tasks. Thirty-nine teams took part in the competition. However, only two teams, though, turned in their findings. The macro F1-score was used to assess the submissions

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Overview of Second Shared Task on Sentiment Analysis in Code-mixed Tamil and Tulu
Lavanya Sambath Kumar | Asha Hegde | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Hosahalli Shashirekha | Rajeswari Natarajan | Sajeetha Thavareesan | Ratnasingam Sakuntharaj | Thenmozhi Durairaj | Prasanna Kumar Kumaresan | Charmathi Rajkumar

Sentiment Analysis (SA) in Dravidian codemixed text is a hot research area right now. In this regard, the “Second Shared Task on SA in Code-mixed Tamil and Tulu” at Dravidian- LangTech (EACL-2024) is organized. Two tasks namely SA in Tamil-English and Tulu- English code-mixed data, make up this shared assignment. In total, 64 teams registered for the shared task, out of which 19 and 17 systems were received for Tamil and Tulu, respectively. The performance of the systems submitted by the participants was evaluated based on the macro F1-score. The best method obtained macro F1-scores of 0.260 and 0.584 for code-mixed Tamil and Tulu texts, respectively.

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Overview of the Second Shared Task on Fake News Detection in Dravidian Languages: DravidianLangTech@EACL 2024
Malliga Subramanian | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Kogilavani Shanmugavadivel | Santhiya Pandiyan | Prasanna Kumar Kumaresan | Balasubramanian Palani | Premjith B | Vanaja K | Mithunja S | Devika K | Hariprasath S.b | Haripriya B | Vigneshwar E

The rise of online social media has revolutionized communication, offering users a convenient way to share information and stay updated on current events. However, this surge in connectivity has also led to the proliferation of misinformation, commonly known as fake news. This misleading content, often disguised as legitimate news, poses a significant challenge as it can distort public perception and erode trust in reliable sources. This shared task consists of two subtasks such as task 1 and task 2. Task 1 aims to classify a given social media text into original or fake. The goal of the FakeDetect-Malayalam task2 is to encourage participants to develop effective models capable of accurately detecting and classifying fake news articles in the Malayalam language into different categories like False, Half True, Mostly False, Partly False, and Mostly True. For this shared task, 33 participants submitted their results.

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byteSizedLLM@DravidianLangTech 2024: Fake News Detection in Dravidian Languages - Unleashing the Power of Custom Subword Tokenization with Subword2Vec and BiLSTM
Rohith Kodali | Durga Manukonda

This paper focuses on detecting fake news in resource-constrained languages, particularly Malayalam. We present a novel framework combining subword tokenization, Sanskrit-transliterated Subword2vec embeddings, and a powerful Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BiLSTM) architecture. Despite using only monolingual Malayalam data, our model excelled in the FakeDetect-Malayalam challenge, ranking 4th. The innovative subword tokenizer achieves a remarkable 200x compression ratio, highlighting its efficiency in minimizing model size without compromising accuracy. Our work facilitates resource-efficient deployment in diverse linguistic landscapes and sparks discussion on the potential of multilingual data augmentation. This research provides a promising avenue for mitigating linguistic challenges in the NLP-driven battle against deceptive content.

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Fida @DravidianLangTech 2024: A Novel Approach to Hate Speech Detection Using Distilbert-base-multilingual-cased
Fida Ullah | Muhammad Zamir | Muhammad Arif | M. Ahmad | E Felipe-Riveron | Alexander Gelbukh

In the contemporary digital landscape, social media has emerged as a prominent means of communication and information dissemination, offering a rapid outreach to a broad audience compared to traditional communication methods. Unfortunately, the escalating prevalence of abusive language and hate speech on these platforms has become a pressing issue. Detecting and addressing such content on the Internet has garnered considerable attention due to the significant impact it has on individuals. The advent of deep learning has facilitated the use of pre-trained deep neural network models for text classification tasks. While these models demonstrate high performance, some exhibit a substantial number of parameters. In the DravidianLangTech@EACL 2024 task, we opted for the Distilbert-base-multilingual-cased model, an enhancement of the BERT model that effectively reduces the number of parameters without compromising performance. This model was selected based on its exceptional results in the task. Our system achieved a commendable Macro F1 score of 0.6369%.

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Selam@DravidianLangTech 2024:Identifying Hate Speech and Offensive Language
Selam Abitte Kanta | Grigori Sidorov | Alexander Gelbukh

Social media has transformed into a powerful tool for sharing information while upholding the principle of free expression. However, this open platform has given rise to significant issues like hate speech, cyberbullying, aggression, and offensive language, negatively impacting societal well-being. These problems can even lead to severe consequences such as suicidal thoughts, affecting the mental health of the victims. Our primary goal is to develop an automated system for the rapid detection of offensive content on social media, facilitating timely interventions and moderation. This research employs various machine learning classifiers, utilizing character N-gram TF-IDF features. Additionally, we introduce SVM, RL, and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) models specifically designed for hate speech detection. SVM utilizes character Ngram TF-IDF features, while CNN employs word embedding features. Through extensive experiments, we achieved optimal results, with a weighted F1-score of 0.77 in identifying hate speech and offensive language.

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Tewodros@DravidianLangTech 2024: Hate Speech Recognition in Telugu Codemixed Text
Tewodros Achamaleh | Lemlem Kawo | Ildar Batyrshini | Grigori Sidorov

This study goes into our team’s active participation in the Hate and Offensive Language Detection in Telugu Codemixed Text (HOLDTelugu) shared task, which is an essential component of the DravidianLangTech@EACL 2024 workshop. The ultimate goal of this collaborative work is to push the bounds of hate speech recognition, especially tackling the issues given by codemixed text in Telugu, where English blends smoothly. Our inquiry offers a complete evaluation of the task’s aims, the technique used, and the precise achievements obtained by our team, providing a full insight into our contributions to this crucial linguistic and technical undertaking.

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Lidoma@DravidianLangTech 2024: Identifying Hate Speech in Telugu Code-Mixed: A BERT Multilingual
Muhammad Zamir | Moein Tash | Zahra Ahani | Alexander Gelbukh | Grigori Sidorov

Over the past few years, research on hate speech and offensive content identification on social media has been ongoing. Since most people in the world are not native English speakers, unapproved messages are typically sent in code-mixed language. We accomplished collaborative work to identify the language of code-mixed text on social media in order to address the difficulties associated with it in the Telugu language scenario. Specifically, we participated in the shared task on the provided dataset by the Dravidian- LangTech Organizer for the purpose of identifying hate and non-hate content. The assignment is to classify each sentence in the provided text into two predetermined groups: hate or non-hate. We developed a model in Python and selected a BERT multilingual to do the given task. Using a train-development data set, we developed a model, which we then tested on test data sets. An average macro F1 score metric was used to measure the model’s performance. For the task, the model reported an average macro F1 of 0.6151.

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Zavira@DravidianLangTech 2024:Telugu hate speech detection using LSTM
Z. Ahani | M. Tash | M. Zamir | I. Gelbukh

Hate speech is communication, often oral or written, that incites, stigmatizes, or incites violence or prejudice against individuals or groups based on characteristics such as race, religion, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or other protected characteristics. This usually involves expressions of hostility, contempt, or prejudice and can have harmful social consequences.Among the broader social landscape, an important problem and challenge facing the medical community is related to the impact of people’s verbal expression. These words have a significant and immediate effect on human behavior and psyche. Repeating such phrases can even lead to depression and social isolation.In an attempt to identify and classify these Telugu text samples in the social media domain, our research LSTM and the findings of this experiment are summarized in this paper, in which out of 27 participants, we obtained 8th place with an F1 score of 0.68.

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Tayyab@DravidianLangTech 2024:Detecting Fake News in Malayalam LSTM Approach and Challenges
M. Zamir | M. Tash | Z. Ahani | A. Gelbukh | G. Sidorov

Global communication has been made easier by the emergence of online social media, but it has also made it easier for “fake news,” or information that is misleading or false, to spread. Since this phenomenon presents a significant challenge, reliable detection techniques are required to discern between authentic and fraudulent content. The primary goal of this study is to identify fake news on social media platforms and in Malayalam-language articles by using LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory) model. This research explores this approach in tackling the DravidianLangTech@EACL 2024 tasks. Using LSTM networks to differentiate between real and fake content at the comment or post level, Task 1 focuses on classifying social media text. To precisely classify the authenticity of the content, LSTM models are employed, drawing on a variety of sources such as comments on YouTube. Task 2 is dubbed the FakeDetect-Malayalam challenge, wherein Malayalam-language articles with fake news are identified and categorized using LSTM models. In order to successfully navigate the challenges of identifying false information in regional languages, we use lstm model. This algoritms seek to accurately categorize the multiple classes written in Malayalam. In Task 1, the results are encouraging. LSTM models distinguish between orignal and fake social media content with an impressive macro F1 score of 0.78 when testing. The LSTM model’s macro F1 score of 0.2393 indicates that Task 2 offers a more complex landscape. This emphasizes the persistent difficulties in LSTM-based fake news detection across various linguistic contexts and the difficulty of correctly classifying fake news within the context of the Malayalam language.

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IIITDWD_SVC@DravidianLangTech-2024: Breaking Language Barriers; Hate Speech Detection in Telugu-English Code-Mixed Text
Chava Sai | Rangoori Kumar | Sunil Saumya | Shankar Biradar

Social media platforms have become increasingly popular and are utilized for a wide range of purposes, including product promotion, news sharing, accomplishment sharing, and much more. However, it is also employed for defamatory speech, intimidation, and the propagation of untruths about particular groups of people. Further, hateful and offensive posts spread quickly and often have a negative impact on people; it is important to identify and remove them from social media platforms as soon as possible. Over the past few years, research on hate speech detection and offensive content has grown in popularity. One of the many difficulties in identifying hate speech on social media platforms is the use of code-mixed language. The majority of people who use social media typically share their messages in languages with mixed codes, like Telugu–English. To encourage research in this direction, the organizers of DravidianLangTech@EACL-2024 conducted a shared task to identify hateful content in Telugu-English code-mixed text. Our team participated in this shared task, employing three different models: Xlm-Roberta, BERT, and Hate-BERT. In particular, our BERT-based model secured the 14th rank in the competition with a macro F1 score of 0.65.

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Beyond Tech@DravidianLangTech2024 : Fake News Detection in Dravidian Languages Using Machine Learning
Kogilavani Shanmugavadivel | Malliga Subramanian | Sanjai R | Mohammed Sameer B | Motheeswaran K

In the digital age, identifying fake news is essential when fake information travels quickly via social media platforms. This project employs machine learning techniques, including Random Forest, Logistic Regression, and Decision Tree, to distinguish between real and fake news. With the rise of news consumption on social media, it becomes essential to authenticate information shared on platforms like YouTube comments. The research emphasizes the need to stop spreading harmful rumors and focuses on authenticating news articles. The proposed model utilizes machine learning and natural language processing, specifically Support Vector Machines, to aggregate and determine the authenticity of news. To address the challenges of detecting fake news in this paper, describe the Machine Learning (ML) models submitted to ‘Fake News Detection in Dravidian Languages” at DravidianLangTech@EACL 2024 shared task. Four different models, namely: Naive Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random forest, and Decision tree.

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Code_Makers@DravidianLangTech-EACL 2024 : Sentiment Analysis in Code-Mixed Tamil using Machine Learning Techniques
Kogilavani Shanmugavadivel | Sowbharanika J S | Navbila K | Malliga Subramanian

The rising importance of sentiment analysis online community research is addressed in our project, which focuses on the surge of code-mixed writing in multilingual social media. Targeting sentiments in texts combining Tamil and English, our supervised learning approach, particularly the Decision Tree algorithm, proves essential for effective sentiment classification. Notably, Decision Tree(accuracy: 0.99, average F1 score: 0.39), Random Forest exhibit high accuracy (accuracy: 0.99, macro average F1 score : 0.35), SVM (accuracy: 0.78, macro average F1 score : 0.68), Logistic Regression (accuracy: 0.75, macro average F1 score: 0.62), KNN (accuracy: 0.73, macro average F1 score : 0.26) also demonstrate commendable results. These findings showcase the project’s efficacy, offering promise for linguistic research and technological advancements. Securing the 8th rank emphasizes its recognition in the field.

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IIITDWD-zk@DravidianLangTech-2024: Leveraging the Power of Language Models for Hate Speech Detection in Telugu-English Code-Mixed Text
Zuhair Shaik | Sai Kartheek Reddy Kasu | Sunil Saumya | Shankar Biradar

Hateful online content is a growing concern, especially for young people. While social media platforms aim to connect us, they can also become breeding grounds for negativity and harmful language. This study tackles this issue by proposing a novel framework called HOLD-Z, specifically designed to detect hate and offensive comments in Telugu-English code-mixed social media content. HOLD-Z leverages a combination of approaches, including three powerful models: LSTM architecture, Zypher, and openchat_3.5. The study highlights the effectiveness of prompt engineering and Quantized Low-Rank Adaptation (QLoRA) in boosting performance. Notably, HOLD-Z secured the 9th place in the prestigious HOLD-Telugu DravidianLangTech@EACL-2024 shared task, showcasing its potential for tackling the complexities of hate and offensive comment classification.

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DLRG-DravidianLangTech@EACL2024 : Combating Hate Speech in Telugu Code-mixed Text on Social Media
Ratnavel Rajalakshmi | Saptharishee M | Hareesh S | Gabriel R | Varsini Sr

Detecting hate speech in code-mixed language is vital for a secure online space, curbing harmful content, promoting inclusive communication, and safeguarding users from discrimination. Despite the linguistic complexities of code-mixed languages, this study explores diverse pre-processing methods. It finds that the Transliteration method excels in handling linguistic variations. The research comprehensively investigates machine learning and deep learning approaches, namely Logistic Regression and Bi-directional Gated Recurrent Unit (Bi-GRU) models. These models achieved F1 scores of 0.68 and 0.70, respectively, contributing to ongoing efforts to combat hate speech in code-mixed languages and offering valuable insights for future research in this critical domain.

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MIT-KEC-NLP@DravidianLangTech-EACL 2024: Offensive Content Detection in Kannada and Kannada-English Mixed Text Using Deep Learning Techniques
Kogilavani Shanmugavadivel | Sowbarnigaa K S | Mehal Sakthi M S | Subhadevi K | Malliga Subramanian

This study presents a strong methodology for detecting offensive content in multilingual text, with a focus on Kannada and Kannada-English mixed comments. The first step in data preprocessing is to work with a dataset containing Kannada comments, which is backed by Google Translate for Kannada-English translation. Following tokenization and sequence labeling, BIO tags are assigned to indicate the existence and bounds of objectionable spans within the text. On annotated data, a Bidirectional LSTM neural network model is trained and BiLSTM model’s macro F1 score is 61.0 in recognizing objectionable content. Data preparation, model architecture definition, and iterative training with Kannada and Kannada- English text are all part of the training process. In a fresh dataset, the trained model accurately predicts offensive spans, emphasizing comments in the aforementioned languages. Predictions that have been recorded and include offensive span indices are organized into a database.

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Transformers@DravidianLangTech-EACL2024: Sentiment Analysis of Code-Mixed Tamil Using RoBERTa
Kriti Singhal | Jatin Bedi

In recent years, there has been a persistent focus on developing systems that can automatically identify the hate speech content circulating on diverse social media platforms. This paper describes the team Transformers’ submission to the Caste/Immigration Hate Speech Detection in Tamil shared task by LT-EDI 2024 workshop at EACL 2024. We used an ensemble approach in the shared task, combining various transformer-based pre-trained models using majority voting. The best macro average F1-score achieved was 0.82. We secured the 1st rank in the Caste/Immigration Hate Speech in Tamil shared task.

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Habesha@DravidianLangTech 2024: Detecting Fake News Detection in Dravidian Languages using Deep Learning
Mesay Yigezu | Olga Kolesnikova | Grigori Sidorov | Alexander Gelbukh

This research tackles the issue of fake news by utilizing the RNN-LSTM deep learning method with optimized hyperparameters identified through grid search. The model’s performance in multi-label classification is hindered by unbalanced data, despite its success in binary classification. We achieved a score of 0.82 in the binary classification task, whereas in the multi-class task, the score was 0.32. We suggest incorporating data balancing techniques for researchers who aim to further this task, aiming to improve results in managing a variety of information.

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WordWizards@DravidianLangTech 2024:Fake News Detection in Dravidian Languages using Cross-lingual Sentence Embeddings
Akshatha Anbalagan | Priyadharshini T | Niranjana A | Shreedevi Balaji | Durairaj Thenmozhi

The proliferation of fake news in digital media has become a significant societal concern, impacting public opinion, trust, and decision-making. This project focuses on the development of machine learning models for the detection of fake news. Leveraging a dataset containing both genuine and deceptive news articles, the proposed models employ natural language processing techniques, feature extraction and classification algorithms. This paper provides a solution to Fake News Detection in Dravidian Languages - DravidianLangTech 2024. There are two sub tasks: Task 1 - The goal of this task is to classify a given social media text into original or fake. We propose an approach for this with the help of a supervised machine learning model – SVM (Support Vector Machine). The SVM classifier achieved a macro F1 score of 0.78 in test data and a rank 11. The Task 2 is classifying fake news articles in Malayalam language into different categories namely False, Half True, Mostly False, Partly False and Mostly True.We have used Naive Bayes which achieved macro F1-score 0.3517 in test data and a rank 6.

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Sandalphon@DravidianLangTech-EACL2024: Hate and Offensive Language Detection in Telugu Code-mixed Text using Transliteration-Augmentation
Nafisa Tabassum | Mosabbir Khan | Shawly Ahsan | Jawad Hossain | Mohammed Moshiul Hoque

Hate and offensive language in online platforms pose significant challenges, necessitating automatic detection methods. Particularly in the case of codemixed text, which is very common in social media, the complexity of this problem increases due to the cultural nuances of different languages. DravidianLangTech-EACL2024 organized a shared task on detecting hate and offensive language for Telugu. To complete this task, this study investigates the effectiveness of transliteration-augmented datasets for Telugu code-mixed text. In this work, we compare the performance of various machine learning (ML), deep learning (DL), and transformer-based models on both original and augmented datasets. Experimental findings demonstrate the superiority of transformer models, particularly Telugu-BERT, achieving the highest f1-score of 0.77 on the augmented dataset, ranking the 1st position in the leaderboard. The study highlights the potential of transliteration-augmented datasets in improving model performance and suggests further exploration of diverse transliteration options to address real-world scenarios.

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CUET_Binary_Hackers@DravidianLangTech EACL2024: Fake News Detection in Malayalam Language Leveraging Fine-tuned MuRIL BERT
Salman Farsi | Asrarul Eusha | Ariful Islam | Hasan Mesbaul Ali Taher | Jawad Hossain | Shawly Ahsan | Avishek Das | Mohammed Moshiul Hoque

Due to technological advancements, various methods have emerged for disseminating news to the masses. The pervasive reach of news, however, has given rise to a significant concern: the proliferation of fake news. In response to this challenge, a shared task in Dravidian- LangTech EACL2024 was initiated to detect fake news and classify its types in the Malayalam language. The shared task consisted of two sub-tasks. Task 1 focused on a binary classification problem, determining whether a piece of news is fake or not. Whereas task 2 delved into a multi-class classification problem, categorizing news into five distinct levels. Our approach involved the exploration of various machine learning (RF, SVM, XGBoost, Ensemble), deep learning (BiLSTM, CNN), and transformer-based models (MuRIL, Indic- SBERT, m-BERT, XLM-R, Distil-BERT) by emphasizing parameter tuning to enhance overall model performance. As a result, we introduce a fine-tuned MuRIL model that leverages parameter tuning, achieving notable success with an F1-score of 0.86 in task 1 and 0.5191 in task 2. This successful implementation led to our system securing the 3rd position in task 1 and the 1st position in task 2. The source code will be found in the GitHub repository at this link: https://github.com/Salman1804102/ DravidianLangTech-EACL-2024-FakeNews.

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Punny_Punctuators@DravidianLangTech-EACL2024: Transformer-based Approach for Detection and Classification of Fake News in Malayalam Social Media Text
Nafisa Tabassum | Sumaiya Aodhora | Rowshon Akter | Jawad Hossain | Shawly Ahsan | Mohammed Moshiul Hoque

The alarming rise of fake news on social media poses a significant threat to public discourse and decision-making. While automatic detection of fake news offers a promising solution, research in low-resource languages like Malayalam often falls behind due to limited data and tools. This paper presents the participation of team Punny_Punctuators in the Fake News Detection in Dravidian Languages shared task at DravidianLangTech@EACL 2024, addressing this gap. The shared task focuses on two sub-tasks: 1. classifying social media texts as original or fake, and 2. categorizing fake news into 5 categories. We experimented with various machine learning (ML), deep learning (DL) and transformer-based models as well as processing techniques such as transliteration. Malayalam-BERT achieved the best performance on both sub-tasks, which obtained us 2nd place with a macro f1-score of 0.87 for the subtask-1 and 11th place with a macro f1-score of 0.17 for the subtask-2. Our results highlight the potential of transformer models for low-resource languages in fake news detection and pave the way for further research in this crucial area.

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CUET_NLP_GoodFellows@DravidianLangTech EACL2024: A Transformer-Based Approach for Detecting Fake News in Dravidian Languages
Md Osama | Kawsar Ahmed | Hasan Mesbaul Ali Taher | Jawad Hossain | Shawly Ahsan | Mohammed Moshiul Hoque

In this modern era, many people have been using Facebook and Twitter, leading to increased information sharing and communication. However, a considerable amount of information on these platforms is misleading or intentionally crafted to deceive users, which is often termed as fake news. A shared task on fake news detection in Malayalam organized by DravidianLangTech@EACL 2024 allowed us for addressing the challenge of distinguishing between original and fake news content in the Malayalam language. Our approach involves creating an intelligent framework to categorize text as either fake or original. We experimented with various machine learning models, including Logistic Regression, Decision Tree, Random Forest, Multinomial Naive Bayes, SVM, and SGD, and various deep learning models, including CNN, BiLSTM, and BiLSTM + Attention. We also explored Indic-BERT, MuRIL, XLM-R, and m-BERT for transformer-based approaches. Notably, our most successful model, m-BERT, achieved a macro F1 score of 0.85 and ranked 4th in the shared task. This research contributes to combating misinformation on social media news, offering an effective solution to classify content accurately.

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CUET_Binary_Hackers@DravidianLangTech EACL2024: Hate and Offensive Language Detection in Telugu Code-Mixed Text Using Sentence Similarity BERT
Salman Farsi | Asrarul Eusha | Jawad Hossain | Shawly Ahsan | Avishek Das | Mohammed Moshiul Hoque

With the continuous evolution of technology and widespread internet access, various social media platforms have gained immense popularity, attracting a vast number of active users globally. However, this surge in online activity has also led to a concerning trend by driving many individuals to resort to posting hateful and offensive comments or posts, publicly targeting groups or individuals. In response to these challenges, we participated in this shared task. Our approach involved proposing a fine-tuning-based pre-trained transformer model to effectively discern whether a given text contains offensive content that propagates hatred. We conducted comprehensive experiments, exploring various machine learning (LR, SVM, and Ensemble), deep learning (CNN, BiLSTM, CNN+BiLSTM), and transformer-based models (Indic-SBERT, m- BERT, MuRIL, Distil-BERT, XLM-R), adhering to a meticulous fine-tuning methodology. Among the models evaluated, our fine-tuned L3Cube-Indic-Sentence-Similarity- BERT or Indic-SBERT model demonstrated superior performance, achieving a macro-average F1-score of 0.7013. This notable result positioned us at the 6th place in the task. The implementation details of the task will be found in the GitHub repository.

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TechWhiz@DravidianLangTech 2024: Fake News Detection Using Deep Learning Models
Madhumitha M | Kunguma M | Tejashri J | Jerin Mahibha C

The ever-evolving landscape of online social media has initiated a transformative phase in communication, presenting unprecedented opportunities alongside inherent challenges. The pervasive issue of false information, commonly termed fake news, has emerged as a significant concern within these dynamic platforms. This study delves into the domain of Fake News Detection, with a specific focus on Malayalam. Utilizing advanced transformer models like mBERT, ALBERT, and XMLRoBERTa, our research proficiently classifies social media text into original or fake categories. Notably, our proposed model achieved commendable results, securing a rank of 3 in Task 1 with macro F1 scores of 0.84 using mBERT, 0.56 using ALBERT, and 0.84 using XMLRoBERTa. In Task 2, the XMLRoBERTa model excelled with a rank of 12, attaining a macro F1 score of 0.21, while mBERT and BERT achieved scores of 0.16 and 0.11, respectively. This research aims to develop robust systems capable of discerning authentic from deceptive content, a crucial endeavor in maintaining information reliability on social media platforms amid the rampant spread of misinformation.

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CUET_Binary_Hackers@DravidianLangTech-EACL 2024: Sentiment Analysis using Transformer-Based Models in Code-Mixed and Transliterated Tamil and Tulu
Asrarul Eusha | Salman Farsi | Ariful Islam | Jawad Hossain | Shawly Ahsan | Mohammed Moshiul Hoque

Textual Sentiment Analysis (TSA) delves into people’s opinions, intuitions, and emotions regarding any entity. Natural Language Processing (NLP) serves as a technique to extract subjective knowledge, determining whether an idea or comment leans positive, negative, neutral, or a mix thereof toward an entity. In recent years, it has garnered substantial attention from NLP researchers due to the vast availability of online comments and opinions. Despite extensive studies in this domain, sentiment analysis in low-resourced languages such as Tamil and Tulu needs help handling code-mixed and transliterated content. To address these challenges, this work focuses on sentiment analysis of code-mixed and transliterated Tamil and Tulu social media comments. It explored four machine learning (ML) approaches (LR, SVM, XGBoost, Ensemble), four deep learning (DL) methods (BiLSTM and CNN with FastText and Word2Vec), and four transformer-based models (m-BERT, MuRIL, L3Cube-IndicSBERT, and Distilm-BERT) for both languages. For Tamil, L3Cube-IndicSBERT and ensemble approaches outperformed others, while m-BERT demonstrated superior performance among the models for Tulu. The presented models achieved the 3rd and 1st ranks by attaining macro F1-scores of 0.227 and 0.584 in Tamil and Tulu, respectively.

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Binary_Beasts@DravidianLangTech-EACL 2024: Multimodal Abusive Language Detection in Tamil based on Integrated Approach of Machine Learning and Deep Learning Techniques
Md. Rahman | Abu Raihan | Tanzim Rahman | Shawly Ahsan | Jawad Hossain | Avishek Das | Mohammed Moshiul Hoque

Detecting abusive language on social media is a challenging task that needs to be solved effectively. This research addresses the formidable challenge of detecting abusive language in Tamil through a comprehensive multimodal approach, incorporating textual, acoustic, and visual inputs. This study utilized ConvLSTM, 3D-CNN, and a hybrid 3D-CNN with BiLSTM to extract video features. Several models, such as BiLSTM, LR, and CNN, are explored for processing audio data, whereas for textual content, MNB, LR, and LSTM methods are explored. To further enhance overall performance, this work introduced a weighted late fusion model amalgamating predictions from all modalities. The fusion model was then applied to make predictions on the test dataset. The ConvLSTM+BiLSTM+MNB model yielded the highest macro F1 score of 71.43%. Our methodology allowed us to achieve 1 st rank for multimodal abusive language detection in the shared task

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WordWizards@DravidianLangTech 2024: Sentiment Analysis in Tamil and Tulu using Sentence Embedding
Shreedevi Balaji | Akshatha Anbalagan | Priyadharshini T | Niranjana A | Durairaj Thenmozhi

Sentiment Analysis of Dravidian Languages has begun to garner attention recently as there is more need to analyze emotional responses and subjective opinions present in social media text. As this data is code-mixed and there are not many solutions to code-mixed text out there, we present to you a stellar solution to DravidianLangTech 2024: Sentiment Analysis in Tamil and Tulu task. To understand the sentiment of social media text, we used pre-trained transformer models and feature extraction vectorizers to classify the data with results that placed us 11th in the rankings for the Tamil task and 8th for the Tulu task with a accuracy F1 score of 0.12 and 0.30 which shows the efficiency of our approach.

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CUET_DUO@DravidianLangTech EACL2024: Fake News Classification Using Malayalam-BERT
Tanzim Rahman | Abu Raihan | Md. Rahman | Jawad Hossain | Shawly Ahsan | Avishek Das | Mohammed Moshiul Hoque

Identifying between fake and original news in social media demands vigilant procedures. This paper introduces the significant shared task on ‘Fake News Detection in Dravidian Languages - DravidianLangTech@EACL 2024’. With a focus on the Malayalam language, this task is crucial in identifying social media posts as either fake or original news. The participating teams contribute immensely to this task through their varied strategies, employing methods ranging from conventional machine-learning techniques to advanced transformer-based models. Notably, the findings of this work highlight the effectiveness of the Malayalam-BERT model, demonstrating an impressive macro F1 score of 0.88 in distinguishing between fake and original news in Malayalam social media content, achieving a commendable rank of 1st among the participants.

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Wit Hub@DravidianLangTech-2024:Multimodal Social Media Data Analysis in Dravidian Languages using Machine Learning Models
Anierudh S | Abhishek R | Ashwin Sundar | Amrit Krishnan | Bharathi B

The main objective of the task is categorised into three subtasks. Subtask-1 Build models to determine the sentiment expressed in multimodal posts (or videos) in Tamil and Malayalam languages, leveraging textual, audio, and visual components. The videos are labelled into five categories: highly positive, positive, neutral, negative and highly negative. Subtask-2 Design machine models that effectively identify and classify abusive language within the multimodal context of social media posts in Tamil. The data are categorized into abusive and non-abusive categories. Subtask-3 Develop advanced models that accurately detect and categorize hate speech and offensive language in multimodal social media posts in Dravidian languages. The data points are categorized into Caste, Offensive, Racist and Sexist classes. In this session, the focus is primarily on Tamil language text data analysis. Various combination of machine learning models have been used to perform each tasks and do oversampling techniques to train models on biased dataset.

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CUETSentimentSillies@DravidianLangTech-EACL2024: Transformer-based Approach for Sentiment Analysis in Tamil and Tulu Code-Mixed Texts
Zannatul Tripty | Md. Nafis | Antu Chowdhury | Jawad Hossain | Shawly Ahsan | Avishek Das | Mohammed Moshiul Hoque

Sentiment analysis (SA) on social media reviews has become a challenging research agenda in recent years due to the exponential growth of textual content. Although several effective solutions are available for SA in high-resourced languages, it is considered a critical problem for low-resourced languages. This work introduces an automatic system for analyzing sentiment in Tamil and Tulu code-mixed languages. Several ML (DT, RF, MNB), DL (CNN, BiLSTM, CNN+BiLSTM), and transformer-based models (Indic-BERT, XLM-RoBERTa, m-BERT) are investigated for SA tasks using Tamil and Tulu code-mixed textual data. Experimental outcomes reveal that the transformer-based models XLM-R and m-BERT surpassed others in performance for Tamil and Tulu, respectively. The proposed XLM-R and m-BERT models attained macro F1-scores of 0.258 (Tamil) and 0.468 (Tulu) on test datasets, securing the 2nd and 5th positions, respectively, in the shared task.

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Social Media Hate and Offensive Speech Detection Using Machine Learning method
Girma Bade | Olga Kolesnikova | Grigori Sidorov | José Oropeza

Even though the improper use of social media is increasing nowadays, there is also technology that brings solutions. Here, improperness is posting hate and offensive speech that might harm an individual or group. Hate speech refers to an insult toward an individual or group based on their identities. Spreading it on social media platforms is a serious problem for society. The solution, on the other hand, is the availability of natural language processing(NLP) technology that is capable to detect and handle such problems. This paper presents the detection of social media’s hate and offensive speech in the code-mixed Telugu language. For this, the task and golden standard dataset were provided for us by the shared task organizer (DravidianLangTech@ EACL 2024)1. To this end, we have employed the TF-IDF technique for numeric feature extraction and used a random forest algorithm for modeling hate speech detection. Finally, the developed model was evaluated on the test dataset and achieved 0.492 macro-F1.

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CUETSentimentSillies@DravidianLangTech EACL2024: Transformer-based Approach for Detecting and Categorizing Fake News in Malayalam Language
Zannatul Tripty | Md. Nafis | Antu Chowdhury | Jawad Hossain | Shawly Ahsan | Mohammed Moshiul Hoque

Fake news misleads people and may lead to real-world miscommunication and injury. Removing misinformation encourages critical thinking, democracy, and the prevention of hatred, fear, and misunderstanding. Identifying and removing fake news and developing a detection system is essential for reliable, accurate, and clear information. Therefore, a shared task was organized to detect fake news in Malayalam. This paper presents a system developed for the shared task of detecting and classifying fake news in Malayalam. The approach involves a combination of machine learning models (LR, DT, RF, MNB), deep learning models (CNN, BiLSTM, CNN+BiLSTM), and transformer-based models (Indic-BERT, XLMR, Malayalam-BERT, m-BERT) for both subtasks. The experimental results demonstrate that transformer-based models, specifically m- BERT and Malayalam-BERT, outperformed others. The m-BERT model achieved superior performance in subtask 1 with macro F1-scores of 0.84, and Malayalam-BERT outperformed the other models in subtask 2 with macro F1- scores of 0.496, securing us the 5th and 2nd positions in subtask 1 and subtask 2, respectively.

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MUCS@DravidianLangTech-2024: Role of Learning Approaches in Strengthening Hate-Alert Systems for code-mixed text
Manavi K | Sonali K | Gauthamraj K | Kavya G | Asha Hegde | Hosahalli Shashirekha

Hate and offensive language detection is the task of detecting hate and/or offensive content targetting a person or a group of people. Despite many efforts to detect hate and offensive content on social media platforms, the problem remains unsolved till date due to the ever growing social media users and their creativity to create and spread hate and offensive content. To address the automatic detection of hate and offensive content on social media platforms, this paper describes the learning models submitted by our team - MUCS to “Hate and Offensive Language Detection in Telugu Codemixed Text (HOLD-Telugu): DravidianLangTech@EACL” - a shared task organized at European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (EACL) 2024 invites the research community to address the challenges of detecting hate and offensive language in Telugu language. In this paper, we - team MUCS, describe the learning models submitted to the above mentioned shared task. Three models: Three models: i) LR model - a Machine Learning (ML) algorithm fed with TF-IDF of n-grams of subword, word and char_wb are in the range (1, 3), (1, 3), and (1, 5), ii) TL- a pretrained BERT models which makes use of Hate-speech-CNERG/bert-base-uncased-hatexplain model and iii) Ensemble model which is the combination of ML classifieres( MNB, LR, GNB) trained CountVectorizer with word and char ngrams of range (1, 3) and (1, 5) respectively. Proposed LR model trained with TF-IDF of subword, word and char n-grams outperformed the other models with macro F1 scores of 0.6501 securing 15th rankin the shared task for Telugu text.

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MUCS@DravidianLangTech-2024: A Grid Search Approach to Explore Sentiment Analysis in Code-mixed Tamil and Tulu
Prathvi B | Manavi K | Subrahmanyapoojary K | Asha Hegde | Kavya G | Hosahalli Shashirekha

Sentiment Analysis (SA) is a field of computational study that analyzes and understands people’s opinions, attitudes, and emotions toward any entity. A review of an entity can be written about an individual, an event, a topic, a product, etc., and such reviews are abundant on social media platforms. The increasing number of social media users and the growing amount of user-generated code-mixed content such as reviews, comments, posts etc., on social media have resulted in a rising demand for efficient tools capable of effectively analyzing such content to detect the sentiments. In spite of this, SA of social media text is challenging because the code-mixed text is complex. To address SA in code-mixed Tamil and Tulu text, this paper describes the Machine Learning (ML) models submitted by our team - MUCS to “Sentiment Analysis in Tamil and Tulu - Dravidian- LangTech” - a shared task organized at European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (EACL) 2024. Linear Support Vector classifier (LinearSVC) and ensemble of 5 ML classifiers (k Nearest Neighbour (kNN), Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), Logistic Regression (LR), LinearSVC, and Random Forest Classifier (RFC)) with hard voting trained using concatenated features obtained from word and character n-ngrams vectoized from Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) vectorizer and CountVectorizer. Further, Gridsearch algorithm is employed to obtain optimal hyperparameter values.The proposed ensemble model obtained macro F1 scores of 0.260 and 0.550 for Tamil and Tulu languages respectively.

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InnovationEngineers@DravidianLangTech-EACL 2024: Sentimental Analysis of YouTube Comments in Tamil by using Machine Learning
Kogilavani Shanmugavadivel | Malliga Subramanian | Palanimurugan V | Pavul chinnappan D

There is opportunity for machine learning and natural language processing research because of the growing volume of textual data. Although there has been little research done on trend extraction from YouTube comments, sentiment analysis is an intriguing issue because of the poor consistency and quality of the material found there. The purpose of this work is to use machine learning techniques and algorithms to do sentiment analysis on YouTube comments pertaining to popular themes. The findings demonstrate that sentiment analysis is capable of giving a clear picture of how actual events affect public opinion. This study aims to make it easier for academics to find high-quality sentiment analysis research publications. Data normalisation methods are used to clean an annotated corpus of 1500 citation sentences for the study. .For classification, a system utilising one machine learning algorithm—K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Na ̈ıve Bayes, SVC (Support Vector Machine), and RandomForest—is built. Metrics like the f1-score and correctness score are used to assess the correctness of the system.

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KEC_HAWKS@DravidianLangTech 2024 : Detecting Malayalam Fake News using Machine Learning Models
Malliga Subramanian | Jayanthjr J R | Muthu Karuppan P | Keerthibala T | Kogilavani Shanmugavadivel

The proliferation of fake news in the Malayalam language across digital platforms has emerged as a pressing issue. By employing Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), a type of machine learning model, we aim to distinguish between Original and Fake News in Malayalam and achieved 9th rank in Task 1.RNNs are chosen for their ability to understand the sequence of words in a sentence, which is important in languages like Malayalam. Our main goal is to develop better models that can spot fake news effectively. We analyze various features to understand what contributes most to this accuracy. By doing so, we hope to provide a reliable method for identifying and combating fake news in the Malayalam language.

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Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Uncertainty-Aware NLP (UncertaiNLP 2024)

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Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Uncertainty-Aware NLP (UncertaiNLP 2024)
Raúl Vázquez | Hande Celikkanat | Dennis Ulmer | Jörg Tiedemann | Swabha Swayamdipta | Wilker Aziz | Barbara Plank | Joris Baan | Marie-Catherine de Marneffe

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Calibration-Tuning: Teaching Large Language Models to Know What They Don’t Know
Sanyam Kapoor | Nate Gruver | Manley Roberts | Arka Pal | Samuel Dooley | Micah Goldblum | Andrew Wilson

Large language models are increasingly deployed for high-stakes decision making, for example in financial and medical applications. In such applications, it is imperative that we be able to estimate our confidence in the answers output by a language model in order to assess risks. Although we can easily compute the probability assigned by a language model to the sequence of tokens that make up an answer, we cannot easily compute the probability of the answer itself, which could be phrased in numerous ways.While other works have engineered ways of assigning such probabilities to LLM outputs, a key problem remains: existing language models are poorly calibrated, often confident when they are wrong or unsure when they are correct. In this work, we devise a protocol called *calibration tuning* for finetuning LLMs to output calibrated probabilities. Calibration-tuned models demonstrate superior calibration performance compared to existing language models on a variety of question-answering tasks, including open-ended generation, without affecting accuracy. We further show that this ability transfers to new domains outside of the calibration-tuning train set.

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Context Tuning for Retrieval Augmented Generation
Raviteja Anantha | Danil Vodianik

Large language models (LLMs) have the remarkable ability to solve new tasks with just a few examples, but they need access to the right tools. Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG) addresses this problem by retrieving a list of relevant tools for a given task. However, RAG’s tool retrieval step requires all the required information to be explicitly present in the query. This is a limitation, as semantic search, the widely adopted tool retrieval method, can fail when the query is incomplete or lacks context. To address this limitation, we propose Context Tuning for RAG, which employs a smart context retrieval system to fetch relevant information that improves both tool retrieval and plan generation. Our lightweight context retrieval model uses numerical, categorical, and habitual usage signals to retrieve and rank context items. Our empirical results demonstrate that context tuning significantly enhances semantic search, achieving a 3.5-fold and 1.5-fold improvement in Recall@K for context retrieval and tool retrieval tasks respectively, and resulting in an 11.6% increase in LLM-based planner accuracy. Additionally, we show that our proposed lightweight model using Reciprocal Rank Fusion (RRF) with LambdaMART outperforms GPT-4 based retrieval. Moreover, we observe context augmentation at plan generation, even after tool retrieval, reduces hallucination.

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Optimizing Relation Extraction in Medical Texts through Active Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Trade-offs
Siting Liang | Pablo Sánchez | Daniel Sonntag

This work explores the effectiveness of employing Clinical BERT for Relation Extraction (RE) tasks in medical texts within an Active Learning (AL) framework. Our main objective is to optimize RE in medical texts through AL while examining the trade-offs between performance and computation time, comparing it with alternative methods like Random Forest and BiLSTM networks. Comparisons extend to feature engineering requirements, performance metrics, and considerations of annotation costs, including AL step times and annotation rates. The utilization of AL strategies aligns with our broader goal of enhancing the efficiency of relation classification models, particularly when dealing with the challenges of annotating complex medical texts in a Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) setting. The results indicate that uncertainty-based sampling achieves comparable performance with significantly fewer annotated samples across three categories of supervised learning methods, thereby reducing annotation costs for clinical and biomedical corpora. While Clinical BERT exhibits clear performance advantages across two different corpora, the trade-off involves longer computation times in interactive annotation processes. In real-world applications, where practical feasibility and timely results are crucial, optimizing this trade-off becomes imperative.

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Linguistic Obfuscation Attacks and Large Language Model Uncertainty
Sebastian Steindl | Ulrich Schäfer | Bernd Ludwig | Patrick Levi

Large Language Models (LLMs) have taken the research field of Natural Language Processing by storm. Researchers are not only investigating their capabilities and possible applications, but also their weaknesses and how they may be exploited.This has resulted in various attacks and “jailbreaking” approaches that have gained large interest within the community.The vulnerability of LLMs to certain types of input may pose major risks regarding the real-world usage of LLMs in productive operations.We therefore investigate the relationship between a LLM’s uncertainty and its vulnerability to jailbreaking attacks.To this end, we focus on a probabilistic point of view of uncertainty and employ a state-of-the art open-source LLM.We investigate an attack that is based on linguistic obfuscation.Our results indicate that the model is subject to a higher level of uncertainty when confronted with manipulated prompts that aim to evade security mechanisms.This study lays the foundation for future research into the link between model uncertainty and its vulnerability to jailbreaks.

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Aligning Uncertainty: Leveraging LLMs to Analyze Uncertainty Transfer in Text Summarization
Zahra Kolagar | Alessandra Zarcone

Automatically generated summaries can be evaluated along different dimensions, one being how faithfully the uncertainty from the source text is conveyed in the summary. We present a study on uncertainty alignment in automatic summarization, starting from a two-tier lexical and semantic categorization of linguistic expression of uncertainty, which we used to annotate source texts and automatically generate summaries. We collected a diverse dataset including news articles and personal blogs and generated summaries using GPT-4. Source texts and summaries were annotated based on our two-tier taxonomy using a markup language. The automatic annotation was refined and validated by subsequent iterations based on expert input. We propose a method to evaluate the fidelity of uncertainty transfer in text summarization. The method capitalizes on a small amount of expert annotations and on the capabilities of Large language models (LLMs) to evaluate how the uncertainty of the source text aligns with the uncertainty expressions in the summary.

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How Does Beam Search improve Span-Level Confidence Estimation in Generative Sequence Labeling?
Kazuma Hashimoto | Iftekhar Naim | Karthik Raman

Sequence labeling is a core task in text understanding for IE/IR systems. Text generation models have increasingly become the go-to solution for such tasks (e.g., entity extraction and dialog slot filling). While most research has focused on the labeling accuracy, a key aspect – of vital practical importance – has slipped through the cracks: understanding model confidence. More specifically, we lack a principled understanding of how to reliably gauge the confidence of a model in its predictions for each labeled span. This paper aims to provide some empirical insights on estimating model confidence for generative sequence labeling. Most notably, we find that simply using the decoder’s output probabilities is not the best in realizing well-calibrated confidence estimates. As verified over six public datasets of different tasks, we show that our proposed approach – which leverages statistics from top-k predictions by a beam search – significantly reduces calibration errors of the predictions of a generative sequence labeling model.

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Efficiently Acquiring Human Feedback with Bayesian Deep Learning
Haishuo Fang | Jeet Gor | Edwin Simpson

Learning from human feedback can improve models for text generation or passage ranking, aligning them better to a user’s needs. Data is often collected by asking users to compare alternative outputs to a given input, which may require a large number of comparisons to learn a ranking function. The amount of comparisons needed can be reduced using Bayesian Optimisation (BO) to query the user about only the most promising candidate outputs. Previous applications of BO to text ranking relied on shallow surrogate models to learn ranking functions over candidate outputs,and were therefore unable to fine-tune rankers based on deep, pretrained language models. This paper leverages Bayesian deep learning (BDL) to adapt pretrained language models to highly specialised text ranking tasks, using BO to tune the model with a small number of pairwise preferences between candidate outputs. We apply our approach to community question answering (cQA) and extractive multi-document summarisation (MDS) with simulated noisy users, finding that our BDL approach significantly outperforms both a shallow Gaussian process model and traditional active learning with a standard deep neural network, while remaining robust to noise in the user feedback.

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Order Effects in Annotation Tasks: Further Evidence of Annotation Sensitivity
Jacob Beck | Stephanie Eckman | Bolei Ma | Rob Chew | Frauke Kreuter

The data-centric revolution in AI has revealed the importance of high-quality training data for developing successful AI models. However, annotations are sensitive to annotator characteristics, training materials, and to the design and wording of the data collection instrument. This paper explores the impact of observation order on annotations. We find that annotators’ judgments change based on the order in which they see observations. We use ideas from social psychology to motivate hypotheses about why this order effect occurs. We believe that insights from social science can help AI researchers improve data and model quality.

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The Effect of Generalisation on the Inadequacy of the Mode
Bryan Eikema

The highest probability sequences of most neural language generation models tend to be degenerate in some way, a problem known as the inadequacy of the mode. While many approaches to tackling particular aspects of the problem exist, such as dealing with too short sequences or excessive repetitions, explanations of why it occurs in the first place are rarer and do not agree with each other. We believe none of the existing explanations paint a complete picture. In this position paper, we want to bring light to the incredible complexity of the modelling task and the problems that generalising to previously unseen contexts bring. We argue that our desire for models to generalise to contexts it has never observed before is exactly what leads to spread of probability mass and inadequate modes. While we do not claim that adequate modes are impossible, we argue that they are not to be expected either.

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Uncertainty Resolution in Misinformation Detection
Yury Orlovskiy | Camille Thibault | Anne Imouza | Jean-François Godbout | Reihaneh Rabbany | Kellin Pelrine

Misinformation poses a variety of risks, such as undermining public trust and distorting factual discourse. Large Language Models (LLMs) like GPT-4 have been shown effective in mitigating misinformation, particularly in handling statements where enough context is provided. However, they struggle to assess ambiguous or context-deficient statements accurately. This work introduces a new method to resolve uncertainty in such statements. We propose a framework to categorize missing information and publish category labels for the LIAR-New dataset, which is adaptable to cross-domain content with missing information. We then leverage this framework to generate effective user queries for missing context. Compared to baselines, our method improves the rate at which generated questions are answerable by the user by 38 percentage points and classification performance by over 10 percentage points macro F1. Thus, this approach may provide a valuable component for future misinformation mitigation pipelines.

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Don’t Blame the Data, Blame the Model: Understanding Noise and Bias When Learning from Subjective Annotations
Abhishek Anand | Negar Mokhberian | Prathyusha Kumar | Anweasha Saha | Zihao He | Ashwin Rao | Fred Morstatter | Kristina Lerman

Researchers have raised awareness about the harms of aggregating labels especially in subjective tasks that naturally contain disagreements among human annotators. In this work we show that models that are only provided aggregated labels show low confidence on high-disagreement data instances. While previous studies consider such instances as mislabeled, we argue that the reason the high-disagreement text instances have been hard-to-learn is that the conventional aggregated models underperform in extracting useful signals from subjective tasks. Inspired by recent studies demonstrating the effectiveness of learning from raw annotations, we investigate classifying using Multiple Ground Truth (Multi-GT) approaches. Our experiments show an improvement of confidence for the high-disagreement instances.

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Combining Confidence Elicitation and Sample-based Methods for Uncertainty Quantification in Misinformation Mitigation
Mauricio Rivera | Jean-François Godbout | Reihaneh Rabbany | Kellin Pelrine

Large Language Models have emerged as prime candidates to tackle misinformation mitigation. However, existing approaches struggle with hallucinations and overconfident predictions. We propose an uncertainty quantification framework that leverages both direct confidence elicitation and sampled-based consistency methods to provide better calibration for NLP misinformation mitigation solutions. We first investigate the calibration of sample-based consistency methods that exploit distinct features of consistency across sample sizes and stochastic levels. Next, we evaluate the performance and distributional shift of a robust numeric verbalization prompt across single vs. two-step confidence elicitation procedure. We also compare the performance of the same prompt with different versions of GPT and different numerical scales. Finally, we combine the sample-based consistency and verbalized methods to propose a hybrid framework that yields a better uncertainty estimation for GPT models. Overall, our work proposes novel uncertainty quantification methods that will improve the reliability of Large Language Models in misinformation mitigation applications.

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Linguistically Communicating Uncertainty in Patient-Facing Risk Prediction Models
Adarsa Sivaprasad | Ehud Reiter

This paper addresses the unique challenges associated with uncertainty quantification in AI models when applied to patient-facing contexts within healthcare. Unlike traditional eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) methods tailored for model developers or domain experts, additional considerations of communicating in natural language, its presentation and evaluating understandability are necessary. We identify the challenges in communication model performance, confidence, reasoning and unknown knowns using natural language in the context of risk prediction. We propose a design aimed at addressing these challenges, focusing on the specific application of in-vitro fertilisation outcome prediction.

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Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Research in Computational Linguistic Typology and Multilingual NLP

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Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Research in Computational Linguistic Typology and Multilingual NLP
Michael Hahn | Alexey Sorokin | Ritesh Kumar | Andreas Shcherbakov | Yulia Otmakhova | Jinrui Yang | Oleg Serikov | Priya Rani | Edoardo M. Ponti | Saliha Muradoğlu | Rena Gao | Ryan Cotterell | Ekaterina Vylomova

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Syntactic dependency length shaped by strategic memory allocation
Weijie Xu | Richard Futrell

Human processing of nonlocal syntactic dependencies requires engagement of limited working memory for encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. This process creates an evolutionary pressure for language to be structured in a way that keeps the subparts of a dependency closer to each other, an efficiency principle termed dependency locality. The current study proposes that such a dependency locality pressure can be modulated by the surprisal of the antecedent, defined as the first part of a dependency, due to strategic allocation of working memory. In particular, antecedents with novel and unpredictable information are prioritized for memory encoding, receiving more robust representation against memory interference and decay, and thus are more capable of handling longer dependency length. We examine this claim by examining dependency corpora of six languages (Danish, English, Italian, Mandarin, Russian, and Spanish), with word surprisal generated from GPT-3 language model. In support of our hypothesis, we find evidence for a positive correlation between dependency length and the antecedent surprisal in most of the languages in our analyses.

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GUIDE: Creating Semantic Domain Dictionaries for Low-Resource Languages
Jonathan Janetzki | Gerard De Melo | Joshua Nemecek | Daniel Whitenack

Over 7,000 of the world’s 7,168 living languages are still low-resourced. This paper aims to narrow the language documentation gap by creating multiparallel dictionaries, clustered by SIL’s semantic domains. This task is new for machine learning and has previously been done manually by native speakers. We propose GUIDE, a language-agnostic tool that uses a GNN to create and populate semantic domain dictionaries, using seed dictionaries and Bible translations as a parallel text corpus. Our work sets a new benchmark, achieving an exemplary average precision of 60% in eight zero-shot evaluation languages and predicting an average of 2,400 dictionary entries. We share the code, model, multilingual evaluation data, and new dictionaries with the research community: https://github.com/janetzki/GUIDE

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A New Dataset for Tonal and Segmental Dialectometry from the Yue- and Pinghua-Speaking Area
Ho Sung | Jelena Prokic | Yiya Chen

Traditional dialectology or dialect geography is the study of geographical variation of language. Originated in Europe and pioneered in Germany and France, this field has predominantly been focusing on sounds, more specifically, on segments. Similarly, quantitative approaches to language variation concerned with the phonetic level are in most cases focusing on segments as well. However, more than half of the world’s languages include lexical tones (Yip, 2002). Despite this, tones are still underexplored in quantitative language comparison, partly due to the low accessibility of the suitable data. This paper aims to introduce a newly digitised dataset which comes from the Yue- and Pinghua-speaking areas in Southern China, with over 100 dialects. This dataset consists of two parts: tones and segments. In this paper, we illustrate how we can computationaly model tones in order to explore linguistic variation. We have applied a tone distance metric on our data, and we have found that 1) dialects also form a continuum on the tonal level and 2) other than tonemic (inventory) and tonetic differences, dialects can also differ in the lexical distribution of tones. The availability of this dataset will hopefully enable further exploration of the role of tones in quantitative typology and NLP research.

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A Computational Model for the Assessment of Mutual Intelligibility Among Closely Related Languages
Jessica Nieder | Johann-Mattis List

Closely related languages show linguistic similarities that allow speakers of one language to understand speakers of another language without having actively learned it. Mutual intelligibility varies in degree and is typically tested in psycholinguistic experiments. To study mutual intelligibility computationally, we propose a computer-assisted method using the Linear Discriminative Learner, a computational model developed to approximate the cognitive processes by which humans learn languages, which we expand with multilingual semantic vectors and multilingual sound classes. We test the model on cognate data from German, Dutch, and English, three closely related Germanic languages. We find that our model’s comprehension accuracy depends on 1) the automatic trimming of inflections and 2) the language pair for which comprehension is tested. Our multilingual modelling approach does not only offer new methodological findings for automatic testing of mutual intelligibility across languages but also extends the use of Linear Discriminative Learning to multilingual settings.

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Predicting Mandarin and Cantonese Adult Speakers’ Eye-Movement Patterns in Natural Reading
Li Junlin | Yu-Yin Hsu | Emmanuele Chersoni | Bo Peng

Please find the attached PDF file for the extended abstract of our study.

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The Typology of Ellipsis: A Corpus for Linguistic Analysis and Machine Learning Applications
Damir Cavar | Ludovic Mompelat | Muhammad Abdo

State-of-the-art (SotA) Natural Language Processing (NLP) technology faces significant challenges with constructions that contain ellipses. Although theoretically well-documented and understood, there needs to be more sufficient cross-linguistic language resources to document, study, and ultimately engineer NLP solutions that can adequately provide analyses for ellipsis constructions. This article describes the typological data set on ellipsis that we created for currently seventeen languages. We demonstrate how SotA parsers based on a variety of syntactic frameworks fail to parse sentences with ellipsis, and in fact, probabilistic, neural, and Large Language Models (LLM) do so, too. We demonstrate experiments that focus on detecting sentences with ellipsis, predicting the position of elided elements, and predicting elided surface forms in the appropriate positions. We show that cross-linguistic variation of ellipsis-related phenomena has different consequences for the architecture of NLP systems.

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Language Atlas of Japanese and Ryukyuan (LAJaR): A Linguistic Typology Database for Endangered Japonic Languages
Kanji Kato | So Miyagawa | Natsuko Nakagawa

LAJaR (Language Atlas of Japanese and Ryukyuan) is a linguistic typology database focusing on micro-variation of the Japonic (Japanese and Ryukyuan) languages. This paper aims to report the design and progress of this ongoing database project. Finally, we also show a case study utilizing its database on zero copulas among the Japonic languages.

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GTNC: A Many-To-One Dataset of Google Translations from NewsCrawl
Damiaan Reijnaers | Charlotte Pouw

This paper lays the groundwork for initiating research into Source Language Identification; the task of identifying the original language of a machine-translated text. We contribute a dataset of translations from a typologically diverse spectrum of languages into English and use it to set initial baselines for this novel task.

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Sociolinguistically Informed Interpretability: A Case Study on Hinglish Emotion Classification
Kushal Tatariya | Heather Lent | Johannes Bjerva | Miryam De Lhoneux

Emotion classification is a challenging task in NLP due to the inherent idiosyncratic and subjective nature of linguistic expression,especially with code-mixed data. Pre-trained language models (PLMs) have achieved high performance for many tasks and languages, but it remains to be seen whether these models learn and are robust to the differences in emotional expression across languages. Sociolinguistic studies have shown that Hinglish speakers switch to Hindi when expressing negative emotions and to English when expressing positive emotions. To understand if language models can learn these associations, we study the effect of language on emotion prediction across 3 PLMs on a Hinglish emotion classification dataset. Using LIME and token level language ID, we find that models do learn these associations between language choice and emotional expression. Moreover, having code-mixed data present in the pre-training can augment that learning when task-specific data is scarce. We also conclude from the misclassifications that the models may overgeneralise this heuristic to other infrequent examples where this sociolinguistic phenomenon does not apply.

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A Call for Consistency in Reporting Typological Diversity
Wessel Poelman | Esther Ploeger | Miryam De Lhoneux | Johannes Bjerva

In order to draw generalizable conclusions about the performance of multilingual models across languages, it is important to evaluate on a set of languages that captures linguistic diversity.Linguistic typology is increasingly used to justify language selection, inspired by language sampling in linguistics.However, justifications for ‘typological diversity’ exhibit great variation, as there seems to be no set definition, methodology or consistent link to linguistic typology.In this work, we provide a systematic insight into how previous work in the ACL Anthology uses the term ‘typological diversity’.Our two main findings are: 1) what is meant by typologically diverse language selection is not consistent and 2) the actual typological diversity of the language sets in these papers varies greatly.We argue that, when making claims about ‘typological diversity’, an operationalization of this should be included.A systematic approach that quantifies this claim, also with respect to the number of languages used, would be even better.

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Are Sounds Sound for Phylogenetic Reconstruction?
Luise Häuser | Gerhard Jäger | Johann-Mattis List | Taraka Rama | Alexandros Stamatakis

In traditional studies on language evolution, scholars often emphasize the importance of sound laws and sound correspondences for phylogenetic inference of language family trees. However, to date, computational approaches have typically not taken this potential into account. Most computational studies still rely on lexical cognates as major data source for phylogenetic reconstruction in linguistics, although there do exist a few studies in which authors praise the benefits of comparing words at the level of sound sequences. Building on (a) ten diverse datasets from different language families, and (b) state-of-the-art methods for automated cognate and sound correspondence detection, we test, for the first time, the performance of sound-based versus cognate-based approaches to phylogenetic reconstruction. Our results show that phylogenies reconstructed from lexical cognates are topologically closer, by approximately one third with respect to the generalized quartet distance on average, to the gold standard phylogenies than phylogenies reconstructed from sound correspondences.

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Compounds in Universal Dependencies: A Survey in Five European Languages
Emil Svoboda | Magda Ševčíková

In Universal Dependencies, compounds, which we understand as words containing two or more roots, are represented according to tokenization, which reflects the orthographic conventions of the language. A closed compound (e.g. waterfall) corresponds to a single word in Universal Dependencies while a hyphenated compound (father-in-law) and an open compound (apple pie) to multiple words. The aim of this paper is to open a discussion on how to move towards a more consistent annotation of compounds.The solution we argue for is to represent the internal structure of all compound types analogously to syntactic phrases, which would not only increase the comparability of compounding within and across languages, but also allow comparisons of compounds and syntactic phrases.

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Predicting positive transfer for improved low-resource speech recognition using acoustic pseudo-tokens
Nay San | Georgios Paraskevopoulos | Aryaman Arora | Xiluo He | Prabhjot Kaur | Oliver Adams | Dan Jurafsky

While massively multilingual speech models like wav2vec 2.0 XLSR-128 can be directly fine-tuned for automatic speech recognition (ASR), downstream performance can still be relatively poor on languages that are under-represented in the pre-training data. Continued pre-training on 70–200 hours of untranscribed speech in these languages can help — but what about languages without that much recorded data? For such cases, we show that supplementing the target language with data from a similar, higher-resource ‘donor’ language can help. For example, continued pretraining on only 10 hours of low-resource Punjabi supplemented with 60 hours of donor Hindi is almost as good as continued pretraining on 70 hours of Punjabi. By contrast, sourcing supplemental data from less similar donors like Bengali does not improve ASR performance. To inform donor language selection, we propose a novel similarity metric based on the sequence distribution of induced acoustic units: the Acoustic Token Distribution Similarity (ATDS). Across a set of typologically different target languages (Punjabi, Galician, Iban, Setswana), we show that the ATDS between the target language and its candidate donors precisely predicts target language ASR performance.

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ModeLing: A Novel Dataset for Testing Linguistic Reasoning in Language Models
Nathan Chi | Teodor Malchev | Riley Kong | Ryan Chi | Lucas Huang | Ethan Chi | R. McCoy | Dragomir Radev

Large language models (LLMs) perform well on (at least) some evaluations of both few-shot multilingual adaptation and reasoning. However, evaluating the intersection of these two skills—multilingual few-shot reasoning—is difficult: even relatively low-resource languages can be found in large training corpora, raising the concern that when we intend to evaluate a model’s ability to generalize to a new language, that language may have in fact been present during the model’s training. If such language contamination has occurred, apparent cases of few-shot reasoning could actually be due to memorization. Towards understanding the capability of models to perform multilingual few-shot reasoning, we propose modeLing, a benchmark of Rosetta stone puzzles. This type of puzzle, originating from competitions called Linguistics Olympiads, contain a small number of sentences in a target language not previously known to the solver. Each sentence is translated to the solver’s language such that the provided sentence pairs uniquely specify a single most reasonable underlying set of rules; solving requires applying these rules to translate new expressions (Figure 1). modeLing languages are chosen to be extremely low-resource such that the risk of training data contamination is low, and unlike prior datasets, it consists entirely of problems written specifically for this work, as a further measure against data leakage. Empirically, we find evidence that popular LLMs do not have data leakage on our benchmark.

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TartuNLP @ SIGTYP 2024 Shared Task: Adapting XLM-RoBERTa for Ancient and Historical Languages
Aleksei Dorkin | Kairit Sirts

We present our submission to the unconstrained subtask of the SIGTYP 2024 Shared Task on Word Embedding Evaluation for Ancient and Historical Languages for morphological annotation, POS-tagging, lemmatization, characterand word-level gap-filling. We developed a simple, uniform, and computationally lightweight approach based on the adapters framework using parameter-efficient fine-tuning. We applied the same adapter-based approach uniformly to all tasks and 16 languages by fine-tuning stacked language- and task-specific adapters. Our submission obtained an overall second place out of three submissions, with the first place in word-level gap-filling. Our results show the feasibility of adapting language models pre-trained on modern languages to historical and ancient languages via adapter training.

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Heidelberg-Boston @ SIGTYP 2024 Shared Task: Enhancing Low-Resource Language Analysis With Character-Aware Hierarchical Transformers
Frederick Riemenschneider | Kevin Krahn

Historical languages present unique challenges to the NLP community, with one prominent hurdle being the limited resources available in their closed corpora. This work describes our submission to the constrained subtask of the SIGTYP 2024 shared task, focusing on PoS tagging, morphological tagging, and lemmatization for 13 historical languages. For PoS and morphological tagging we adapt a hierarchical tokenization method from Sun et al. (2023) and combine it with the advantages of the DeBERTa-V3 architecture, enabling our models to efficiently learn from every character in the training data. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of characterlevel T5 models on the lemmatization task. Pre-trained from scratch with limited data, our models achieved first place in the constrained subtask, nearly reaching the performance levels of the unconstrained task’s winner. Our code is available at https://github.com/bowphs/ SIGTYP-2024-hierarchical-transformers

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UDParse @ SIGTYP 2024 Shared Task : Modern Language Models for Historical Languages
Johannes Heinecke

SIGTYP’s Shared Task on Word Embedding Evaluation for Ancient and Historical Languages was proposed in two variants, constrained or unconstrained. Whereas the constrained variant disallowed any other data to train embeddings or models than the data provided, the unconstrained variant did not have these limits. We participated in the five tasks of the unconstrained variant and came out first. The tasks were the prediction of part-of-speech, lemmas and morphological features and filling masked words and masked characters on 16 historical languages. We decided to use a dependency parser and train the data using an underlying pretrained transformer model to predict part-of-speech tags, lemmas, and morphological features. For predicting masked words, we used multilingual distilBERT (with rather bad results). In order to predict masked characters, our language model is extremely small: it is a model of 5-gram frequencies, obtained by reading the available training data.

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Allen Institute for AI @ SIGTYP 2024 Shared Task on Word Embedding Evaluation for Ancient and Historical Languages
Lester James Miranda

In this paper, we describe Allen AI’s submission to the constrained track of the SIGTYP 2024 Shared Task. Using only the data provided by the organizers, we pretrained a transformer-based multilingual model, then finetuned it on the Universal Dependencies (UD) annotations of a given language for a downstream task. Our systems achieved decent performance on the test set, beating the baseline in most language-task pairs, yet struggles with subtoken tags in multiword expressions as seen in Coptic and Ancient Hebrew. On the validation set, we obtained ≥70% F1- score on most language-task pairs. In addition, we also explored the cross-lingual capability of our trained models. This paper highlights our pretraining and finetuning process, and our findings from our internal evaluations.

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Findings of the SIGTYP 2024 Shared Task on Word Embedding Evaluation for Ancient and Historical Languages
Oksana Dereza | Adrian Doyle | Priya Rani | Atul Kr. Ojha | Pádraic Moran | John McCrae

This paper discusses the organisation and findings of the SIGTYP 2024 Shared Task on Word Embedding Evaluation for Ancient and Historical Languages. The shared task was split into the constrained and unconstrained tracks and involved solving either 3 or 5 problems for either 13 or 16 ancient and historical languages belonging to 4 language families, and making use of 6 different scripts. There were 14 registrations in total, of which 3 teams submitted to each track. Out of these 6 submissions, 2 systems were successful in the constrained setting and another 2 in the uncon- strained setting, and 4 system description papers were submitted by different teams. The best average result for morphological feature prediction was about 96%, while the best average results for POS-tagging and lemmatisation were 96% and 94% respectively. At the word level, the winning team could not achieve a higher average accuracy across all 16 languages than 5.95%, which demonstrates the difficulty of this problem. At the character level, the best average result over 16 languages 55.62%

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Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text (CASE 2024)

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Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text (CASE 2024)
Ali Hürriyetoğlu | Hristo Tanev | Surendrabikram Thapa | Gökçe Uludoğan

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The Future of Web Data Mining: Insights from Multimodal and Code-based Extraction Methods
Evan Fellman | Jacob Tyo | Zachary Lipton

The extraction of structured data from websites is critical for numerous Artificial Intelligence applications, but modern web design increasingly stores information visually in images rather than in text. This shift calls into question the optimal technique, as language-only models fail without textual cues while new multimodal models like GPT-4 promise image understanding abilities. We conduct the first rigorous comparison between text-based and vision-based models for extracting event metadata harvested from comic convention websites. Surprisingly, our results between GPT-4 Vision and GPT-4 Text uncover a significant accuracy advantage for vision-based methods in an applies-to-apples setting, indicating that vision models may be outpacing language-alone techniques in the task of information extraction from websites. We release our dataset and provide a qualitative analysis to guide further research in multi-modal models for web information extraction.

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Fine-Tuning Language Models on Dutch Protest Event Tweets
Meagan Loerakker | Laurens Müter | Marijn Schraagen

Being able to obtain timely information about an event, like a protest, becomes increasingly more relevant with the rise of affective polarisation and social unrest over the world. Nowadays, large-scale protests tend to be organised and broadcast through social media. Analysing social media platforms like X has proven to be an effective method to follow events during a protest. Thus, we trained several language models on Dutch tweets to analyse their ability to classify if a tweet expresses discontent, considering these tweets may contain practical information about a protest. Our results show that models pre-trained on Twitter data, including Bernice and TwHIN-BERT, outperform models that are not. Additionally, the results showed that Sentence Transformers is a promising model. The added value of oversampling is greater for models that were not trained on Twitter data. In line with previous work, pre-processing the data did not help a transformer language model to make better predictions.

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Timeline Extraction from Decision Letters Using ChatGPT
Femke Bakker | Ruben Van Heusden | Maarten Marx

Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) legislation grants citizens the right to request information from various levels of the government, and aims to promote the transparency of governmental agencies. However, the processing of these requests is often met with delays, due to the inherent complexity of gathering the required documents. To obtain accurate estimates of the processing times of requests, and to identify bottlenecks in the process, this research proposes a pipeline to automatically extract these timelines from decision letters of Dutch FOIA requests. These decision letters are responses to requests, and contain an overview of the process, including when the request was received, and possible communication between the requester and the relevant agency. The proposed pipeline can extract dates with an accuracy of .94, extract event phrases with a mean ROUGE- L F1 score of .80 and can classify events with a macro F1 score of .79.Out of the 50 decision letters used for testing (each letter containing one timeline), the model correctly classified 10 of the timelines completely correct, with an average of 3.1 mistakes per decision letter.

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Leveraging Approximate Pattern Matching with BERT for Event Detection
Hristo Tanev

We describe a new weakly supervised method for sentence-level event detection, based exclusively on linear prototype patterns like “people got sick” or “a roadside bomb killed people”. We propose a new BERT based algorithm for approximate pattern matching to identify event phrases, semantically similar to these prototypes. To the best of our knowledge, a similar approach has not been used in the context of event detection. We experimented with two event corpora in the area of disease outbreaks and terrorism and we achieved promising results in sentence level event identification: 0.78 F1 score for new disease cases detection and 0.68 F1 in detecting terrorist attacks. Results were in line with some state-of-the-art systems.

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Socio-political Events of Conflict and Unrest: A Survey of Available Datasets
Helene Olsen | Étienne Simon | Erik Velldal | Lilja Øvrelid

There is a large and growing body of literature on datasets created to facilitate the study of socio-political events of conflict and unrest. However, the datasets, and the approaches taken to create them, vary a lot depending on the type of research they are intended to support. For example, while scholars from natural language processing (NLP) tend to focus on annotating specific spans of text indicating various components of an event, scholars from the disciplines of political science and conflict studies tend to focus on creating databases that code an abstract but structured representation of the event, less tied to a specific source text.The survey presented in this paper aims to map out the current landscape of available event datasets within the domain of social and political conflict and unrest – both from the NLP and political science communities – offering a unified view of the work done across different disciplines.

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Evaluating ChatGPT’s Ability to Detect Hate Speech in Turkish Tweets
Somaiyeh Dehghan | Berrin Yanikoglu

ChatGPT, developed by OpenAI, has made a significant impact on the world, mainly on how people interact with technology. In this study, we evaluate ChatGPT’s ability to detect hate speech in Turkish tweets and measure its strength using zero- and few-shot paradigms and compare the results to the supervised fine-tuning BERT model. On evaluations with the SIU2023-NST dataset, ChatGPT achieved 65.81% accuracy in detecting hate speech for the few-shot setting, while BERT with supervised fine-tuning achieved 82.22% accuracy. This results supports previous findings that show that, despite its much smaller size, BERT is more suitable for natural language classifications tasks such as hate speech detection.

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YYama@Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection 2024: Simpler Prompts, Better Results - Enhancing Zero-shot Detection with a Large Multimodal Model
Yosuke Yamagishi

This paper introduces a zero-shot hate detection experiment using a multimodal large model. Although the implemented model comprises an unsupervised method, results demonstrate that its performance is comparable to previous supervised methods. Furthemore, this study proposed experiments with various prompts and demonstrated that simpler prompts, as opposed to the commonly used detailed prompts in large language models, led to better performance for multimodal hate speech event detection tasks. While supervised methods offer high performance, they require significant computational resources for training, and the approach proposed here can mitigate this issue.The code is publicly available at https://github.com/yamagishi0824/zeroshot-hate-detect.

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RACAI at ClimateActivism 2024: Improving Detection of Hate Speech by Extending LLM Predictions with Handcrafted Features
Vasile Păiș

This paper describes the system that participated in the Climate Activism Stance and Hate Event Detection shared task organized at The 7th Workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text (CASE 2024). The system tackles the important task of hate speech detection by combining large language model predictions with manually designed features, while trying to explain where the LLM approach fails to predict the correct results.

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CLTL@Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection 2024: The Winning Approach to Detecting Multimodal Hate Speech and Its Targets
Yeshan Wang | Ilia Markov

In the context of the proliferation of multimodal hate speech related to the Russia-Ukraine conflict, we introduce a unified multimodal fusion system for detecting hate speech and its targets in text-embedded images. Our approach leverages the Twitter-based RoBERTa and Swin Transformer V2 models to encode textual and visual modalities, and employs the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) fusion mechanism for classification. Our system achieved macro F1 scores of 87.27% for hate speech detection and 80.05% for hate speech target detection in the Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection Challenge 2024, securing the 1st rank in both subtasks. We open-source the trained models at https://huggingface.co/Yestin-Wang

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HAMiSoN-Generative at ClimateActivism 2024: Stance Detection using generative large language models
Jesus M. Fraile-Hernandez | Anselmo Peñas

CASE in EACL 2024 proposes the shared task on Hate Speech and Stance Detection during Climate Activism. In our participation in the stance detection task, we have tested different approaches using LLMs for this classification task. We have tested a generative model using the classical seq2seq structure. Subsequently, we have considerably improved the results by replacing the last layer of these LLMs with a classifier layer. We have also studied how the performance is affected by the amount of data used in training. For this purpose, a partition of the dataset has been used and external data from posture detection tasks has been added.

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JRC at ClimateActivism 2024: Lexicon-based Detection of Hate Speech
Hristo Tanev

In this paper we describe the participation of the JRC team in the Sub-task A: “Hate Speech Detection” in the Shared task on Hate Speech and Stance Detection during Climate Activism at the CASE 2024 workshop. Our system is purely lexicon (keyword) based and does not use any statistical classifier. The system ranked 18 out of 22 participants with F1 of 0.83, only one point below a system, based on LLM. Our system also obtained one the highest achieved precision scores among all participating algo- rithms.

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HAMiSoN-MTL at ClimateActivism 2024: Detection of Hate Speech, Targets, and Stance using Multi-task Learning
Raquel Rodriguez-Garcia | Roberto Centeno

The automatic identification of hate speech constitutes an important task, playing a relevant role towards inclusivity. In these terms, the shared task on Climate Activism Stance and Hate Event Detection at CASE 2024 proposes the analysis of Twitter messages related to climate change activism for three subtasks. Subtasks A and C aim at detecting hate speech and establishing the stance of the tweet, respectively, while subtask B seeks to determine the target of the hate speech. In this paper, we describe our approach to the given subtasks. Our systems leverage transformer-based multi-task learning. Additionally, since the dataset contains a low number of tweets, we have studied the effect of adding external data to increase the learning of the model. With our approach we achieve the fourth position on subtask C on the final leaderboard, with minimal difference from the first position, showcasing the strength of multi-task learning.

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NLPDame at ClimateActivism 2024: Mistral Sequence Classification with PEFT for Hate Speech, Targets and Stance Event Detection
Christina Christodoulou

The paper presents the approach developed for the “Climate Activism Stance and Hate Event Detection” Shared Task at CASE 2024, comprising three sub-tasks. The Shared Task aimed to create a system capable of detecting hate speech, identifying the targets of hate speech, and determining the stance regarding climate change activism events in English tweets. The approach involved data cleaning and pre-processing, addressing data imbalance, and fine-tuning the “mistralai/Mistral-7B-v0.1” LLM for sequence classification using PEFT (Parameter-Efficient Fine-Tuning). The LLM was fine-tuned using two PEFT methods, namely LoRA and prompt tuning, for each sub-task, resulting in the development of six Mistral-7B fine-tuned models in total. Although both methods surpassed the baseline model scores of the task organizers, the prompt tuning method yielded the highest results. Specifically, the prompt tuning method achieved a Macro-F1 score of 0.8649, 0.6106 and 0.6930 in the test data of sub-tasks A, B and C, respectively.

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AAST-NLP at ClimateActivism 2024: Ensemble-Based Climate Activism Stance and Hate Speech Detection : Leveraging Pretrained Language Models
Ahmed El-Sayed | Omar Nasr

Climate activism has emerged as a powerful force in addressing the urgent challenges posed by climate change. Individuals and organizations passionate about environmental issues use platforms like Twitter to mobilize support, share information, and advocate for policy changes. Unfortunately, amidst the passionate discussions, there has been an unfortunate rise in the prevalence of hate speech on the platform. Some users resort to personal attacks and divisive language, undermining the constructive efforts of climate activists. In this paper, we describe our approaches for three subtasks of ClimateActivism at CASE 2024. For all the three subtasks, we utilize pretrained language models enhanced by ensemble learning. Regarding the second subtask, dedicated to target detection, we experimented with incorporating Named Entity Recognition in the pipeline. Additionally, our models secure the second, third and fifth ranks in the three subtasks respectively.

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ARC-NLP at ClimateActivism 2024: Stance and Hate Speech Detection by Generative and Encoder Models Optimized with Tweet-Specific Elements
Ahmet Kaya | Oguzhan Ozcelik | Cagri Toraman

Social media users often express hate speech towards specific targets and may either support or refuse activist movements. The automated detection of hate speech, which involves identifying both targets and stances, plays a critical role in event identification to mitigate its negative effects. In this paper, we present our methods for three subtasks of the Climate Activism Stance and Hate Event Detection Shared Task at CASE 2024. For each subtask (i) hate speech identification (ii) targets of hate speech identification (iii) stance detection, we experiment with optimized Transformer-based architectures that focus on tweet-specific features such as hashtags, URLs, and emojis. Furthermore, we investigate generative large language models, such as Llama2, using specific prompts for the first two subtasks. Our experiments demonstrate better performance of our models compared to baseline models in each subtask. Our solutions also achieve third, fourth, and first places respectively in the subtasks.

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HAMiSoN-Ensemble at ClimateActivism 2024: Ensemble of RoBERTa, Llama 2, and Multi-task for Stance Detection
Raquel Rodriguez-Garcia | Julio Reyes Montesinos | Jesus M. Fraile-Hernandez | Anselmo Peñas

CASE @ EACL 2024 proposes a shared task on Stance and Hate Event Detection for Climate Activism discourse. For our participation in the stance detection task, we propose an ensemble of different approaches: a transformer-based model (RoBERTa), a generative Large Language Model (Llama 2), and a Multi-Task Learning model. Our main goal is twofold: to study the effect of augmenting the training data with external datasets, and to examine the contribution of several, diverse models through a voting ensemble. The results show that if we take the best configuration during training for each of the three models (RoBERTa, Llama 2 and MTL), the ensemble would have ranked first with the highest F1 on the leaderboard for the stance detection subtask.

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MasonPerplexity at Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection 2024: Hate Speech and Target Detection Using Transformer Ensembles
Amrita Ganguly | Al Nahian Bin Emran | Sadiya Sayara Chowdhury Puspo | Md Nishat Raihan | Dhiman Goswami | Marcos Zampieri

The automatic identification of offensive language such as hate speech is important to keep discussions civil in online communities. Identifying hate speech in multimodal content is a particularly challenging task because offensiveness can be manifested in either words or images or a juxtaposition of the two. This paper presents the MasonPerplexity submission for the Shared Task on Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection at CASE 2024 at EACL 2024. The task is divided into two sub-tasks: sub-task A focuses on the identification of hate speech and sub-task B focuses on the identification of targets in text-embedded images during political events. We use an XLM-roBERTa-large model for sub-task A and an ensemble approach combining XLM-roBERTa-base, BERTweet-large, and BERT-base for sub-task B. Our approach obtained 0.8347 F1-score in sub-task A and 0.6741 F1-score in sub-task B ranking 3rd on both sub-tasks.

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MasonPerplexity at ClimateActivism 2024: Integrating Advanced Ensemble Techniques and Data Augmentation for Climate Activism Stance and Hate Event Identification
Al Nahian Bin Emran | Amrita Ganguly | Sadiya Sayara Chowdhury Puspo | Dhiman Goswami | Md Nishat Raihan

The task of identifying public opinions on social media, particularly regarding climate activism and the detection of hate events, has emerged as a critical area of research in our rapidly changing world. With a growing number of people voicing either to support or oppose to climate-related issues - understanding these diverse viewpoints has become increasingly vital. Our team, MasonPerplexity, participates in a significant research initiative focused on this subject. We extensively test various models and methods, discovering that our most effective results are achieved through ensemble modeling, enhanced by data augmentation techniques like back-translation. In the specific components of this research task, our team achieved notable positions, ranking 5th, 1st, and 6th in the respective sub-tasks, thereby illustrating the effectiveness of our approach in this important field of study.

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AAST-NLP at Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection 2024 : A Multimodal Approach for Classification of Text-Embedded Images Based on CLIP and BERT-Based Models.
Ahmed El-Sayed | Omar Nasr

With the rapid rise of social media platforms, communities have been able to share their passions and interests with the world much more conveniently. This, in turn, has led to individuals being able to spread hateful messages through the use of memes. The classification of such materials requires not only looking at the individual images but also considering the associated text in tandem. Looking at the images or the text separately does not provide the full context. In this paper, we describe our approach to hateful meme classification for the Multimodal Hate Speech Shared Task at CASE 2024. We utilized the same approach in the two subtasks, which involved a classification model based on text and image features obtained using Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) in addition to utilizing BERT-Based models. We then utilize predictions created by both models in an ensemble approach. This approach ranked second in both subtasks, respectively.

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CUET_Binary_Hackers at ClimateActivism 2024: A Comprehensive Evaluation and Superior Performance of Transformer-Based Models in Hate Speech Event Detection and Stance Classification for Climate Activism
Salman Farsi | Asrarul Hoque Eusha | Mohammad Shamsul Arefin

The escalating impact of climate change on our environment and lives has spurred a global surge in climate change activism. However, the misuse of social media platforms like Twitter has opened the door to the spread of hatred against activism, targeting individuals, organizations, or entire communities. Also, the identification of the stance in a tweet holds paramount significance, especially in the context of understanding the success of activism. So, to address the challenge of detecting such hate tweets, identifying their targets, and classifying stances from tweets, this shared task introduced three sub-tasks, each aiming to address exactly one mentioned issue. We participated in all three sub-tasks and in this paper, we showed a comparative analysis between the different machine learning (ML), deep learning (DL), hybrid, and transformer models. Our approach involved proper hyper-parameter tuning of models and effectively handling class imbalance datasets through data oversampling. Notably, our fine-tuned m-BERT achieved a macro-average $f1$ score of 0.91 in sub-task A (Hate Speech Detection) and 0.74 in sub-task B (Target Identification). On the other hand, Climate-BERT achieved a $f1$ score of 0.67 in sub-task C. These scores positioned us at the forefront, securing 1st, 6th, and 15th ranks in the respective sub-tasks. The detailed implementation information for the tasks is available in the GitHub.

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HAMiSoN-baselines at ClimateActivism 2024: A Study on the Use of External Data for Hate Speech and Stance Detection
Julio Reyes Montesinos | Alvaro Rodrigo

The CASE@EACL2024 Shared Task addresses Climate Activism online through three subtasks that focus on hate speech detection (Subtask A), hate speech target classification (Subtask B), and stance detection (Subtask C) respectively.Our contribution examines the effect of fine-tuning on external data for each of these subtasks. For the two subtasks that focus on hate speech, we augment the training data with the OLID dataset, whereas for the stance subtask we harness the SemEval-2016 Stance dataset. We fine-tune RoBERTa and DeBERTa models for each of the subtasks, with and without external training data.For the hate speech detection and stance detection subtasks, our RoBERTa models came up third and first on the leaderboard, respectively. While the use of external data was not relevant on those tasks, we found that it greatly improved the performance on the hate speech target categorization.

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Z-AGI Labs at ClimateActivism 2024: Stance and Hate Event Detection on Social Media
Nikhil Narayan | Mrutyunjay Biswal

In the digital realm, rich data serves as a crucial source of insights into the complexities of social, political, and economic landscapes. Addressing the growing need for high-quality information on events and the imperative to combat hate speech, this research led to the establishment of the Shared Task on Climate Activism Stance and Hate Event Detection at CASE 2024. Focused on climate activists contending with hate speech on social media, our study contributes to hate speech identification from tweets. Analyzing three sub-tasks - Hate Speech Detection (Sub-task A), Targets of Hate Speech Identification (Sub-task B), and Stance Detection (Sub-task C) - Team Z-AGI Labs evaluated various models, including LSTM, Xgboost, and LGBM based on Tf-Idf. Results unveiled intriguing variations, with Catboost excelling in Subtask-B (F1: 0.5604) and Subtask-C (F1: 0.7081), while LGBM emerged as the top-performing model for Subtask-A (F1: 0.8684). This research provides valuable insights into the suitability of classical machine learning models for climate hate speech and stance detection, aiding informed model selection for robust mechanisms.

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Bryndza at ClimateActivism 2024: Stance, Target and Hate Event Detection via Retrieval-Augmented GPT-4 and LLaMA
Marek Suppa | Daniel Skala | Daniela Jass | Samuel Sucik | Andrej Svec | Peter Hraska

This study details our approach for the CASE 2024 Shared Task on Climate Activism Stance and Hate Event Detection, focusing on Hate Speech Detection, Hate Speech Target Identification, and Stance Detection as classification challenges. We explored the capability of Large Language Models (LLMs), particularly GPT-4, in zero- or few-shot settings enhanced by retrieval augmentation and re-ranking for Tweet classification. Our goal was to determine if LLMs could match or surpass traditional methods in this context. We conducted an ablation study with LLaMA for comparison, and our results indicate that our models significantly outperformed the baselines, securing second place in the Target Detection task. The code for our submission is available at https://github.com/NaiveNeuron/bryndza-case-2024

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IUST at ClimateActivism 2024: Towards Optimal Stance Detection: A Systematic Study of Architectural Choices and Data Cleaning Techniques
Ghazaleh Mahmoudi | Sauleh Eetemadi

This work presents a systematic search of various model architecture configurations and data cleaning methods. The study evaluates the impact of data cleaning methods on the obtained results. Additionally, we demonstrate that a combination of CNN and Encoder-only models such as BERTweet outperforms FNNs. Moreover, by utilizing data augmentation, we are able to overcome the challenge of data imbalance.

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VRLLab at HSD-2Lang 2024: Turkish Hate Speech Detection Online with TurkishBERTweet
Ali Najafi | Onur Varol

Social media platforms like Twitter - recently rebranded as X - produce nearly half a billion tweets daily and host a significant number of users that can be affected by content that are not properly moderated. In this work, we present an approach that ranked third at the HSD-2Lang 2024 competition’s subtask-A along with additional methodology developed for this task and evaluation of different approaches. We utilize three different models and the best performing approach use publicly-available TurkishBERTweet model with low-rank adaptation (LoRA) for fine tuning. We also experiment with another publicly available model and a novel methodology to ensemble different hand-crafted features and outcomes of different models. Finally, we report the experimental results, competition scores, and discussion to improve this effort further.

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Transformers at HSD-2Lang 2024: Hate Speech Detection in Arabic and Turkish Tweets Using BERT Based Architectures
Kriti Singhal | Jatin Bedi

Over the past years, researchers across the globe have made significant efforts to develop systems capable of identifying the presence of hate speech in different languages. This paper describes the team Transformers’ submission to the subtasks: Hate Speech Detection in Turkish across Various Contexts and Hate Speech Detection with Limited Data in Arabic, organized by HSD-2Lang in conjunction with CASE at EACL 2024. A BERT based architecture was employed in both the subtasks. We achieved an F1 score of 0.63258 using XLM RoBERTa and 0.48101 using mBERT, hence securing the 6th rank and the 5th rank in the first and the second subtask, respectively.

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ReBERT at HSD-2Lang 2024: Fine-Tuning BERT with AdamW for Hate Speech Detection in Arabic and Turkish
Utku Yagci | Egemen Iscan | Ahmet Kolcak

Identifying hate speech is a challenging specialization in the natural language processing field (NLP). Particularly in fields with differing linguistics, it becomes more demanding to construct a well-performing classifier for the betterment of the community. In this paper, we leveraged the performances of pre-trained models on the given hate speech detection dataset. By conducting a hyperparameter search, we computed the feasible setups for fine-tuning and trained effective classifiers that performed well in both subtasks in the HSD-2Lang 2024 contest.

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DetectiveReDASers at HSD-2Lang 2024: A New Pooling Strategy with Cross-lingual Augmentation and Ensembling for Hate Speech Detection in Low-resource Languages
Fatima Zahra Qachfar | Bryan Tuck | Rakesh Verma

This paper addresses hate speech detection in Turkish and Arabic tweets, contributing to the HSD-2Lang Shared Task. We propose a specialized pooling strategy within a soft-voting ensemble framework to improve classification in Turkish and Arabic language models. Our approach also includes expanding the training sets through cross-lingual translation, introducing a broader spectrum of hate speech examples. Our method attains F1-Macro scores of 0.6964 for Turkish (Subtask A) and 0.7123 for Arabic (Subtask B). While achieving these results, we also consider the computational overhead, striking a balance between the effectiveness of our unique pooling strategy, data augmentation, and soft-voting ensemble. This approach advances the practical application of language models in low-resource languages for hate speech detection.

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Detecting Hate Speech in Turkish Print Media: A Corpus and A Hybrid Approach with Target-oriented Linguistic Knowledge
Gökçe Uludoğan | Atıf Emre Yüksel | Ümit Tunçer | Burak Işık | Yasemin Korkmaz | Didar Akar | Arzucan Özgür

The use of hate speech targeting ethnicity, nationalities, religious identities, and specific groups has been on the rise in the news media. However, most existing automatic hate speech detection models focus on identifying hate speech, often neglecting the target group-specific language that is common in news articles. To address this problem, we first compile a hate speech dataset, TurkishHatePrintCorpus, derived from Turkish news articles and annotate it specifically for the language related to the targeted group. We then introduce the HateTargetBERT model, which integrates the target-centric linguistic features extracted in this study into the BERT model, and demonstrate its effectiveness in detecting hate speech while allowing the model’s classification decision to be explained. We have made the dataset and source code publicly available at url{https://github.com/boun-tabi/HateTargetBERT-TR}.

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Team Curie at HSD-2Lang 2024: Hate Speech Detection in Turkish and Arabic Tweets using BERT-based models
Ehsan Barkhodar | Işık Topçu | Ali Hürriyetoğlu

Team Curie at HSD-2Lang 2024: Team Curie at HSD-2Lang 2024: Hate Speech Detection in Turkish and Arabic Tweets using BERT-based models This paper has presented our methodologies and findings in tackling hate speech detection in Turkish and Arabic tweets as part of the HSD-2Lang 2024 contest. Through innovative approaches and the fine-tuning of BERT-based models, we have achieved notable F1 scores, demonstrating the potential of our models in addressing the linguistic challenges inherent in Turkish and Arabic languages. The ablation study for Subtask A provided valuable insights into the impact of preprocessing and data balancing on model performance, guiding future enhancements. Our work contributes to the broader goal of improving online content moderation and safety, with future research directions including the expansion to more languages and the integration of multi-modal data and explainable AI techniques.

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Extended Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection During Russia-Ukraine Crisis - Shared Task at CASE 2024
Surendrabikram Thapa | Kritesh Rauniyar | Farhan Jafri | Hariram Veeramani | Raghav Jain | Sandesh Jain | Francielle Vargas | Ali Hürriyetoğlu | Usman Naseem

Addressing the need for effective hate speech moderation in contemporary digital discourse, the Multimodal Hate Speech Event Detection Shared Task made its debut at CASE 2023, co-located with RANLP 2023. Building upon its success, an extended version of the shared task was organized at the CASE workshop in EACL 2024. Similar to the earlier iteration, in this shared task, participants address hate speech detection through two subtasks. Subtask A is a binary classification problem, assessing whether text-embedded images contain hate speech. Subtask B goes further, demanding the identification of hate speech targets, such as individuals, communities, and organizations within text-embedded images. Performance is evaluated using the macro F1-score metric in both subtasks. With a total of 73 registered participants, the shared task witnessed remarkable achievements, with the best F1-scores in Subtask A and Subtask B reaching 87.27% and 80.05%, respectively, surpassing the leaderboard of the previous CASE 2023 shared task. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the performance of seven teams that submitted results for Subtask A and five teams for Subtask B.

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Overview of the Hate Speech Detection in Turkish and Arabic Tweets (HSD-2Lang) Shared Task at CASE 2024
Gökçe Uludoğan | Somaiyeh Dehghan | Inanc Arin | Elif Erol | Berrin Yanikoglu | Arzucan Özgür

This paper offers an overview of Hate Speech Detection in Turkish and Arabic Tweets (HSD-2Lang) Shared Task at CASE workshop to be held jointly with EACL 2024. The task was divided into two subtasks: Subtask A, targeting hate speech detection in various Turkish contexts, and Subtask B, addressing hate speech detection in Arabic with limited data. The shared task attracted significant attention with 33 teams that registered and 10 teams that participated in at least one task. In this paper, we provide the details of the tasks and the approaches adopted by the participant along with an analysis of the results obtained from this shared task.

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Stance and Hate Event Detection in Tweets Related to Climate Activism - Shared Task at CASE 2024
Surendrabikram Thapa | Kritesh Rauniyar | Farhan Jafri | Shuvam Shiwakoti | Hariram Veeramani | Raghav Jain | Guneet Singh Kohli | Ali Hürriyetoğlu | Usman Naseem

Social media plays a pivotal role in global discussions, including on climate change. The variety of opinions expressed range from supportive to oppositional, with some instances of hate speech. Recognizing the importance of understanding these varied perspectives, the 7th Workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text (CASE) at EACL 2024 hosted a shared task focused on detecting stances and hate speech in climate activism-related tweets. This task was divided into three subtasks: subtasks A and B concentrated on identifying hate speech and its targets, while subtask C focused on stance detection. Participants’ performance was evaluated using the macro F1-score. With over 100 teams participating, the highest F1 scores achieved were 91.44% in subtask C, 78.58% in subtask B, and 74.83% in subtask A. This paper details the methodologies of 24 teams that submitted their results to the competition’s leaderboard.

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A Concise Report of the 7th Workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text
Ali Hürriyetoğlu | Surendrabikram Thapa | Gökçe Uludoğan | Somaiyeh Dehghan | Hristo Tanev

In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the 7th workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text (CASE) co-located with EACL 2024. This workshop consisted of regular papers, system description papers submitted by shared task participants, and overview papers of shared tasks held. This workshop series has been bringing together experts and enthusiasts from technical and social science fields, providing a platform for better understanding event information. This workshop not only advances text-based event extraction but also facilitates research in event extraction in multimodal settings.

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Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Noisy and User-generated Text (W-NUT 2024)

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Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Noisy and User-generated Text (W-NUT 2024)
Rob van der Goot | JinYeong Bak | Max Müller-Eberstein | Wei Xu | Alan Ritter | Tim Baldwin

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Correcting Challenging Finnish Learner Texts With Claude, GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 Large Language Models
Mathias Creutz

This paper studies the correction of challenging authentic Finnish learner texts at beginner level (CEFR A1). Three state-of-the-art large language models are compared, and it is shown that GPT-4 outperforms GPT-3.5, which in turn outperforms Claude v1 on this task. Additionally, ensemble models based on classifiers combining outputs of multiple single models are evaluated. The highest accuracy for an ensemble model is 84.3%, whereas the best single model, which is a GPT-4 model, produces sentences that are fully correct 83.3% of the time. In general, the different models perform on a continuum, where grammatical correctness, fluency and coherence go hand in hand.

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Context-aware Adversarial Attack on Named Entity Recognition
Shuguang Chen | Leonardo Neves | Thamar Solorio

In recent years, large pre-trained language models (PLMs) have achieved remarkable performance on many natural language processing benchmarks. Despite their success, prior studies have shown that PLMs are vulnerable to attacks from adversarial examples. In this work, we focus on the named entity recognition task and study context-aware adversarial attack methods to examine the model’s robustness. Specifically, we propose perturbing the most informative words for recognizing entities to create adversarial examples and investigate different candidate replacement methods to generate natural and plausible adversarial examples. Experiments and analyses show that our methods are more effective in deceiving the model into making wrong predictions than strong baselines.

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Effects of different types of noise in user-generated reviews on human and machine translations including ChatGPT
Maja Popovic | Ekaterina Lapshinova-Koltunski | Maarit Koponen

This paper investigates effects of noisy source texts (containing spelling and grammar errors, informal words or expressions, etc.) on human and machine translations, namely whether the noisy phenomena are kept in the translations, corrected, or caused errors. The analysed data consists of English user reviews of Amazon products translated into Croatian, Russian and Finnish by professional translators, translation students, machine translation (MT) systems, and ChatGPT language model. The results show that overall, ChatGPT and professional translators mostly correct/standardise those parts, while students are often keeping them. Furthermore, MT systems are most prone to errors while ChatGPT is more robust, but notably less robust than human translators. Finally, some of the phenomena are particularly challenging both for MT systems and for ChatGPT, especially spelling errors and informal constructions.

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Stanceosaurus 2.0 - Classifying Stance Towards Russian and Spanish Misinformation
Anton Lavrouk | Ian Ligon | Jonathan Zheng | Tarek Naous | Wei Xu | Alan Ritter

The Stanceosaurus corpus (Zheng et al., 2022) was designed to provide high-quality, annotated, 5-way stance data extracted from Twitter, suitable for analyzing cross-cultural and cross-lingual misinformation. In the Stanceosaurus 2.0 iteration, we extend this framework to encompass Russian and Spanish. The former is of current significance due to prevalent misinformation amid escalating tensions with the West and the violent incursion into Ukraine. The latter, meanwhile, represents an enormous community that has been largely overlooked on major social media platforms. By incorporating an additional 3,874 Spanish and Russian tweets over 41 misinformation claims, our objective is to support research focused on these issues. To demonstrate the value of this data, we employed zero-shot cross-lingual transfer on multilingual BERT, yielding results on par with the initial Stanceosaurus study with a macro F1 score of 43 for both languages. This underlines the viability of stance classification as an effective tool for identifying multicultural misinformation.

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A Comparative Analysis of Noise Reduction Methods in Sentiment Analysis on Noisy Bangla Texts
Kazi Elahi | Tasnuva Rahman | Shakil Shahriar | Samir Sarker | Md. Shawon | G. M. Shibli

While Bangla is considered a language with limited resources, sentiment analysis has been a subject of extensive research in the literature. Nevertheless, there is a scarcity of exploration into sentiment analysis specifically in the realm of noisy Bangla texts. In this paper, we introduce a dataset (NC-SentNoB) that we annotated manually to identify ten different types of noise found in a pre-existing sentiment analysis dataset comprising of around 15K noisy Bangla texts. At first, given an input noisy text, we identify the noise type, addressing this as a multi-label classification task. Then, we introduce baseline noise reduction methods to alleviate noise prior to conducting sentiment analysis. Finally, we assess the performance of fine-tuned sentiment analysis models with both noisy and noise-reduced texts to make comparisons. The experimental findings indicate that the noise reduction methods utilized are not satisfactory, highlighting the need for more suitable noise reduction methods in future research endeavors. We have made the implementation and dataset presented in this paper publicly available at https://github.com/ktoufiquee/A-Comparative-Analysis-of-Noise-Reduction-Methods-in-Sentiment-Analysis-on-Noisy-Bangla-Texts

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Label Supervised Contrastive Learning for Imbalanced Text Classification in Euclidean and Hyperbolic Embedding Spaces
Baber Khalid | Shuyang Dai | Tara Taghavi | Sungjin Lee

Text classification is an important problem with a wide range of applications in NLP. However, naturally occurring data is imbalanced which can induce biases when training classification models. In this work, we introduce a novel contrastive learning (CL) approach to help with imbalanced text classification task. CL has an inherent structure which pushes similar data closer in embedding space and vice versa using data samples anchors. However, in traditional CL methods text embeddings are used as anchors, which are scattered over the embedding space. We propose a CL approach which learns key anchors in the form of label embeddings and uses them as anchors. This allows our approach to bring the embeddings closer to their labels in the embedding space and divide the embedding space between labels in a fairer manner. We also introduce a novel method to improve the interpretability of our approach in a multi-class classification scenario. This approach learns the inter-class relationships during training which provide insight into the model decisions. Since our approach is focused on dividing the embedding space between different labels we also experiment with hyperbolic embeddings since they have been proven successful in embedding hierarchical information. Our proposed method outperforms several state-of-the-art baselines by an average 11% F1. Our interpretable approach highlights key data relationships and our experiments with hyperbolic embeddings give us important insights for future investigations. We will release the implementation of our approach with the publication.

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MaintNorm: A corpus and benchmark model for lexical normalisation and masking of industrial maintenance short text
Tyler Bikaun | Melinda Hodkiewicz | Wei Liu

Maintenance short texts are invaluable unstructured data sources, serving as a diagnostic and prognostic window into the operational health and status of physical assets. These user-generated texts, created during routine or ad-hoc maintenance activities, offer insights into equipment performance, potential failure points, and maintenance needs. However, the use of information captured in these texts is hindered by inherent challenges: the prevalence of engineering jargon, domain-specific vernacular, random spelling errors without identifiable patterns, and the absence of standard grammatical structures. To transform these texts into accessible and analysable data, we introduce the MaintNorm dataset, the first resource specifically tailored for the lexical normalisation task of maintenance short texts. Comprising 12,000 examples, this dataset enables the efficient processing and interpretation of these texts. We demonstrate the utility of MaintNorm by training a lexical normalisation model as a sequence-to-sequence learning task with two learning objectives, namely, enhancing the quality of the texts and masking segments to obscure sensitive information to anonymise data. Our benchmark model demonstrates a universal error reduction rate of 95.8%. The dataset and benchmark outcomes are available to the public.

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The Effects of Data Quality on Named Entity Recognition
Divya Bhadauria | Alejandro Sierra Múnera | Ralf Krestel

The extraction of valuable information from the vast amount of digital data available today has become increasingly important, making Named Entity Recognition models an essential component of information extraction tasks. This emphasizes the importance of understanding the factors that can compromise the performance of these models. Many studies have examined the impact of data annotation errors on NER models, leaving the broader implication of overall data quality on these models unexplored. In this work, we evaluate the robustness of three prominent NER models on datasets with varying amounts of textual noise types. The results show that as the noise in the dataset increases, model performance declines, with a minor impact for some noise types and a significant drop in performance for others. The findings of this research can be used as a foundation for building robust NER systems by enhancing dataset quality beforehand.

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Topic Bias in Emotion Classification
Maximilian Wegge | Roman Klinger

Emotion corpora are typically sampled based on keyword/hashtag search or by asking study participants to generate textual instances. In any case, these corpora are not uniform samples representing the entirety of a domain. We hypothesize that this practice of data acquision leads to unrealistic correlations between overrepresented topics in these corpora that harm the generalizability of models. Such topic bias could lead to wrong predictions for instances like “I organized the service for my aunt’s funeral.” when funeral events are overpresented for instances labeled with sadness, despite the emotion of pride being more appropriate here. In this paper, we study this topic bias both from the data and the modeling perspective. We first label a set of emotion corpora automatically via topic modeling and show that emotions in fact correlate with specific topics. Further, we see that emotion classifiers are confounded by such topics. Finally, we show that the established debiasing method of adversarial correction via gradient reversal mitigates the issue. Our work points out issues with existing emotion corpora and that more representative resources are required for fair evaluation of models predicting affective concepts from text.

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Stars Are All You Need: A Distantly Supervised Pyramid Network for Unified Sentiment Analysis
Wenchang Li | Yixing Chen | Shuang Zheng | Lei Wang | John Lalor

Data for the Rating Prediction (RP) sentiment analysis task such as star reviews are readily available. However, data for aspect-category sentiment analysis (ACSA) is often desired because of the fine-grained nature but are expensive to collect. In this work we present a method for learning ACSA using only RP labels. We propose Unified Sentiment Analysis (Uni-SA) to efficiently understand aspect and review sentiment in a unified manner. We propose a Distantly Supervised Pyramid Network (DSPN) to efficiently perform Aspect-Category Detection (ACD), ACSA, and OSA using only RP labels for training. We evaluate DSPN on multi-aspect review datasets in English and Chinese and find that with only star rating labels for supervision, DSPN performs comparably well to a variety of benchmark models. We also demonstrate the interpretability of DSPN’s outputs on reviews to show the pyramid structure inherent in document level end-to-end sentiment analysis.

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Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Approaches to Language Data Pseudonymization (CALD-pseudo 2024)

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Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Approaches to Language Data Pseudonymization (CALD-pseudo 2024)
Elena Volodina | David Alfter | Simon Dobnik | Therese Lindström Tiedemann | Ricardo Muñoz Sánchez | Maria Irena Szawerna | Xuan-Son Vu

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Handling Name Errors of a BERT-Based De-Identification System: Insights from Stratified Sampling and Markov-based Pseudonymization
Dalton Simancek | VG Vinod Vydiswaran

Missed recognition of named entities while de-identifying clinical narratives poses a critical challenge in protecting patient-sensitive health information. Mitigating name recognition errors is essential to minimize risk of patient re-identification. In this paper, we emphasize the need for stratified sampling and enhanced contextual considerations concerning Name Tokens using a fine-tuned Longformer BERT model for clinical text de-identifcation. We introduce a Hidden in Plain Sight (HIPS) Markov-based replacement technique for names to mask name recognition misses, revealing a significant reduction in name leakage rates. Our experimental results underscore the impact on addressing name recognition challenges in BERT-based de-identification systems for heightened privacy protection in electronic health records.

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Assessing Authenticity and Anonymity of Synthetic User-generated Content in the Medical Domain
Tomohiro Nishiyama | Lisa Raithel | Roland Roller | Pierre Zweigenbaum | Eiji Aramaki

Since medical text cannot be shared easily due to privacy concerns, synthetic data bears much potential for natural language processing applications. In the context of social media and user-generated messages about drug intake and adverse drug effects, this work presents different methods to examine the authenticity of synthetic text. We conclude that the generated tweets are untraceable and show enough authenticity from the medical point of view to be used as a replacement for a real Twitter corpus. However, original data might still be the preferred choice as they contain much more diversity.

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Automatic Detection and Labelling of Personal Data in Case Reports from the ECHR in Spanish: Evaluation of Two Different Annotation Approaches
Maria Sierro | Begoña Altuna | Itziar Gonzalez-Dios

In this paper we evaluate two annotation approaches for automatic detection and labelling of personal information in legal texts in relation to the ambiguity of the labels and the homogeneity of the annotations. For this purpose, we built a corpus of 44 case reports from the European Court of Human Rights in Spanish language and we annotated it following two different annotation approaches: automatic projection of the annotations of an existing English corpus, and manual annotation with our reinterpretation of their guidelines. Moreover, we employ Flair on a Named Entity Recognition task to compare its performance in the two annotation schemes.

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PSILENCE: A Pseudonymization Tool for International Law
Luis Adrián Cabrera-Diego | Akshita Gheewala

Since the announcement of the GDPR, the pseudonymization of legal documents has become a high-priority task in many legal organizations. This means that for making public a document, it is necessary to redact the identity of certain entities, such as witnesses. In this work, we present the first results obtained by PSILENCE, a pseudonymization tool created for redacting semi-automatically international arbitration documents in English. PSILENCE has been built using a Named Entity Recognition (NER) system, along with a Coreference Resolution system. These systems allow us to find the people that we need to redact in a clustered way, but also to propose the same pseudonym throughout one document. This last aspect makes it easier to read and comprehend a redacted legal document. Different experiments were done on four different datasets, one of which was legal, and the results are promising, reaching a Macro F-score of up to 0.72 on the legal dataset.

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Deidentifying a Norwegian Clinical Corpus - an Effort to Create a Privacy-preserving Norwegian Large Clinical Language Model
Phuong Ngo | Miguel Tejedor | Therese Olsen Svenning | Taridzo Chomutare | Andrius Budrionis | Hercules Dalianis

The study discusses the methods and challenges of deidentifying and pseudonymizing Norwegian clinical text for research purposes. The results of the NorDeid tool for deidentification and pseudonymization on different types of protected health information were evaluated and discussed, as well as the extension of its functionality with regular expressions to identify specific types of sensitive information. The research used a clinical corpus of adult patients treated in a gastro-surgical department in Norway, which contains approximately nine million clinical notes. The study also highlights the challenges posed by the unique language and clinical terminology of Norway and emphasizes the importance of protecting privacy and the need for customized approaches to meet legal and research requirements.

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Extending Off-the-shelf NER Systems to Personal Information Detection in Dialogues with a Virtual Agent: Findings from a Real-Life Use Case
Mario Mina | Carlos Rodríguez | Aitor Gonzalez-Agirre | Marta Villegas

We present the findings and results of our pseudonymisation system, which has been developed for a real-life use-case involving users and an informative chatbot in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Message exchanges between the two involve the former group providing information about themselves and their residential area, which could easily allow for their re-identification. We create a modular pipeline to detect PIIs and perform basic deidentification such that the data can be stored while mitigating any privacy concerns. The use-case presents several challenging aspects, the most difficult of which is the logistic challenge of not being able to directly view or access the data due to the very privacy issues we aim to resolve. Nevertheless, our system achieves a high recall of 0.99, correctly identifying almost all instances of personal data. However, this comes at the expense of precision, which only reaches 0.64. We describe the sensitive information identification in detail, explaining the design principles behind our decisions. We additionally highlight the particular challenges we’ve encountered.

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Detecting Personal Identifiable Information in Swedish Learner Essays
Maria Irena Szawerna | Simon Dobnik | Ricardo Muñoz Sánchez | Therese Lindström Tiedemann | Elena Volodina

Linguistic data can — and often does — contain PII (Personal Identifiable Information). Both from a legal and ethical standpoint, the sharing of such data is not permissible. According to the GDPR, pseudonymization, i.e. the replacement of sensitive information with surrogates, is an acceptable strategy for privacy preservation. While research has been conducted on the detection and replacement of sensitive data in Swedish medical data using Large Language Models (LLMs), it is unclear whether these models handle PII in less structured and more thematically varied texts equally well. In this paper, we present and discuss the performance of an LLM-based PII-detection system for Swedish learner essays.

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Data Anonymization for Privacy-Preserving Large Language Model Fine-Tuning on Call Transcripts
Shayna Gardiner | Tania Habib | Kevin Humphreys | Masha Azizi | Frederic Mailhot | Anne Paling | Preston Thomas | Nathan Zhang

Large language models in public-facing industrial applications must accurately process data for the domain in which they are deployed, but they must not leak sensitive or confidential information when used. We present a process for anonymizing training data, a framework for quantitatively and qualitatively assessing the effectiveness of this process, and an assessment of the effectiveness of models fine-tuned on anonymized data in comparison with commercially available LLM APIs.

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When Is a Name Sensitive? Eponyms in Clinical Text and Implications for De-Identification
Thomas Vakili | Tyr Hullmann | Aron Henriksson | Hercules Dalianis

Clinical data, in the form of electronic health records, are rich resources that can be tapped using natural language processing. At the same time, they contain very sensitive information that must be protected. One strategy is to remove or obscure data using automatic de-identification. However, the detection of sensitive data can yield false positives. This is especially true for tokens that are similar in form to sensitive entities, such as eponyms. These names tend to refer to medical procedures or diagnoses rather than specific persons. Previous research has shown that automatic de-identification systems often misclassify eponyms as names, leading to a loss of valuable medical information. In this study, we estimate the prevalence of eponyms in a real Swedish clinical corpus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that modern transformer-based de-identification systems are more accurate in distinguishing between names and eponyms than previous approaches.

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Did the Names I Used within My Essay Affect My Score? Diagnosing Name Biases in Automated Essay Scoring
Ricardo Muñoz Sánchez | Simon Dobnik | Maria Irena Szawerna | Therese Lindström Tiedemann | Elena Volodina

Automated essay scoring (AES) of second-language learner essays is a high-stakes task as it can affect the job and educational opportunities a student may have access to. Thus, it becomes imperative to make sure that the essays are graded based on the students’ language proficiency as opposed to other reasons, such as personal names used in the text of the essay. Moreover, most of the research data for AES tends to contain personal identifiable information. Because of that, pseudonymization becomes an important tool to make sure that this data can be freely shared. Thus, our systems should not grade students based on which given names were used in the text of the essay, both for fairness and for privacy reasons. In this paper we explore how given names affect the CEFR level classification of essays of second language learners of Swedish. We use essays containing just one personal name and substitute it for names from lists of given names from four different ethnic origins, namely Swedish, Finnish, Anglo-American, and Arabic. We find that changing the names within the essays has no apparent effect on the classification task, regardless of whether a feature-based or a transformer-based model is used.

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Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Simulating Conversational Intelligence in Chat (SCI-CHAT 2024)

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Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Simulating Conversational Intelligence in Chat (SCI-CHAT 2024)
Yvette Graham | Qun Liu | Gerasimos Lampouras | Ignacio Iacobacci | Sinead Madden | Haider Khalid | Rameez Qureshi

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Findings of the First Workshop on Simulating Conversational Intelligence in Chat
Yvette Graham | Mohammed Rameez Qureshi | Haider Khalid | Gerasimos Lampouras | Ignacio Iacobacci | Qun Liu

The aim of this workshop is to bring together experts working on open-domain dialogue research. In this speedily advancing research area many challenges still exist, such as learning information from conversations, engaging in realistic and convincing simulation of human intelligence and reasoning. SCI-CHAT follows previous workshops on open domain dialogue but with a focus on the simulation of intelligent conversation as judged in a live human evaluation. Models aim to include the ability to follow a challenging topic over a multi-turn conversation, while positing, refuting and reasoning over arguments. The workshop included both a research track and shared task. The main goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the shared task and a link to an additional paper that will include an in depth analysis of the shared task results following presentation at the workshop.

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Improving Dialog Safety using Socially Aware Contrastive Learning
Souvik Das | Rohini K. Srihari

State-of-the-art conversational AI systems raise concerns due to their potential risks of generating unsafe, toxic, unethical, or dangerous content. Previous works have developed datasets to teach conversational agents the appropriate social paradigms to respond effectively to specifically designed hazardous content. However, models trained on these adversarial datasets still struggle to recognize subtle unsafe situations that appear naturally in conversations or introduce an inappropriate response in a casual context. To understand the extent of this problem, we study prosociality in both adversarial and casual dialog contexts and audit the response quality of general-purpose language models in terms of propensity to produce unsafe content. We propose a dual-step fine-tuning process to address these issues using a socially aware n-pair contrastive loss. Subsequently, we train a base model that integrates prosocial behavior by leveraging datasets like Moral Integrity Corpus (MIC) and ProsocialDialog. Experimental results on several dialog datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in generating socially appropriate responses.

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Reliable LLM-based User Simulator for Task-Oriented Dialogue Systems
Ivan Sekulic | Silvia Terragni | Victor Guimarães | Nghia Khau | Bruna Guedes | Modestas Filipavicius | Andre Ferreira Manso | Roland Mathis

In the realm of dialogue systems, user simulation techniques have emerged as a game-changer, redefining the evaluation and enhancement of task-oriented dialogue (TOD) systems. These methods are crucial for replicating real user interactions, enabling applications like synthetic data augmentation, error detection, and robust evaluation. However, existing approaches often rely on rigid rule-based methods or on annotated data. This paper introduces DAUS, a Domain-Aware User Simulator. Leveraging large language models, we fine-tune DAUS on real examples of task-oriented dialogues. Results on two relevant benchmarks showcase significant improvements in terms of user goal fulfillment. Notably, we have observed that fine-tuning enhances the simulator’s coherence with user goals, effectively mitigating hallucinations—a major source of inconsistencies in simulator responses.

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Evaluating Modular Dialogue System for Form Filling Using Large Language Models
Sherzod Hakimov | Yan Weiser | David Schlangen

This paper introduces a novel approach to form-filling and dialogue system evaluation by leveraging Large Language Models (LLMs). The proposed method establishes a setup wherein multiple modules collaborate on addressing the form-filling task. The dialogue system is constructed on top of LLMs, focusing on defining specific roles for individual modules. We show that using multiple independent sub-modules working cooperatively on this task can improve performance and handle the typical constraints of using LLMs, such as context limitations. The study involves testing the modular setup on four selected forms of varying topics and lengths, employing commercial and open-access LLMs. The experimental results demonstrate that the modular setup consistently outperforms the baseline, showcasing the effectiveness of this approach. Furthermore, our findings reveal that open-access models perform comparably to commercial models for the specified task.

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KAUCUS - Knowledgeable User Simulators for Training Large Language Models
Kaustubh Dhole

An effective multi-turn instruction-following assistant can be developed by creating a simulator that can generate useful interaction data. Apart from relying on its intrinsic weights, an ideal user simulator should also be able to bootstrap external knowledge rapidly in its raw form to simulate the multifarious diversity of text available over the internet. Previous user simulators generally lacked diversity, were mostly closed domain, and necessitated rigid schema making them inefficient to rapidly scale to incorporate external knowledge. In this regard, we introduce Kaucus, a Knowledge-Augmented User Simulator framework, to outline a process of creating diverse user simulators, that can seamlessly exploit external knowledge as well as benefit downstream assistant model training. Through two GPT-J based simulators viz., a Retrieval Augmented Simulator and a Summary Controlled Simulator we generate diverse simulator-assistant interactions. Through reward and preference model-based evaluations, we find that these interactions serve as useful training data and create more helpful downstream assistants. We also find that incorporating knowledge through retrieval augmentation or summary control helps create better assistants.

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SarcEmp - Fine-tuning DialoGPT for Sarcasm and Empathy
Mohammed Rizwan

Conversational models often face challenges such as a lack of emotional temperament and a limited sense of humor when interacting with users. To address these issues, we have selected relevant data and fine-tuned the model to (i) humanize the chatbot based on the user’s emotional response and the context of the conversation using a dataset based on empathy and (ii) enhanced conversations while incorporating humor/sarcasm for better user engagement. We aspire to achieve more personalized and enhanced user-computer interactions with the help of varied datasets involving sarcasm together with empathy on top of already available state-of-the-art conversational systems.

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Emo-Gen BART - A Multitask Emotion-Informed Dialogue Generation Framework
Alok Debnath | Yvette Graham | Owen Conlan

This paper is the model description for the Emo-Gen BART dialogue generation architecture, as submitted to the SCI-CHAT 2024 Shared Task. The Emotion-Informed Dialogue Generation model is a multi-task BARTbased model which performs dimensional and categorical emotion detection and uses that information to augment the input to the generation models. Our implementation is trained and validated against the IEMOCAP dataset, and compared against contemporary architectures in both dialogue emotion classification and dialogue generation. We show that certain loss function ablations are competitive against the state-of-the-art single-task models.

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Advancing Open-Domain Conversational Agents - Designing an Engaging System for Natural Multi-Turn Dialogue
Islam A. Hassan | Yvette Graham

This system paper describes our conversational AI agent developed for the SCI-CHAT competition. The goal is to build automated dialogue agents that can have natural, coherent conversations with humans over multiple turns. Our model is based on fine-tuning the Snorkel-Mistral-PairRM-DPO language model on podcast conversation transcripts. This allows the model to leverage Snorkel-Mistral-PairRMDPO’s linguistic knowledge while adapting it for multi-turn dialogue modeling using LoRA. During evaluation, human judges will converse with the agent on specified topics and provide ratings on response quality. Our system aims to demonstrate how large pretrained language models, when properly adapted and evaluated, can effectively converse on open-ended topics spanning multiple turns.

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Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Personalization of Generative AI Systems (PERSONALIZE 2024)

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Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Personalization of Generative AI Systems (PERSONALIZE 2024)
Ameet Deshpande | EunJeong Hwang | Vishvak Murahari | Joon Sung Park | Diyi Yang | Ashish Sabharwal | Karthik Narasimhan | Ashwin Kalyan

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RoleCraft-GLM: Advancing Personalized Role-Playing in Large Language Models
Meiling Tao | Liang Xuechen | Tianyu Shi | Lei Yu | Yiting Xie

This study presents RoleCraft-GLM, an innovative framework aimed at enhancing personalized role-playing with Large Language Models (LLMs). RoleCraft-GLM addresses the key issue of lacking personalized interactions in conversational AI, and offers a solution with detailed and emotionally nuanced character portrayals. We contribute a unique conversational dataset that shifts from conventional celebrity-centric characters to diverse, non-celebrity personas, thus enhancing the realism and complexity of language modeling interactions. Additionally, our approach includes meticulous character development, ensuring dialogues are both realistic and emotionally resonant. The effectiveness of RoleCraft-GLM is validated through various case studies, highlighting its versatility and skill in different scenarios. Our framework excels in generating dialogues that accurately reflect characters’ personality traits and emotions, thereby boosting user engagement. In conclusion, RoleCraft-GLM marks a significant leap in personalized AI interactions, and paves the way for more authentic and immersive AI-assisted role-playing experiences by enabling more nuanced and emotionally rich dialogues.

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How to use Language Models for Synthetic Text Generation in Cerebrovascular Disease-specific Medical Reports
Byoung-Doo Oh | Gi-Youn Kim | Chulho Kim | Yu-Seop Kim

The quantity and quality of data have a significant impact on the performance of artificial intelligence (AI). However, in the biomedical domain, data often contains sensitive information such as personal details, making it challenging to secure enough data for medical AI. Consequently, there is a growing interest in synthetic data generation for medical AI. However, research has primarily focused on medical images, with little given to text-based data such as medical records. Therefore, this study explores the application of language models (LMs) for synthetic text generation in low-resource domains like medical records. It compares the results of synthetic text generation based on different LMs. To achieve this, we focused on two criteria for LM-based synthetic text generation of medical records using two keywords entered by the user: 1) the impact of the LM’s knowledge, 2) the impact of the LM’s size. Additionally, we objectively evaluated the generated synthetic text, including representative metrics such as BLUE and ROUGE, along with clinician’s evaluations.

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Assessing Generalization for Subpopulation Representative Modeling via In-Context Learning
Gabriel Simmons | Vladislav Savinov

This study evaluates the ability of Large Language Model (LLM)-based Subpopulation Representative Models (SRMs) to generalize from empirical data, utilizing in-context learning with data from the 2016 and 2020 American National Election Studies. We explore generalization across response variables and demographic subgroups. While conditioning with empirical data improves performance on the whole, the benefit of in-context learning varies considerably across demographics, sometimes hurting performance for one demographic while helping performance for others. The inequitable benefits of in-context learning for SRM present a challenge for practitioners implementing SRMs, and for decision-makers who might come to rely on them. Our work highlights a need for fine-grained benchmarks captured from diverse subpopulations that test not only fidelity but generalization.

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HumSum: A Personalized Lecture Summarization Tool for Humanities Students Using LLMs
Zahra Kolagar | Alessandra Zarcone

Generative AI systems aim to create customizable content for their users, with a subsequent surge in demand for adaptable tools that can create personalized experiences. This paper presents HumSum, a web-based tool tailored for humanities students to effectively summarize their lecture transcripts and to personalize the summaries to their specific needs. We first conducted a survey driven by different potential scenarios to collect user preferences to guide the implementation of this tool. Utilizing Streamlit, we crafted the user interface, while Langchain’s Map Reduce function facilitated the summarization process for extensive lectures using OpenAI’s GPT-4 model. HumSum is an intuitive tool serving various summarization needs, infusing personalization into the tool’s functionality without necessitating the collection of personal user data.

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Can I trust You? LLMs as conversational agents
Marc Döbler | Raghavendran Mahendravarman | Anna Moskvina | Nasrin Saef

With the rising popularity of LLMs in the public sphere, they become more and more attractive as a tool for doing one’s own research without having to rely on search engines or specialized knowledge of a scientific field. But using LLMs as a source for factual information can lead one to fall prey to misinformation or hallucinations dreamed up by the model. In this paper we examine the gpt-4 LLM by simulating a large number of potential research queries and evaluate how many of the generated references are factually correct as well as existent.

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Emulating Author Style: A Feasibility Study of Prompt-enabled Text Stylization with Off-the-Shelf LLMs
Avanti Bhandarkar | Ronald Wilson | Anushka Swarup | Damon Woodard

User-centric personalization of text opens many avenues of applications from stylized email composition to machine translation. Existing approaches in this domain often encounter limitations in data and resource requirements. Drawing inspiration from the success of resource-efficient prompt-enabled stylization in related fields, this work conducts the first feasibility into testing 12 pre-trained SOTA LLMs for author style emulation. Although promising, the results suggest that current off-the-shelf LLMs fall short of achieving effective author style emulation. This work provides valuable insights through which off-the-shelf LLMs could be potentially utilized for user-centric personalization easily and at scale.

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LLMs Simulate Big5 Personality Traits: Further Evidence
Aleksandra Sorokovikova | Sharwin Rezagholi | Natalia Fedorova | Ivan Yamshchikov

An empirical investigation into the simulation of the Big5 personality traits by large language models (LLMs), namely Llama-2, GPT-4, and Mixtral, is presented. We analyze the personality traits simulated by these models and their stability. This contributes to the broader understanding of the capabilities of LLMs to simulate personality traits and the respective implications for personalized human-computer interaction.

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Personalized Text Generation with Fine-Grained Linguistic Control
Bashar Alhafni | Vivek Kulkarni | Dhruv Kumar | Vipul Raheja

As the text generation capabilities of large language models become increasingly prominent, recent studies have focused on controlling particular aspects of the generated text to make it more personalized. However, most research on controllable text generation focuses on controlling the content or modeling specific high-level/coarse-grained attributes that reflect authors’ writing styles, such as formality, domain, or sentiment. In this paper, we focus on controlling fine-grained attributes spanning multiple linguistic dimensions, such as lexical and syntactic attributes. We introduce a novel benchmark to train generative models and evaluate their ability to generate personalized text based on multiple fine-grained linguistic attributes. We systematically investigate the performance of various large language models on our benchmark and draw insights from the factors that impact their performance. We make our code, data, models, and benchmarks publicly available.

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LLM Agents in Interaction: Measuring Personality Consistency and Linguistic Alignment in Interacting Populations of Large Language Models
Ivar Frisch | Mario Giulianelli

Agent interaction has long been a key topic in psychology, philosophy, and artificial intelligence, and it is now gaining traction in large language model (LLM) research. This experimental study seeks to lay the groundwork for our understanding of dialogue-based interaction between LLMs: Do persona-prompted LLMs show consistent personality and language use in interaction? We condition GPT-3.5 on asymmetric personality profiles to create a population of LLM agents, administer personality tests and submit the agents to a collaborative writing task. We find different profiles exhibit different degrees of personality consistency and linguistic alignment in interaction.

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Quantifying learning-style adaptation in effectiveness of LLM teaching
Ruben Weijers | Gabrielle Fidelis de Castilho | Jean-François Godbout | Reihaneh Rabbany | Kellin Pelrine

This preliminary study aims to investigate whether AI, when prompted based on individual learning styles, can effectively improve comprehension and learning experiences in educational settings. It involves tailoring LLMs baseline prompts and comparing the results of a control group receiving standard content and an experimental group receiving learning style-tailored content. Preliminary results suggest that GPT-4 can generate responses aligned with various learning styles, indicating the potential for enhanced engagement and comprehension. However, these results also reveal challenges, including the model’s tendency for sycophantic behavior and variability in responses. Our findings suggest that a more sophisticated prompt engineering approach is required for integrating AI into education (AIEd) to improve educational outcomes.

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RAGs to Style: Personalizing LLMs with Style Embeddings
Abhiman Neelakanteswara | Shreyas Chaudhari | Hamed Zamani

This paper studies the use of style embeddings to enhance author profiling for the goal of personalization of Large Language Models (LLMs). Using a style-based Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) approach, we meticulously study the efficacy of style embeddings in capturing distinctive authorial nuances. The proposed method leverages this acquired knowledge to enhance the personalization capabilities of LLMs. In the assessment of this approach, we have employed the LaMP benchmark, specifically tailored for evaluating language models across diverse dimensions of personalization. The empirical observations from our investigation reveal that, in comparison to term matching or context matching, style proves to be marginally superior in the development of personalized LLMs.

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User Embedding Model for Personalized Language Prompting
Sumanth Doddapaneni | Krishna Sayana | Ambarish Jash | Sukhdeep Sodhi | Dima Kuzmin

Modeling long user histories plays a pivotal role in enhancing recommendation systems, allowing to capture users’ evolving preferences, resulting in more precise and personalized recommendations. In this study, we tackle the challenges of modeling long user histories for preference understanding in natural language. Specifically, we introduce a new User Embedding Module (UEM) that efficiently processes user history in free-form text by compressing and representing them as embeddings, to use them as soft prompts to a language model (LM). Our experiments demonstrate the superior capability of this approach in handling significantly longer histories compared to conventional text-based methods, yielding substantial improvements in predictive performance. Models trained using our approach exhibit substantial enhancements, with up to 0.21 and 0.25 F1 points improvement over the text-based prompting baselines. The main contribution of this research is to demonstrate the ability to bias language models via user signals.

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Proceedings of the Seventh Workshop on the Use of Computational Methods in the Study of Endangered Languages

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Proceedings of the Seventh Workshop on the Use of Computational Methods in the Study of Endangered Languages
Sarah Moeller | Godfred Agyapong | Antti Arppe | Aditi Chaudhary | Shruti Rijhwani | Christopher Cox | Ryan Henke | Alexis Palmer | Daisy Rosenblum | Lane Schwartz

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Cloud-based Platform for Indigenous Language Sound Education
Min Chen | Chris Lee | Naatosi Fish | Mizuki Miyashita | James Randall

Blackfoot is challenging for English speaking instructors and learners to acquire because it exhibits unique pitch patterns. This study presents MeTILDA (Melodic Transcription in Language Documentation and Application) as a solution to teaching pitch patterns distinct from English. Specifically, we explore ways to improve data visualization through a visualized pronunciation teaching guide called Pitch Art. The working materials can be downloaded or stored in the cloud for further use and collaboration. These features are aimed to facilitate teachers in developing curriculum for learning pronunciation, and provide students with an interactive and integrative learning environment to better understand Blackfoot language and pronunciation.

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Technology and Language Revitalization: A Roadmap for the Mvskoke Language
Julia Mainzinger

This paper is a discussion of how NLP can come alongside community efforts to aid in revitalizing the Mvskoke language. Mvskoke is a language indigenous to the southeastern United States that has seen an increase in language revitalization efforts in the last few years. This paper presents an overview of available resources in Mvskoke, an exploration of relevant NLP tasks and related work in endangered language contexts, and applications to language revitalization.

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Investigating the productivity of Passamaquoddy medials: A computational approach
James Roberts

Little is known about medials in Passamaquoddy, which appear to be involved in the construction of verb stems in the language. Investigating the productivity of such morphemes using traditional fieldwork methods is a difficult undertaking that can be made easier with computational methods. I first generated a list of possible verb stems using a simple Python script, then compared this list against Passamaquoddy text corpora to see how many of these tokens were attested. If a given medial is productive, we should expect to see it in a large portion of possible verb stems that include said medial. If this assumption is correct, the corpora analysis will be a key indicator in determining the productivity of individual medials.

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T is for Treu, but how do you pronounce that? Using C-LARA to create phonetic texts for Kanak languages
Pauline Welby | Fabrice Wacalie | Manny Rayner | Chatgpt-4 C-Lara-Instance

In Drehu, a language of the indigenous Kanak people of New Caledonia, the word treu ‘moon’ is pronounced [{tSe.u}]; but, even if they hear the word, the spelling pulls French speakers to a spurious pronunciation [tK{o}]. We implement a strategy to mitigate the influence of such orthographic conflicts, while retaining the benefits of written input on vocabulary learning. We present text in “phonetized” form, where words are broken down into components associated with mnemonically presented phonetic values, adapting features from the “Comment ça se prononce~?” multilingual phonetizer. We present an exploratory project where we used the ChatGPT-based Learning And Reading Assistant (C-LARA) to implement a version of the phonetizer strategy, outlining how the AI-engineered codebase and help from the AI made it easy to add the necessary extensions. We describe two proof-of-concept texts for learners produced using the platform, a Drehu alphabet book and a Drehu version of “The (North) Wind and the Sun”; both texts include native-speaker recorded audio, pronunciation respellings based on French orthography, and AI-generated illustrations.

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Machine-in-the-Loop with Documentary and Descriptive Linguists
Sarah Moeller | Antti Arppe

This paper describes a curriculum for teaching linguists how to apply machine-in-the-loop (MitL) approach to documentary and descriptive tasks. It also shares observations about the learning participants, who are primarily non-computational linguists, and how they interact with the MitL approach. We found that they prefer cleaning over increasing the training data and then proceed to reanalyze their analytical decisions, before finally undertaking small actions that emphasize analytical strategies. Overall, participants display an understanding of the curriculum which covers fundamental concepts of machine learning and statistical modeling.

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Automatic Transcription of Grammaticality Judgements for Language Documentation
Éric Le Ferrand | Emily Prud’hommeaux

Descriptive linguistics is a sub-field of linguistics that involves the collection and annotationof language resources to describe linguistic phenomena. The transcription of these resources is often described as a tedious task, and Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) has frequently been employed to support this process. However, the typical research approach to ASR in documentary linguistics often only captures a subset of the field’s diverse reality. In this paper, we focus specifically on one type of data known as grammaticality judgment elicitation in the context of documenting Kréyòl Gwadloupéyen. We show that only a few minutes of speech is enough to fine-tune a model originally trained in French to transcribe segments in Kréyol.

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Fitting a Square Peg into a Round Hole: Creating a UniMorph dataset of Kanien’kéha Verbs
Anna Kazantseva | Akwiratékha Martin | Karin Michelson | Jean-Pierre Koenig

This paper describes efforts to annotate a dataset of verbs in the Iroquoian language Kanien’kéha (a.k.a. Mohawk) using the UniMorph schema (Batsuren et al. 2022a). It is based on the output of a symbolic model - a hand-built verb conjugator. Morphological constituents of each verb are automatically annotated with UniMorph tags. Overall the process was smooth but some central features of the language did not fall neatly into the schema which resulted in a large number of custom tags and a somewhat ad hoc mapping process. We think the same difficulties are likely to arise for other Iroquoian languages and perhaps other North American language families. This paper describes our decision making process with respect to Kanien’kéha and reports preliminary results of morphological induction experiments using the dataset.

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Data-mining and Extraction: the gold rush of AI on Indigenous Languages
Marie-Odile Junker

The goal of this paper is to start a discussion on the topic of Data mining and Extraction of Indigenous Language data, describing recent events that took place within the Algonquian Dictionaries and Language Resources common infrastructure. We raise questions about ethics, social context, vulnerability, responsibility, and societal benefits and concerns in the age of generative AI.

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Looking within the self: Investigating the Impact of Data Augmentation with Self-training on Automatic Speech Recognition for Hupa
Nitin Venkateswaran | Zoey Liu

We investigate the performance of state-of-the-art neural ASR systems in transcribing audio recordings for Hupa, a critically endangered language of the Hoopa Valley Tribe. We also explore the impact on ASR performance when augmenting a small dataset of gold-standard high-quality transcriptions with a) a larger dataset with transcriptions of lower quality, and b) model-generated transcriptions in a self-training approach. An evaluation of both data augmentation approaches shows that the self-training approach is competitive, producing better WER scores than models trained with no additional data and not lagging far behind models trained with additional lower quality manual transcriptions instead: the deterioration in WER score is just 4.85 points when all the additional data is used in experiments with the best performing system, Wav2Vec. These findings have encouraging implications on the use of ASR systems for transcription and language documentation efforts in the Hupa language.

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Creating Digital Learning and Reference Resources for Southern Michif
Heather Souter | Olivia Sammons | David Huggins Daines

Minority and Indigenous languages are often under-documented and under-resourced. Where such resources do exist, particularly in the form of legacy materials, they are often inaccessible to learners and educators involved in revitalization efforts, whether due to the limitations of their original formats or the structure of their contents. Digitizing such resources and making them available on a variety of platforms is one step in overcoming these barriers. This is a major undertaking which requires significant expertise at the intersection of documentary linguistics, computational linguistics, and software development, and must be done while walking alongside speakers and language specialists in the community. We discuss the particular strategies and challenges involved in the development of one such resource, and make recommendations for future projects with a similar goal of mobilizing legacy language resources.

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MunTTS: A Text-to-Speech System for Mundari
Varun Gumma | Rishav Hada | Aditya Yadavalli | Pamir Gogoi | Ishani Mondal | Vivek Seshadri | Kalika Bali

We present MunTTS, an end-to-end text-to-speech (TTS) system specifically for Mundari, a low-resource Indian language of the Austo-Asiatic family. Our work addresses the gap in linguistic technology for underrepresented languages by collecting and processing data to build a speech synthesis system. We begin our study by gathering a substantial dataset of Mundari text and speech and train end-to-end speech models. We also delve into the methods used for training our models, ensuring they are efficient and effective despite the data constraints. We evaluate our system with native speakers and objective metrics, demonstrating its potential as a tool for preserving and promoting the Mundari language in the digital age.

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End-to-End Speech Recognition for Endangered Languages of Nepal
Marieke Meelen | Alexander O’neill | Rolando Coto-Solano

This paper presents three experiments to test the most effective and efficient ASR pipeline to facilitate the documentation and preservation of endangered languages, which are often extremely low-resourced. With data from two languages in Nepal —Dzardzongke and Newar— we show that model improvements are different for different masses of data, and that transfer learning as well as a range of modifications (e.g. normalising amplitude and pitch) can be effective, but that a consistently-standardised orthography as NLP input and post-training dictionary corrections improve results even more.

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Akha, Dara-ang, Karen, Khamu, Mlabri and Urak Lawoi’ language minorities’ subjective perception of their languages and the outlook for development of digital tools
Joanna Dolinska | Shekhar Nayak | Sumittra Suraratdecha

Multilingualism is deeply rooted in the sociopolitical history of Thailand. Some minority language communities entered the Thai territory a few decades ago, while the families of some other minority speakers have been living in Thailand since at least several generations. The authors of this article address the question how Akha, Dara-ang, Karen, Khamu, Mlabri and Urak Lawoi’ language speakers perceive the current situation of their language and whether they see the need for the development of digital tools for documentation, revitalization and daily use of their languages. The objective is complemented by a discussion on the feasibility of development of such tools for some of the above mentioned languages and the motivation of their speakers to participate in this process. Furthermore, this article highlights the challenges associated with developing digital tools for these low-resource languages and outlines the standards researchers must adhere to in conceptualizing the development of such tools, collecting data, and engaging with the language communities throughout the collaborative process.

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Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Discourse (CODI 2024)

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Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Discourse (CODI 2024)
Michael Strube | Chloe Braud | Christian Hardmeier | Junyi Jessy Li | Sharid Loaiciga | Amir Zeldes | Chuyuan Li

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An Algorithmic Approach to Analyzing Rhetorical Structures
Andrew Potter

Although diagrams are fundamental to Rhetorical Structure Theory, their interpretation has received little in-depth exploration. This paper presents an algorithmic approach to accessing the meaning of these diagrams. Three algorithms are presented. The first of these, called reenactment, recreates the abstract process whereby structures are created, following the dynamic of coherence development, starting from simple relational propositions, and combing these to form complex expressions which are in turn integrated to define the comprehensive discourse organization. The second algorithm, called composition, implements Marcu’s strong nuclearity assumption. It uses a simple inference mechanism to demonstrate the reducibility of complex structures to simple relational propositions. The third algorithm, called compress, picks up where Marcu’s assumption leaves off, providing a generalized fully scalable procedure for progressive reduction of relational propositions to their simplest accessible forms. These inferred reductions may then be recycled to produce RST diagrams of abridged texts. The algorithms described here are useful in positioning computational descriptions of rhetorical structures as discursive processes, allowing researchers to go beyond static diagrams and look into their formative and interpretative significance.

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SciPara: A New Dataset for Investigating Paragraph Discourse Structure in Scientific Papers
Anna Kiepura | Yingqiang Gao | Jessica Lam | Nianlong Gu | Richard H.r. Hahnloser

Good scientific writing makes use of specific sentence and paragraph structures, providing a rich platform for discourse analysis and developing tools to enhance text readability. In this vein, we introduce SciPara, a novel dataset consisting of 981 scientific paragraphs annotated by experts in terms of sentence discourse types and topic information. On this dataset, we explored two tasks: 1) discourse category classification, which is to predict the discourse category of a sentence by using its paragraph and surrounding paragraphs as context, and 2) discourse sentence generation, which is to generate a sentence of a certain discourse category by using various contexts as input. We found that Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) can accurately identify Topic Sentences in SciPara, but have difficulty distinguishing Concluding, Transition, and Supporting Sentences. The quality of the sentences generated by all investigated PLMs improved with amount of context, regardless of discourse category. However, not all contexts were equally influential. Contrary to common assumptions about well-crafted scientific paragraphs, our analysis revealed that paradoxically, paragraphs with complete discourse structures were less readable.

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Using Discourse Connectives to Test Genre Bias in Masked Language Models
Heidrun Dorgeloh | Lea Kawaletz | Simon Stein | Regina Stodden | Stefan Conrad

This paper presents evidence for an effect of genre on the use of discourse connectives in argumentation. Drawing from discourse processing research on reasoning based structures, we use fill-mask computation to measure genre-induced expectations of argument realisation, and beta regression to model the probabilities of these realisations against a set of predictors. Contrasting fill-mask probabilities for the presence or absence of a discourse connective in baseline and finetuned language models reveals that genre introduces biases for the realisation of argument structure. These outcomes suggest that cross-domain discourse processing, but also argument mining, should take into account generalisations about specific features, such as connectives, and their probability related to the genre context.

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Projecting Annotations for Discourse Relations: Connective Identification for Low-Resource Languages
Peter Bourgonje | Pin-Jie Lin

We present a pipeline for multi-lingual Shallow Discourse Parsing. The pipeline exploits Machine Translation and Word Alignment, by translating any incoming non-English input text into English, applying an English discourse parser, and projecting the found relations onto the original input text through word alignments. While the purpose of the pipeline is to provide rudimentary discourse relation annotations for low-resource languages, in order to get an idea of performance, we evaluate it on the sub-task of discourse connective identification for several languages for which gold data are available. We experiment with different setups of our modular pipeline architecture and analyze intermediate results. Our code is made available on GitHub.

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Experimenting with Discourse Segmentation of Taiwan Southern Min Spontaneous Speech
Laurent Prévot | Sheng-Fu Wang

Discourse segmentation received increased attention in the past years, however the majority of studies have focused on written genres and with high-resource languages. This paper investigates discourse segmentation of a Taiwan Southern Min spontaneous speech corpus. We compare the fine-tuning a Language Model (LLM using two approaches: supervised, thanks to a high-quality annotated dataset, and weakly-supervised, requiring only a small amount of manual labeling. The corpus used here is transcribed with both Chinese characters and romanized transcription. This allows us to compare the impact of the written form on the discourse segmentation task. Additionally, the dataset includes manual prosodic breaks labeling, allowing an exploration of the role prosody can play in contemporary discourse segmentation systems grounded in LLMs. In our study, the supervised approach outperforms weak-supervision ; character-based version demonstrated better scores compared to the romanized version; and prosodic information proved to be an interesting source to increase discourse segmentation performance.

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Actor Identification in Discourse: A Challenge for LLMs?
Ana Barić | Sebastian Padó | Sean Papay

The identification of political actors who put forward claims in public debate is a crucial step in the construction of discourse networks, which are helpful to analyze societal debates. Actor identification is, however, rather challenging: Often, the locally mentioned speaker of a claim is only a pronoun (“He proposed that [claim]”), so recovering the canonical actor name requires discourse understanding. We compare a traditional pipeline of dedicated NLP components (similar to those applied to the related task of coreference) with a LLM, which appears a good match for this generation task. Evaluating on a corpus of German actors in newspaper reports, we find surprisingly that the LLM performs worse. Further analysis reveals that the LLM is very good at identifying the right reference, but struggles to generate the correct canonical form. This points to an underlying issue in LLMs with controlling generated output. Indeed, a hybrid model combining the LLM with a classifier to normalize its output substantially outperforms both initial models.

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Quantitative metrics to the CARS model in academic discourse in biology introductions
Charles Lam | Nonso Nnamoko

Writing research articles is crucial in any academic’s development and is thus an important component of the academic discourse. The Introduction section is often seen as a difficult task within the research article genre. This study presents two metrics of rhetorical moves in academic writing: step-n-grams and lengths of steps. While scholars agree that expert writers follow the general pattern described in the CARS model (Swales, 1990), this study complements previous studies with empirical quantitative data that highlight how writers progress from one rhetorical function to another in practice, based on 50 recent papers by expert writers. The discussion shows the significance of the results in relation to writing instructors and data-driven learning.

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Probing of pretrained multilingual models on the knowledge of discourse
Mary Godunova | Ekaterina Voloshina

With the raise of large language models (LLMs), different evaluation methods, including probing methods, are gaining more attention. Probing methods are meant to evaluate LLMs on their linguistic abilities. However, most of the studies are focused on morphology and syntax, leaving discourse research out of the scope. At the same time, understanding discourse and pragmatics is crucial to building up the conversational abilities of models. In this paper, we address the problem of probing several models of discourse knowledge in 10 languages. We present an algorithm to automatically adapt existing discourse tasks to other languages based on the Universal Dependencies (UD) annotation. We find that models perform similarly on high- and low-resourced languages. However, the overall low performance of the models’ quality shows that they do not acquire discourse well enough.

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Feature-augmented model for multilingual discourse relation classification
Eleni Metheniti | Chloé Braud | Philippe Muller

Discourse relation classification within a multilingual, cross-framework setting is a challenging task, and the best-performing systems so far have relied on monolingual and mono-framework approaches.In this paper, we introduce transformer-based multilingual models, trained jointly over all datasets—thus covering different languages and discourse frameworks. We demonstrate their ability to outperform single-corpus models and to overcome (to some extent) the disparity among corpora, by relying on linguistic features and generic information about the nature of the datasets. We also compare the performance of different multilingual pretrained models, as well as the encoding of the relation direction, a key component for the task. Our results on the 16 datasets of the DISRPT 2021 benchmark show improvements in accuracy in (almost) all datasets compared to the monolingual models, with at best 65.91% in average accuracy, thus corresponding to a 4% improvement over the state-of-the-art.

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Complex question generation using discourse-based data augmentation
Khushnur Jahangir | Philippe Muller | Chloé Braud

Question Generation (QG), the process of generating meaningful questions from a given context, has proven to be useful for several tasks such as question answering or FAQ generation. While most existing QG techniques generate simple, fact-based questions, this research aims to generate questions that can have complex answers (e.g. “why” questions). We propose a data augmentation method that uses discourse relations to create such questions, and experiment on existing English data. Our approach generates questions based solely on the context without answer supervision, in order to enhance question diversity and complexity. We use an encoder-decoder trained on the augmented dataset to generate either one question or multiple questions at a time, and show that the latter improves over the baseline model when doing a human quality evaluation, without degrading performance according to standard automated metrics.

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Exploring Soft-Label Training for Implicit Discourse Relation Recognition
Nelson Filipe Costa | Leila Kosseim

This paper proposes a classification model for single label implicit discourse relation recognition trained on soft-label distributions. It follows the PDTB 3.0 framework and it was trained and tested on the DiscoGeM corpus, where it achieves an F1-score of 51.38 on third-level sense classification of implicit discourse relations. We argue that training on soft-label distributions allows the model to better discern between more ambiguous discourse relations.

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The ARRAU 3.0 Corpus
Massimo Poesio | Maris Camilleri | Paloma Carretero Garcia | Juntao Yu | Mark-Christoph Müller

The ARRAU corpus is an anaphorically annotated corpus designed to cover a wide variety of aspects of anaphoric reference in a variety of genres, including both written text and spoken language. The objective of this annotation project is to push forward the state of the art in anaphoric annotation, by overcoming the limitations of current annotation practice and the scope of current models of anaphoric interpretation, which in turn may reveal other issues. The resulting corpus is still therefore very much a work in progress almost twenty years after the project started. In this paper, we discuss the issues identified with the coding scheme used for the previous release, ARRAU 2, and through the use of this corpus for three shared tasks; the proposed solutions to these issues; and the resulting corpus, ARRAU 3.

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Signals as Features: Predicting Error/Success in Rhetorical Structure Parsing
Martial Pastor | Nelleke Oostdijk

This study introduces an approach for evaluating the importance of signals proposed by Das and Taboada in discourse parsing. Previous studies using other signals indicate that discourse markers (DMs) are not consistently reliable cues and can act as distractors, complicating relations recognition. The study explores the effectiveness of alternative signal types, such as syntactic and genre-related signals, revealing their efficacy even when not predominant for specific relations. An experiment incorporating RST signals as features for a parser error / success prediction model demonstrates their relevance and provides insights into signal combinations that prevents (or facilitates) accurate relation recognition. The observations also identify challenges and potential confusion posed by specific signals. This study resulted in producing publicly available code and data, contributing to an accessible resources for research on RST signals in discourse parsing.

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GroundHog: Dialogue Generation using Multi-Grained Linguistic Input
Alexander Chernyavskiy | Lidiia Ostyakova | Dmitry Ilvovsky

Recent language models have significantly boosted conversational AI by enabling fast and cost-effective response generation in dialogue systems. However, dialogue systems based on neural generative approaches often lack truthfulness, reliability, and the ability to analyze the dialogue flow needed for smooth and consistent conversations with users. To address these issues, we introduce GroundHog, a modified BART architecture, to capture long multi-grained inputs gathered from various factual and linguistic sources, such as Abstract Meaning Representation, discourse relations, sentiment, and grounding information. For experiments, we present an automatically collected dataset from Reddit that includes multi-party conversations devoted to movies and TV series. The evaluation encompasses both automatic evaluation metrics and human evaluation. The obtained results demonstrate that using several linguistic inputs has the potential to enhance dialogue consistency, meaningfulness, and overall generation quality, even for automatically annotated data. We also provide an analysis that highlights the importance of individual linguistic features in interpreting the observed enhancements.

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Discourse Relation Prediction and Discourse Parsing in Dialogues with Minimal Supervision
Chuyuan Li | Chloé Braud | Maxime Amblard | Giuseppe Carenini

Discourse analysis plays a crucial role in Natural Language Processing, with discourse relation prediction arguably being the most difficult task in discourse parsing. Previous studies have generally focused on explicit or implicit discourse relation classification in monologues, leaving dialogue an under-explored domain. Facing the data scarcity issue, we propose to leverage self-training strategies based on a Transformer backbone. Moreover, we design the first semi-supervised pipeline that sequentially predicts discourse structures and relations. Using 50 examples, our relation prediction module achieves 58.4 in accuracy on the STAC corpus, close to supervised state-of-the-art. Full parsing results show notable improvements compared to the supervised models both in-domain (gaming) and cross-domain (technical chat), with better stability.

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With a Little Help from my (Linguistic) Friends: Topic segmentation of multi-party casual conversations
Amandine Decker | Maxime Amblard

Topics play an important role in the global organisation of a conversation as what is currently discussed constrains the possible contributions of the participant. Understanding the way topics are organised in interaction would provide insight on the structure of dialogue beyond the sequence of utterances. However, studying this high-level structure is a complex task that we try to approach by first segmenting dialogues into smaller topically coherent sets of utterances. Understanding the interactions between these segments would then enable us to propose a model of topic organisation at a dialogue level. In this paper we work with open-domain conversations and try to reach a comparable level of accuracy as recent machine learning based topic segmentation models but with a formal approach. The features we identify as meaningful for this task help us understand better the topical structure of a conversation.

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Proceedings of the 1st Worskhop on Towards Ethical and Inclusive Conversational AI: Language Attitudes, Linguistic Diversity, and Language Rights (TEICAI 2024)

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Proceedings of the 1st Worskhop on Towards Ethical and Inclusive Conversational AI: Language Attitudes, Linguistic Diversity, and Language Rights (TEICAI 2024)
Nina Hosseini-Kivanani | Sviatlana Höhn | Dimitra Anastasiou | Bettina Migge | Angela Soltan | Doris Dippold | Ekaterina Kamlovskaya | Fred Philippy

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How Do Conversational Agents in Healthcare Impact on Patient Agency?
Kerstin Denecke

In healthcare, agency refers to the ability of patients to actively participate in and control their health through collaborating with providers, informed decision-making and understanding health information. Conversational agents (CAs) are increasingly used for realizing digital health interventions, but it is still unclear how they are enhancing patient agency. This paper explores which technological components are required to enable CAs impacting on patient agency, and identifies metrics for measuring and evaluating this impact. We do this by drawing on existing work related to developing and evaluating healthcare CAs and through analysis of a concrete example of a CA. As a result, we identify five main areas where CAs enhance patient agency, namely by: improved access to health information, personalized advice, increased engagement, emotional support and reduced barriers to care. For each of these areas, specific technological functions have to be integrated into CAs such as sentiment and emotion analysis methods that allow a CA to support emotionally.

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Why academia should cut back general enthusiasm about CAs
Alessia Giulimondi

This position paper will analyze LLMs, the core technology of CAs, from a socio-technical and linguistic perspective in order to argue for a limitation of its use in academia, which should be reflected in a more cautious adoption of CAs in private spaces. The article describes how machine learning technologies like LLMs are inserted into a more general process of platformization (van Dijck, 2021), negatively affecting autonomy of research (Kersessens and van Dijck, 2022). Moreover, fine-tuning practices, as means to polish language models (Kasirzadeh and Gabriel, 2023) are questioned, explaining how these foster a deterministic approach to language. A leading role of universities in this general gain of awareness is strongly advocated, as institutions that support transparent and open science, in order to foster and protect democratic values in our societies.

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Bridging the Language Gap: Integrating Language Variations into Conversational AI Agents for Enhanced User Engagement
Marcellus Amadeus | Jose Roberto Homeli da Silva | Joao Victor Pessoa Rocha

This paper presents the initial steps taken to integrate language variations into conversational AI agents to enhance user engagement. The study is built upon sociolinguistic and pragmatic traditions and involves the creation of an annotation taxonomy. The taxonomy includes eleven classes, ranging from concrete to abstract, and the covered aspects are the instance itself, time, sentiment, register, state, region, type, grammar, part of speech, meaning, and language. The paper discusses the challenges of incorporating vernacular language into AI agents, the procedures for data collection, and the taxonomy organization. It also outlines the next steps, including the database expansion and the computational implementation. The authors believe that integrating language variation into conversational AI will build near-real language inventories and boost user engagement. The paper concludes by discussing the limitations and the importance of building rapport with users through their own vernacular.

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Socio-cultural adapted chatbots: Harnessing Knowledge Graphs and Large Language Models for enhanced context awarenes
Jader Camboim de Sá | Dimitra Anastasiou | Marcos Da Silveira | Cédric Pruski

Understanding the socio-cultural context is crucial in machine translation (MT). Although conversational AI systems and chatbots, in particular, are not designed for translation, they can be used for MT purposes. Yet, chatbots often struggle to identify any socio-cultural context during user interactions. In this paper, we highlight this challenge with real-world examples from popular chatbots. We advocate for the use of knowledge graphs as an external source of information that can potentially encapsulate socio-cultural contexts, aiding chatbots in enhancing translation. We further present a method to exploit external knowledge and extract contextual information that can significantly improve text translation, as evidenced by our interactions with these chatbots.

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How should Conversational Agent systems respond to sexual harassment?
Laura De Grazia | Alex Peiró Lilja | Mireia Farrús Cabeceran | Mariona Taulé

This paper investigates the appropriate responses that Conversational Agent systems (CAs) should employ when subjected to sexual harassment by users. Previous studies indicate that conventional CAs often respond neutrally or evade such requests. Enhancing the responsiveness of CAs to offensive speech is crucial, as users might carry over these interactions into their social interactions. To address this issue, we selected evaluators to compare a series of responses to sexual harassment from four commercial CAs (Amazon Alexa, Apple Siri, Google Home, and Microsoft Cortana) with alternative responses we realized based on insights from psychological and sociological studies. Focusing on CAs with a female voice, given their increased likelihood of encountering offensive language, we conducted two experiments involving 22 evaluators (11 females and 11 males). In the initial experiment, participants assessed the responses in a textual format, while the second experiment involved the evaluation of responses generated with a synthetic voice exhibiting three different intonations (angry, neutral, and assertive). Results from the first experiment revealed a general preference for the responses we formulated. For the most voted replies, female evaluators exhibited a tendency towards responses with an assertive intent, emphasizing the sexually harassing nature of the request. Conversely, male evaluators leaned towards a more neutral response, aligning with prior findings that highlight gender-based differences in the perception of sexual harassment. The second experiment underscored a preference for assertive responses. The study’s outcomes highlight the need to develop new, educational responses from CAs to instances of sexual harassment, aiming to discourage harmful behavior.

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Non-Referential Functions of Language in Social Agents: The Case of Social Proximity
Sviatlana Höhn

Non-referential functions of language such as setting group boundaries, identity construction and regulation of social proximity have rarely found place in the language technology creation process. Nevertheless, their importance has been postulated in literature. While multiple methods to include social information in large language models (LLM) cover group properties (gender, age, geographic relations, professional characteristics), a combination of group social characteristics and individual features of an agent (natural or artificial) play a role in social interaction but have not been studied in generated language. This article explores the orchestration of prompt engineering and retrieval-augmented generation techniques to linguistic features of social proximity and distance in language generated by an LLM. The study uses the immediacy/distance model from literature to analyse language generated by an LLM for different recipients. This research reveals that kinship terms are almost the only way of displaying immediacy in LLM-made conversations.

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Making a Long Story Short in Conversation Modeling
Yufei Tao | Tiernan Mines | Ameeta Agrawal

Conversation systems accommodate diverse users with unique personalities and distinct writing styles. Within the domain of multi-turn dialogue modeling, this work studies the impact of varied utterance lengths on the quality of subsequent responses generated by conversation models. Using GPT-3 as the base model, multiple dialogue datasets, and several metrics, we conduct a thorough exploration of this aspect of conversational models. Our analysis sheds light on the complex relationship between utterance lengths and the quality of follow-up responses generated by dialogue systems. Empirical findings suggests that, for certain types of conversations, utterance lengths can be reduced by up to 72% without any noticeable difference in the quality of follow-up responses.

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Proceedings of the First edition of the Workshop on the Scaling Behavior of Large Language Models (SCALE-LLM 2024)

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Proceedings of the First edition of the Workshop on the Scaling Behavior of Large Language Models (SCALE-LLM 2024)
Antonio Valerio Miceli-Barone | Fazl Barez | Shay Cohen | Elena Voita | Ulrich Germann | Michal Lukasik

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A Proposal for Scaling the Scaling Laws
Wout Schellaert | Ronan Hamon | Fernando Martínez-Plumed | Jose Hernandez-Orallo

Scaling laws are predictable relations between the performance of AI systems and various scalable design choices such as model or dataset size. In order to keep predictions interpretable, scaling analysis has traditionally relied on heavy summarisation of both the system design and its performance. We argue this summarisation and aggregation is a major source of predictive inaccuracy and lack of generalisation. With a synthetic example we show how scaling analysis needs to be _instance-based_ to accurately model realistic benchmark behaviour, highlighting the need for richer evaluation datasets and more complex inferential tools, for which we outline an actionable proposal.

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Scaling Behavior of Machine Translation with Large Language Models under Prompt Injection Attacks
Zhifan Sun | Antonio Valerio Miceli-Barone

Large Language Models (LLMs) are increasingly becoming the preferred foundation platforms for many Natural Language Processing tasks such as Machine Translation, owing to their quality often comparable to or better than task-specific models, and the simplicity of specifying the task through natural language instructions or in-context examples.Their generality, however, opens them up to subversion by end users who may embed into their requests instructions that cause the model to behave in unauthorized and possibly unsafe ways.In this work we study these Prompt Injection Attacks (PIAs) on multiple families of LLMs on a Machine Translation task, focusing on the effects of model size on the attack success rates.We introduce a new benchmark data set and we discover that on multiple language pairs and injected prompts written in English, larger models under certain conditions may become more susceptible to successful attacks, an instance of the Inverse Scaling phenomenon (McKenzie et al., 2023).To our knowledge, this is the first work to study non-trivial LLM scaling behaviour in a multi-lingual setting.

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Can Large Language Models Reason About Goal-Oriented Tasks?
Filippos Bellos | Yayuan Li | Wuao Liu | Jason Corso

Most adults can complete a sequence of steps to achieve a certain goal, such as making a sandwich or repairing a bicycle tire. In completing these goal-oriented tasks, or simply tasks in this paper, one must use sequential reasoning to understand the relationship between the sequence of steps and the goal. LLMs have shown impressive capabilities across various natural language understanding tasks. However, prior work has mainlyfocused on logical reasoning tasks (e.g. arithmetic, commonsense QA); how well LLMs can perform on more complex reasoning tasks like sequential reasoning is not clear. In this paper, we address this gap and conduct a comprehensive evaluation of how well LLMs are able to conduct this reasoning for tasks and how they scale w.r.t multiple dimensions(e.g. adaptive prompting strategies, number of in-context examples, varying complexity of the sequential task). Our findings reveal that while Chain of Thought (CoT) prompting can significantly enhance LLMs’ sequential reasoning in certain scenarios, it can also be detrimental in others, whereas Tree of Thoughts (ToT) reasoning is less effective for this type of task. Additionally, we discover that an increase in model size or in-context examples does not consistently lead to improved performance.

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InstructEval: Towards Holistic Evaluation of Instruction-Tuned Large Language Models
Yew Ken Chia | Pengfei Hong | Lidong Bing | Soujanya Poria

Instruction-tuned large language models have revolutionized natural language processing and have shown great potential in applications such as conversational agents. These models, such as GPT-4, can not only master language but also solve complex tasks in areas like mathematics, coding, medicine, and law. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive understanding regarding their full potential, primarily due to the black-box nature of many models and lack of holistic evaluation. To address these challenges, we present InstructEval, a more comprehensive evaluation suite designed specifically for instruction-tuned large language models. Unlike previous works, our evaluation involves a rigorous assessment of models based on problem-solving, writing ability, and alignment to human values. We take a holistic approach to analyze various factors affecting model performance, including the pretraining foundation, instruction-tuning data, and training methods. Our findings reveal that the quality of instruction data is a crucial factor in scaling model performance. While open-source models demonstrate impressive writing abilities, there is substantial room for improvement in problem-solving and alignment.

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Detecting Mode Collapse in Language Models via Narration
Sil Hamilton

No two authors write alike. Personal flourishes invoked in written narratives, from lexicon to rhetorical devices, imply a particular author—what literary theorists label the implied or virtual author; distinct from the real author or narrator of a text. Early large language models trained on unfiltered training sets drawn from a variety of discordant sources yielded incoherent personalities, problematic for conversational tasks but proving useful for sampling literature from multiple perspectives. Successes in alignment research in recent years have allowed researchers to impose subjectively consistent personae on language models via instruction tuning and reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF), but whether aligned models retain the ability to model an arbitrary virtual author has received little scrutiny. By studying 4,374 stories sampled from three OpenAI language models, we show successive versions of GPT-3 suffer from increasing degrees of “mode collapse” whereby overfitting the model during alignment constrains it from generalizing over authorship: models suffering from mode collapse become unable to assume a multiplicity of perspectives. Our method and results are significant for researchers seeking to employ language models in sociological simulations.

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Proceedings of the 8th Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature (LaTeCH-CLfL 2024)

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Proceedings of the 8th Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature (LaTeCH-CLfL 2024)
Yuri Bizzoni | Stefania Degaetano-Ortlieb | Anna Kazantseva | Stan Szpakowicz

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Evaluating In-Context Learning for Computational Literary Studies: A Case Study Based on the Automatic Recognition of Knowledge Transfer in German Drama
Janis Pagel | Axel Pichler | Nils Reiter

In this paper, we evaluate two different natural language processing (NLP) approaches to solve a paradigmatic task for computational literary studies (CLS): the recognition of knowledge transfer in literary texts. We focus on the question of how adequately large language models capture the transfer of knowledge about family relations in German drama texts when this transfer is treated as a classification or textual entailment task using in-context learning (ICL). We find that a 13 billion parameter LLAMA 2 model performs best on the former, while GPT-4 performs best on the latter task. However, all models achieve relatively low scores compared to standard NLP benchmark results, struggle from inconsistencies with small changes in prompts and are often not able to make simple inferences beyond the textual surface, which is why an unreflected generic use of ICL in the CLS seems still not advisable.

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Coreference in Long Documents using Hierarchical Entity Merging
Talika Gupta | Hans Ole Hatzel | Chris Biemann

Current top-performing coreference resolution approaches are limited with regard to the maximum length of texts they can accept. We explore a recursive merging technique of entities that allows us to apply coreference models to texts of arbitrary length, as found in many narrative genres. In experiments on established datasets, we quantify the drop in resolution quality caused by this approach. Finally, we use an under-explored resource in the form of a fully coreference-annotated novel to illustrate our model’s performance for long documents in practice. Here, we achieve state-of-the-art performance, outperforming previous systems capable of handling long documents.

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Metaphorical Framing of Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Immigrants in UKs Left and Right-Wing Media
Yunxiao Wang

The metaphorical framing of refugees, asylum seekers, and immigrants (RASIM) has been widely explored in academia, but mainly through close analysis. The present research outlines a large-scale computational investigation of RASIM metaphors in UKs media discourse. We experiment with a method that facilitates automatic identification of RASIM metaphors in 21 years of RASIM-related news reports from eight popular UK newspapers. From the metaphors extracted, four overarching frames are identified. Further analysis reveals correlations between political bias and metaphor usage: overall, right-biased newspapers use RASIM metaphors more frequently than their left-biased counterparts. Within the metaphorical frames, water, disaster, and non-human metaphors are more prevalent in right-biased media. Additionally, diachronic analysis illustrates that the distinctions between left and right media have evolved over time. Water metaphors, for example, have become increasingly more representative of the political right in the past two decades.

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Computational Analysis of Dehumanization of Ukrainians on Russian Social Media
Kateryna Burovova | Mariana Romanyshyn

Dehumanization is a pernicious process of denying some or all attributes of humanness to the target group. It is frequently cited as a common hallmark of incitement to commit genocide. The international security landscape has seen a dramatic shift following the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. This, coupled with recent developments in the conceptualization of dehumanization, necessitates the creation of new techniques for analyzing and detecting this extreme violence-related phenomenon on a large scale. Our project pioneers the development of a detection system for instances of dehumanization. To achieve this, we collected the entire posting history of the most popular bloggers on Russian Telegram and tested classical machine learning, deep learning, and zero-shot learning approaches to explore and detect the dehumanizing rhetoric. We found that the transformer-based method for entity extraction SpERT shows a promising result of F 1 = 0.85 for binary classification. The proposed methods can be built into the systems of anticipatory governance, contribute to the collection of evidence of genocidal intent in the Russian invasion of Ukraine, and pave the way for large-scale studies of dehumanizing language. This paper contains references to language that some readers may find offensive.

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Compilation of a Synthetic Judeo-French Corpus
Iglika Nikolova-Stoupak | Gaél Lejeune | Eva Schaeffer-Lacroix

This is a short paper describing the process of derivation of synthetic Judeo-French text. Judeo-French is one of a number of rare languages used in speaking and writing by Jewish communities as confined to a particular temporal and geographical frame (in this case, 11th- to 14th-century France). The number of resources in the language is very limited and its involvement in the contemporary domain of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is practically non-existent. This work outlines the compilation of a synthetic Judeo-French corpus. For the purpose, a pipeline of transformations is applied to Old French text belonging to the same general time period, leading to the derivation of text that is as reliable as possible in terms of phonological, morphological and lexical characteristics as witnessed in Judeo-French. Ultimately, the goal is for this synthetic corpus to be used in standard NLP tasks, such as Neural Machine Translation (NMT), as an instance of data augmentation.

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Detecting Structured Language Alternations in Historical Documents by Combining Language Identification with Fourier Analysis
Hale Sirin | Sabrina Li | Thomas Lippincott

In this study, we present a generalizable workflow to identify documents in a historic language with a nonstandard language and script combination, Armeno-Turkish. We introduce the task of detecting distinct patterns of multilinguality based on the frequency of structured language alternations within a document.

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EmotionArcs: Emotion Arcs for 9,000 Literary Texts
Emily Ohman | Yuri Bizzoni | Pascale Feldkamp Moreira | Kristoffer Nielbo

We introduce EmotionArcs, a dataset comprising emotional arcs from over 9,000 English novels, assembled to understand the dynamics of emotions represented in text and how these emotions may influence a novel ́s reception and perceived quality. We evaluate emotion arcs manually, by comparing them to human annotation and against other similar emotion modeling systems to show that our system produces coherent emotion arcs that correspond to human interpretation. We present and make this resource available for further studies of a large collection of emotion arcs and present one application, exploring these arcs for modeling reader appreciation. Using information-theoretic measures to analyze the impact of emotions on literary quality, we find that emotional entropy, as well as the skewness and steepness of emotion arcs correlate with two proxies of literary reception. Our findings may offer insights into how quality assessments relate to emotional complexity and could help with the study of affect in literary novels.

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Multi-word Expressions in English Scientific Writing
Diego Alves | Stefan Fischer | Stefania Degaetano-Ortlieb | Elke Teich

Multi-Word Expressions (MWEs) play a pivotal role in language use overall and in register formation more specifically, e.g. encoding field-specific terminology. Our study focuses on the identification and categorization of MWEs used in scientific writing, considering their formal characteristics as well as their developmental trajectory over time from the mid-17th century to the present. For this, we develop an approach combining three different types of methods to identify MWEs (Universal Dependency annotation, Partitioner and the Academic Formulas List) and selected measures to characterize MWE properties (e.g., dispersion by Kullback-Leibler Divergence and several association measures). This allows us to inspect MWEs types in a novel data-driven way regarding their functions and change over time in specialized discourse.

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EventNet-ITA: Italian Frame Parsing for Events
Marco Rovera

This paper introduces EventNet-ITA, a large, multi-domain corpus annotated full-text with event frames for Italian. Moreover, we present and thoroughly evaluate an efficient multi-label sequence labeling approach for Frame Parsing. Covering a wide range of individual, social and historical phenomena, with more than 53,000 annotated sentences and over 200 modeled frames, EventNet-ITA constitutes the first systematic attempt to provide the Italian language with a publicly available resource for Frame Parsing of events, useful for a broad spectrum of research and application tasks. Our approach achieves a promising 0.9 strict F1-score for frame classification and 0.72 for frame element classification, on top of minimizing computational requirements. The annotated corpus and the frame parsing model are released under open license.

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Modeling Moravian Memoirs: Ternary Sentiment Analysis in a Low Resource Setting
Patrick Brookshire | Nils Reiter

The Moravians are a Christian group that has emerged from a 15th century movement. In this paper, we investigate how memoirs written by the devotees of this group can be analyzed with methods from computational linguistics, in particular sentiment analysis. To this end, we experiment with two different fine-tuning strategies and find that the best performance for ternary sentiment analysis (81% accuracy) is achieved by fine-tuning a German BERT model, outperforming in particular models trained on much larger German sentiment datasets. We further investigate the model(s) using SHAP scores and find that the best performing model struggles with multiple negations and mixed statements. Finally, we show two application scenarios motivated by research questions from religious studies.

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Applying Information-theoretic Notions to Measure Effects of the Plain English Movement on English Law Reports and Scientific Articles
Sergei Bagdasarov | Stefania Degaetano-Ortlieb

We investigate the impact of the Plain English Movement (PEM) on the complexity of legal language in UK law reports from the 1950s-2010s, contrasting it with the evolution of scientific language. The PEM, emerging in the late 20th century, advocated for clear and understandable legal language. We define complexity through the concept of surprisal - an information-theoretic measure correlating with cognitive processing difficulty. Our research contrasts surprisal with traditional readability measures, which often overlook content. We hypothesize that, if the PEM has influenced legal language, there would be a reduction in complexity over time and a shift from a nominal to a more verbal style. We analyze text complexity and lexico-grammatical changes in line with PEM recommendations. Results indicate minimal impact of the PEM on both legal and scientific domains. This finding suggests future research should consider processing effort when advocating for linguistic norms to enhance accessibility.

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Uncovering the Handwritten Text in the Margins: End-to-end Handwritten Text Detection and Recognition
Liang Cheng | Jonas Frankemölle | Adam Axelsson | Ekta Vats

The pressing need for digitization of historical documents has led to a strong interest in designing computerised image processing methods for automatic handwritten text recognition. However, not much attention has been paid on studying the handwritten text written in the margins, i.e. marginalia, that also forms an important source of information. Nevertheless, training an accurate and robust recognition system for marginalia calls for data-efficient approaches due to the unavailability of sufficient amounts of annotated multi-writer texts. Therefore, this work presents an end-to-end framework for automatic detection and recognition of handwritten marginalia, and leverages data augmentation and transfer learning to overcome training data scarcity. The detection phase involves investigation of R-CNN and Faster R-CNN networks. The recognition phase includes an attention-based sequence-to-sequence model, with ResNet feature extraction, bidirectional LSTM-based sequence modeling, and attention-based prediction of marginalia. The effectiveness of the proposed framework has been empirically evaluated on the data from early book collections found in the Uppsala University Library in Sweden. Source code and pre-trained models are available at Github.

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Historical Portrayal of Greek Tourism through Topic Modeling on International Newspapers
Eirini Karamouzi | Maria Pontiki | Yannis Krasonikolakis

In this paper, we bridge computational linguistics with historical methods to explore the potential of topic modeling in historical newspapers. Our case study focuses on British and American newspapers published in the second half of the 20th century that debate issues of Greek tourism, but our method can be transposed to any diachronic data. We demonstrate that Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NFM) can generate interpretable topics within the historical period under examination providing a tangible example of how computational text analysis can assist historical research. The contribution of our work is two-fold; first, the extracted topics are evaluated both by a computational linguist and by a historian highlighting the crucial role of domain experts when interpreting topic modeling outputs. Second, the extracted topics are contextualized within the historical and political environment in which they appear, providing interesting insights about the historical representations of Greek tourism over the years, and about the development and the hallmarks of American and British tourism in Greece across different historical periods (from 1945 to 1989). The comparative analysis between the American and the British press reveals interesting insights including similar responses to specific events as well as notable differences between British and American tourism to Greece during the historical periods under examination. Overall, the results of our analysis can provide valuable information for academics and researchers in the field of (Digital) Humanities and Social Sciences, as well as for stakeholders in the tourism industry.

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Post-Correction of Historical Text Transcripts with Large Language Models: An Exploratory Study
Emanuela Boros | Maud Ehrmann | Matteo Romanello | Sven Najem-Meyer | Frédéric Kaplan

The quality of automatic transcription of heritage documents, whether from printed, manuscripts or audio sources, has a decisive impact on the ability to search and process historical texts. Although significant progress has been made in text recognition (OCR, HTR, ASR), textual materials derived from library and archive collections remain largely erroneous and noisy. Effective post-transcription correction methods are therefore necessary and have been intensively researched for many years. As large language models (LLMs) have recently shown exceptional performances in a variety of text-related tasks, we investigate their ability to amend poor historical transcriptions. We evaluate fourteen foundation language models against various post-correction benchmarks comprising different languages, time periods and document types, as well as different transcription quality and origins. We compare the performance of different model sizes and different prompts of increasing complexity in zero and few-shot settings. Our evaluation shows that LLMs are anything but efficient at this task. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of results allow us to share valuable insights for future work on post-correcting historical texts with LLMs.

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Distinguishing Fictional Voices: a Study of Authorship Verification Models for Quotation Attribution
Gaspard Michel | Elena Epure | Romain Hennequin | Christophe Cerisara

Recent approaches to automatically detect the speaker of an utterance of direct speech often disregard general information about characters in favor of local information found in the context, such as surrounding mentions of entities. In this work, we explore stylistic representations of characters built by encoding their quotes with off-the-shelf pretrained Authorship Verification models in a large corpus of English novels (the Project Dialogism Novel Corpus). Results suggest that the combination of stylistic and topical information captured in some of these models accurately distinguish characters among each other, but does not necessarily improve over semantic-only models when attributing quotes. However, these results vary across novels and more investigation of stylometric models particularly tailored for literary texts and the study of characters should be conducted.

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Perplexing Canon: A study on GPT-based perplexity of canonical and non-canonical literary works
Yaru Wu | Yuri Bizzoni | Pascale Moreira | Kristoffer Nielbo

This study extends previous research on literary quality by using information theory-based methods to assess the level of perplexity recorded by three large language models when processing 20th-century English novels deemed to have high literary quality, recognized by experts as canonical, compared to a broader control group. We find that canonical texts appear to elicit a higher perplexity in the models, we explore which textual features might concur to create such an effect. We find that the usage of a more heavily nominal style, together with a more diverse vocabulary, is one of the leading causes of the difference between the two groups. These traits could reflect “strategies” to achieve an informationally dense literary style.

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People and Places of the Past - Named Entity Recognition in Swedish Labour Movement Documents from Historical Sources
Crina Tudor | Eva Pettersson

Named Entity Recognition (NER) is an important step in many Natural Language Processing tasks. The existing state-of-the-art NER systems are however typically developed based on contemporary data, and not very well suited for analyzing historical text. In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of the performance of several language models when applied to Named Entity Recognition for historical Swedish text. The source texts we work with are documents from Swedish labour unions from the 19th and 20th century. We experiment with three off-the-shelf models for contemporary Swedish text, and one language model built on historical Swedish text that we fine-tune with labelled data for adaptation to the NER task. Lastly, we propose a hybrid approach by combining the results of two models in order to maximize usability. We show that, even though historical Swedish is a low-resource language with data sparsity issues affecting overall performance, historical language models still show very promising results. Further contributions of our paper are the release of our newly trained model for NER of historical Swedish text, along with a manually annotated corpus of over 650 named entities.

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Part-of-Speech Tagging of 16th-Century Latin with GPT
Elina Stüssi | Phillip Ströbel

Part-of-speech tagging is foundational to natural language processing, transcending mere linguistic functions. However, taggers optimized for Classical Latin struggle when faced with diverse linguistic eras shaped by the language ́s evolution. Exploring 16th-century Latin from the correspondence and assessing five Latin treebanks, we focused on carefully evaluating tagger accuracy and refining Large Language Models for improved performance in this nuanced linguistic context. Our discoveries unveiled the competitive accuracies of different versions of GPT, particularly after fine-tuning. Notably, our best fine-tuned model soared to an average accuracy of 88.99% over the treebank data, underscoring the remarkable adaptability and learning capabilities when fine-tuned to the specific intricacies of Latin texts. Next to emphasising GPT’s part-of-speech tagging capabilities, our second aim is to strengthen taggers ́ adaptability across different periods. We establish solid groundwork for using Large Language Models in specific natural language processing tasks where part-of-speech tagging is often employed as a pre-processing step. This work significantly advances the use of modern language models in interpreting historical language, bridging the gap between past linguistic epochs and modern computational linguistics.

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Two Approaches to Diachronic Normalization of Polish Texts
Kacper Dudzic | Filip Gralinski | Krzysztof Jassem | Marek Kubis | Piotr Wierzchon

This paper discusses two approaches to the diachronic normalization of Polish texts: a rule-based solution that relies on a set of handcrafted patterns, and a neural normalization model based on the text-to-text transfer transformer architecture. The training and evaluation data prepared for the task are discussed in detail, along with experiments conducted to compare the proposed normalization solutions. A quantitative and qualitative analysis is made. It is shown that at the current stage of inquiry into the problem, the rule-based solution outperforms the neural one on 3 out of 4 variants of the prepared dataset, although in practice both approaches have distinct advantages and disadvantages.

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Enriching the Metadata of Community-Generated Digital Content through Entity Linking: An Evaluative Comparison of State-of-the-Art Models
Youcef Benkhedda | Adrians Skapars | Viktor Schlegel | Goran Nenadic | Riza Batista-Navarro

Digital archive collections that have been contributed by communities, known as community-generated digital content (CGDC), are important sources of historical and cultural knowledge. However, CGDC items are not easily searchable due to semantic information being obscured within their textual metadata. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which state-of-the-art, general-domain entity linking (EL) models (i.e., BLINK, EPGEL and mGENRE) can map named entities mentioned in CGDC textual metadata, to Wikidata entities. We evaluate and compare their performance on an annotated dataset of CGDC textual metadata and provide some error analysis, in the way of informing future studies aimed at enriching CGDC metadata using entity linking methods.

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Recognising Occupational Titles in German Parliamentary Debates
Johanna Binnewitt

The application of text mining methods is becoming more and more popular, not only in Digital Humanities (DH) and Computational Social Sciences (CSS) in general, but also in vocational education and training (VET) research. Employing algorithms offers the possibility to explore corpora that are simply too large for manual methods. However, challenges arise when dealing with abstract concepts like occupations or skills, which are crucial subjects of VET research. Since algorithms require concrete instructions, either in the form of rules or annotated examples, these abstract concepts must be broken down as part of the operationalisation process. In our paper, we tackle the task of identifying occupational titles in the plenary protocols of the German Bundestag. The primary focus lies in the comparative analysis of two distinct approaches: a dictionary-based method and a BERT fine-tuning approach. Both approaches are compared in a quantitative evaluation and applied to a larger corpus sample. Results indicate comparable precision for both approaches (0.93), but the BERT-based models outperform the dictionary-based approach in terms of recall (0.86 vs. 0.77). Errors in the dictionary-based method primarily stem from the ambiguity of occupational titles (e.g., ‘baker’ as both a surname and a profession) and missing terms in the dictionary. In contrast, the BERT model faces challenges in distinguishing occupational titles from other personal names, such as ‘mother’ or ‘Christians’.

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Dynamic embedded topic models and change-point detection for exploring literary-historical hypotheses
Hale Sirin | Thomas Lippincott

We present a novel combination of dynamic embedded topic models and change-point detection to explore diachronic change of lexical semantic modality in classical and early Christian Latin. We demonstrate several methods for finding and characterizing patterns in the output, and relating them to traditional scholarship in Comparative Literature and Classics. This simple approach to unsupervised models of semantic change can be applied to any suitable corpus, and we conclude with future directions and refinements aiming to allow noisier, less-curated materials to meet that threshold.

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Post-OCR Correction of Digitized Swedish Newspapers with ByT5
Viktoria Löfgren | Dana Dannélls

Many collections of digitized newspapers suffer from poor OCR quality, which impacts readability, information retrieval, and analysis of the material. Errors in OCR output can be reduced by applying machine translation models to “translate” it into a corrected version. Although transformer models show promising results in post-OCR correction and related tasks in other languages, they have not yet been explored for correcting OCR errors in Swedish texts. This paper presents a post-OCR correction model for Swedish 19th to 21th century newspapers based on the pre-trained transformer model ByT5. Three versions of the model were trained on different mixes of training data. The best model, which achieved a 36% reduction in CER, is made freely available and will be integrated into the automatic processing pipeline of Sprakbanken Text, a Swedish language technology infrastructure containing modern and historical written data.

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The Kronieken Corpus: an Annotated Collection of Dutch/Flemish Chronicles from 1500-1850
Theo Dekker | Erika Kuijpers | Alie Lassche | Carolina Lenarduzzi | Roser Morante | Judith Pollmann

In this paper we present the Kronieken Corpus, a new digital collection of 204 chronicles written in Dutch/Flemish between 1500 and 1850, which have been scanned, transcribed and annotated with named entities, dates, pages and a smaller part with sources and attributions. The texts belong to 308 physical volumes and contain between 23 and 24 million words. 107 chronicles, or 178 chronicle volumes, collected from 39 different archives and libraries in The Netherlands and Belgium and transcribed by volunteers had never been transcribed or published before. The result is a unique enriched historical text corpus of original hand-written, non-canonical and non-fiction text by lay people from the early modern period.

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Direct Speech Identification in Swedish Literature and an Exploration of Training Data Type, Typographical Markers, and Evaluation Granularity
Sara Stymne

Identifying direct speech in literary fiction is challenging for cases that do not mark speech segments with quotation marks. Such efforts have previously been based either on smaller manually annotated gold data or larger automatically annotated silver data, extracted from works with quotation marks. However, no direct comparison has so far been made between the performance of these two types of training data. In this work, we address this gap. We further explore the effect of different types of typographical speech marking and of using evaluation metrics of different granularity. We perform experiments on Swedish literary texts and find that using gold and silver data has different strengths, with gold data having stronger results on token-level metrics, whereas silver data overall has stronger results on span-level metrics. If the training data contains some data that matches the typographical speech marking of the target, that is generally sufficient for achieving good results, but it does not seem to hurt if the training data also contains other types of marking.

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Pairing Orthographically Variant Literary Words to Standard Equivalents Using Neural Edit Distance Models
Craig Messner | Thomas Lippincott

We present a novel corpus consisting of orthographically variant words found in works of 19th century U.S. literature annotated with their corresponding “standard” word pair. We train a set of neural edit distance models to pair these variants with their standard forms, and compare the performance of these models to the performance of a set of neural edit distance models trained on a corpus of orthographic errors made by L2 English learners. Finally, we analyze the relative performance of these models in the light of different negative training sample generation strategies, and offer concluding remarks on the unique challenge literary orthographic variation poses to string pairing methodologies.

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[Lions: 1] and [Tigers: 2] and [Bears: 3], Oh My! Literary Coreference Annotation with LLMs
Rebecca Hicke | David Mimno

Coreference annotation and resolution is a vital component of computational literary studies. However, it has previously been difficult to build high quality systems for fiction. Coreference requires complicated structured outputs, and literary text involves subtle inferences and highly varied language. New language-model-based seq2seq systems present the opportunity to solve both these problems by learning to directly generate a copy of an input sentence with markdown-like annotations. We create, evaluate, and release several trained models for coreference, as well as a workflow for training new models.

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Stage Direction Classification in French Theater: Transfer Learning Experiments
Alexia Schneider | Pablo Ruiz Fabo

The automatic classification of stage directions is a little explored topic in computational drama analysis, in spite of their relevance for plays’ structural and stylistic analysis. With a view to start assessing good practices for the automatic annotation of this textual element, we developed a 13-class stage direction typology, based on annotations in the FreDraCor corpus (French-language plays), but abstracting away from their huge variability while still providing classes useful for literary research. We fine-tuned transformers-based models to classify against the typology, gradually decreasing the corpus size used for fine tuning, to compare model efficiency with reduced training data. A result comparison speaks in favour of distilled monolingual models for this task, and, unlike earlier research on German, shows no negative effects of model case-sensitivity. The results have practical relevance for computational literary studies, as comparing classification results with complementary stage direction typologies, limiting the amount of manual annotation needed to apply them, would be helpful towards a systematic study of this important textual element.

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Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Clinical Psychology (CLPsych 2024)

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Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Clinical Psychology (CLPsych 2024)
Andrew Yates | Bart Desmet | Emily Prud’hommeaux | Ayah Zirikly | Steven Bedrick | Sean MacAvaney | Kfir Bar | Molly Ireland | Yaakov Ophir

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Assessing Motivational Interviewing Sessions with AI-Generated Patient Simulations
Stav Yosef | Moreah Zisquit | Ben Cohen | Anat Klomek Brunstein | Kfir Bar | Doron Friedman

There is growing interest in utilizing large language models (LLMs) in the field of mental health, and this goes as far as suggesting automated LLM-based therapists. Evaluating such generative models in therapy sessions is essential, yet remains an ongoing and complex challenge. We suggest a novel approach: an LLMbased digital patient platform which generates digital patients that can engage in a text-based conversation with either automated or human therapists. Moreover, we show that LLMs can be used to rate the quality of such sessions by completing questionnaires originally designed for human patients. We demonstrate that the ratings are both statistically reliable and valid, indicating that they are consistent and capable of distinguishing among three levels of therapist expertise. In the present study, we focus on motivational interviewing, but we suggest that this platform can be adapted to facilitate other types of therapies. We plan to publish the digital patient platform and make it available to the research community, with the hope of contributing to the standardization of evaluating automated therapists.

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Delving into the Depths: Evaluating Depression Severity through BDI-biased Summaries
Mario Aragon | Javier Parapar | David E Losada

Depression is a global concern suffered by millions of people, significantly impacting their thoughts and behavior. Over the years, heightened awareness, spurred by health campaigns and other initiatives, has driven the study of this disorder using data collected from social media platforms. In our research, we aim to gauge the severity of symptoms related to depression among social media users. The ultimate goal is to estimate the user’s responses to a well-known standardized psychological questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI). This is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory that covers multiple topics about how the subject has been feeling. Mining users’ social media interactions and understanding psychological states represents a challenging goal. To that end, we present here an approach based on search and summarization that extracts multiple BDI-biased summaries from the thread of users’ publications. We also leverage a robust large language model to estimate the potential answer for each BDI item. Our method involves several steps. First, we employ a search strategy based on sentence similarity to obtain pertinent extracts related to each topic in the BDI questionnaire. Next, we compile summaries of the content of these groups of extracts. Last, we exploit chatGPT to respond to the 21 BDI questions, using the summaries as contextual information in the prompt. Our model has undergone rigorous evaluation across various depression datasets, yielding encouraging results. The experimental report includes a comparison against an assessment done by expert humans and competes favorably with state-of-the-art methods.

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How Can Client Motivational Language Inform Psychotherapy Agents?
Van Hoang | Eoin Rogers | Robert Ross

Within Motivational Interviewing (MI), client utterances are coded as for or against a certain behaviour change, along with commitment strength; this is essential to ensure therapists soften rather than persisting goal-related actions in the face of resistance. Prior works in MI agents have been scripted or semi-scripted, limiting users’ natural language expressions. With the aim of automating the MI interactions, we propose and explore the task of automated identification of client motivational language. Employing Large Language Models (LLMs), we compare in-context learning (ICL) and instruction fine-tuning (IFT) with varying training sizes for this identification task. Our experiments show that both approaches can learn under low-resourced settings. Our results demonstrate that IFT, though cheaper, is more stable to prompt choice, and yields better performance with more data. Given the detected motivation, we further present an approach to the analysis of therapists’ strategies for balancing building rapport with clients with advancing the treatment plan. A framework of MI agents is developed using insights from the data and the psychotherapy literature.

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Linguistic markers of schizophrenia: a case study of Robert Walser
Ivan Nenchev | Tatjana Scheffler | Marie de la Fuente | Heiner Stuke | Benjamin Wilck | Sandra Anna Just | Christiane Montag

We present a study of the linguistic output of the German-speaking writer Robert Walser using NLP. We curated a corpus comprising texts written by Walser during periods of sound health, and writings from the year before his hospitalization, and writings from the first year of his stay in a psychiatric clinic, all likely at- tributed to schizophrenia. Within this corpus, we identified and analyzed a total of 20 lin- guistic markers encompassing established met- rics for lexical diversity, semantic similarity, and syntactic complexity. Additionally, we ex- plored lesser-known markers such as lexical innovation, concreteness, and imageability. No- tably, we introduced two additional markers for phonological similarity for the first time within this context. Our findings reveal sig- nificant temporal dynamics in these markers closely associated with Walser’s contempora- neous diagnosis of schizophrenia. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between these markers, leveraging them for classification of the schizophrenic episode.

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Therapist Self-Disclosure as a Natural Language Processing Task
Natalie Shapira | Tal Alfi-Yogev

Therapist Self-Disclosure (TSD) within the context of psychotherapy entails the revelation of personal information by the therapist. The ongoing scholarly discourse surrounding the utility of TSD, spanning from the inception of psychotherapy to the present day, has underscored the need for greater specificity in conceptualizing TSD. This inquiry has yielded more refined classifications within the TSD domain, with a consensus emerging on the distinction between immediate and non-immediate TSD, each of which plays a distinct role in the therapeutic process. Despite this progress in the field of psychotherapy, the Natural Language Processing (NLP) domain currently lacks methodological solutions or explorations for such scenarios. This lacuna can be partly due to the difficulty of attaining publicly available clinical data. To address this gap, this paper presents an innovative NLP-based approach that formalizes TSD as an NLP task. The proposed methodology involves the creation of publicly available, expert-annotated test sets designed to simulate therapist utterances, and the employment of NLP techniques for evaluation purposes. By integrating insights from psychotherapy research with NLP methodologies, this study aims to catalyze advancements in both NLP and psychotherapy research.

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Ethical thematic and topic modelling analysis of sleep concerns in a social media derived suicidality dataset
Martin Orr | Kirsten Van Kessel | David Parry

Objective: A thematic and topic modelling analysis of sleep concerns in a social media derived, privacy-preserving, suicidality dataset. This forms the basis for an exploration of sleep as a potential computational linguistic signal in suicide prevention. Background: Suicidal ideation is a limited signal for suicide. Developments in computational linguistics and mental health datasets afford an opportunity to investigate additional signals and to consider the broader clinical ethical design implications. Methodology: A clinician-led integration of reflexive thematic analysis, with machine learning topic modelling (Bertopic), and the purposeful sampling of the University of Maryland Suicidality Dataset. Results: Sleep as a place of refuge and escape, revitalisation for exhaustion, and risk and vulnerability were generated as core themes in an initial thematic analysis of 546 posts. Bertopic analysing 21,876 sleep references in 16791 posts facilitated the production of 40 topics that were clinically interpretable, relevant, and thematically aligned to a level that exceeded original expectations. Privacy and synthetic representative data, reproducibility, validity and stochastic variability of results, and a multi-signal formulation perspective, are highlighted as key research and clinical issues.

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Automatic Annotation of Dream Report’s Emotional Content with Large Language Models
Lorenzo Bertolini | Valentina Elce | Adriana Michalak | Hanna-Sophia Widhoezl | Giulio Bernardi | Julie Weeds

In the field of dream research, the study of dream content typically relies on the analysis of verbal reports provided by dreamers upon awakening from their sleep. This task is classically performed through manual scoring provided by trained annotators, at a great time expense. While a consistent body of work suggests that natural language processing (NLP) tools can support the automatic analysis of dream reports, proposed methods lacked the ability to reason over a report’s full context and required extensive data pre-processing. Furthermore, in most cases, these methods were not validated against standard manual scoring approaches. In this work, we address these limitations by adopting large language models (LLMs) to study and replicate the manual annotation of dream reports, using a mixture of off-the-shelf and bespoke approaches, with a focus on references to reports’ emotions. Our results show that the off-the-shelf method achieves a low performance probably in light of inherent linguistic differences between reports collected in different (groups of) individuals. On the other hand, the proposed bespoke text classification method achieves a high performance, which is robust against potential biases. Overall, these observations indicate that our approach could find application in the analysis of large dream datasets and may favour reproducibility and comparability of results across studies.

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Explainable Depression Detection Using Large Language Models on Social Media Data
Yuxi Wang | Diana Inkpen | Prasadith Kirinde Gamaarachchige

Due to the rapid growth of user interaction on different social media platforms, publicly available social media data has increased substantially. The sheer amount of data and level of personal information being shared on such platforms has made analyzing textual information to predict mental disorders such as depression a reliable preliminary step when it comes to psychometrics. In this study, we first proposed a system to search for texts that are related to depression symptoms from the Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaire, and providing a ranking for further investigation in a second step. Then, in this second step, we address the even more challenging task of automatic depression level detection, using writings and voluntary answers provided by users on Reddit. Several Large Language Models (LLMs) were applied in experiments. Our proposed system based on LLMs can generate both predictions and explanations for each question. By combining two LLMs for different questions, we achieved better performance on three of four metrics compared to the state-of-the-art and remained competitive on the one remaining metric. In addition, our system is explainable on two levels: first, knowing the answers to the BDI questions provides clues about the possible symptoms that could lead to a clinical diagnosis of depression; second, our system can explain the predicted answer for each question.

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Analysing relevance of Discourse Structure for Improved Mental Health Estimation
Navneet Agarwal | Gaël Dias | Sonia Dollfus

Automated depression estimation has received significant research attention in recent years as a result of its growing impact on the global community. Within the context of studies based on patient-therapist interview transcripts, most researchers treat the dyadic discourse as a sequence of unstructured sentences, thus ignoring the discourse structure within the learning process. In this paper we propose Multi-view architectures that divide the input transcript into patient and therapist views based on sentence type in an attempt to utilize symmetric discourse structure for improved model performance. Experiments on DAIC-WOZ dataset for binary classification task within depression estimation show advantages of Multi-view architecture over sequential input representations. Our model also outperforms the current state-of-the-art results and provide new SOTA performance on test set of DAIC-WOZ dataset.

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Using Daily Language to Understand Drinking: Multi-Level Longitudinal Differential Language Analysis
Matthew Matero | Huy Vu | August Nilsson | Syeda Mahwish | Young Min Cho | James McKay | Johannes Eichstaedt | Richard Rosenthal | Lyle Ungar | H. Andrew Schwartz

Analyses for linking language with psychological factors or behaviors predominately treat linguistic features as a static set, working with a single document per person or aggregating across multiple posts (e.g. on social media) into a single set of features. This limits language to mostly shed light on between-person differences rather than changes in behavior within-person. Here, we collected a novel dataset of daily surveys where participants were asked to describe their experienced well-being and report the number of alcoholic beverages they had within the past 24 hours. Through this data, we first build a multi-level forecasting model that is able to capture within-person change and leverage both the psychological features of the person and daily well-being responses. Then, we propose a longitudinal version of differential language analysis that finds patterns associated with drinking more (e.g. social events) and less (e.g. task-oriented), as well as distinguishing patterns of heavy drinks versus light drinkers.

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Prevalent Frequency of Emotional and Physical Symptoms in Social Anxiety using Zero Shot Classification: An Observational Study
Muhammad Rizwan | Jure Demšar

Social anxiety represents a prevalent challenge in modern society, affecting individuals across personal and professional spheres. Left unaddressed, this condition can yield substantial negative consequences, impacting social interactions and performance. Further understanding its diverse physical and emotional symptoms becomes pivotal for comprehensive diagnosis and tailored therapeutic interventions. This study analyze prev lance and frequency of social anxiety symptoms taken from Mayo Clinic, exploring diverse human experiences from utilizing a large Reddit dataset dedicated to this issue. Leveraging these platforms, the research aims to extract insights and examine a spectrum of physical and emotional symptoms linked to social anxiety disorder. Upholding ethical considerations, the study maintains strict user anonymity within the dataset. By employing a novel approach, the research utilizes BART-based multi-label zero-shot classification to identify and measure symptom prevalence and significance in the form of probability score for each symptom under consideration. Results uncover distinctive patterns: “Trembling” emerges as a prevalent physical symptom, while emotional symptoms like “Fear of being judged negatively” exhibit high frequencies. These findings offer insights into the multifaceted nature of social anxiety, aiding clinical practices and interventions tailored to its diverse expressions.

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Comparing panic and anxiety on a dataset collected from social media
Sandra Mitrović | Oscar William Lithgow-Serrano | Carlo Schillaci

The recognition of mental health’s crucial significance has led to a growing interest in utilizing social media text data in current research trends. However, there remains a significant gap in the study of panic and anxiety on these platforms, despite their high prevalence and severe impact. In this paper, we address this gap by presenting a dataset consisting of 1,930 user posts from Quora and Reddit specifically focusing on panic and anxiety. Through a combination of lexical analysis, emotion detection, and writer attitude assessment, we explore the unique characteristics of each condition. To gain deeper insights, we employ a mental health-specific transformer model and a large language model for qualitative analysis. Our findings not only contribute to the understanding digital discourse on anxiety and panic but also provide valuable resources for the broader research community. We make our dataset, methodologies, and code available to advance understanding and facilitate future studies.

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Your Model Is Not Predicting Depression Well And That Is Why: A Case Study of PRIMATE Dataset
Kirill Milintsevich | Kairit Sirts | Gaël Dias

This paper addresses the quality of annotations in mental health datasets used for NLP-based depression level estimation from social media texts. While previous research relies on social media-based datasets annotated with binary categories, i.e. depressed or non-depressed, recent datasets such as D2S and PRIMATE aim for nuanced annotations using PHQ-9 symptoms. However, most of these datasets rely on crowd workers without the domain knowledge for annotation. Focusing on the PRIMATE dataset, our study reveals concerns regarding annotation validity, particularly for the lack of interest or pleasure symptom. Through reannotation by a mental health professional, we introduce finer labels and textual spans as evidence, identifying a notable number of false positives. Our refined annotations, to be released under a Data Use Agreement, offer a higher-quality test set for anhedonia detection. This study underscores the necessity of addressing annotation quality issues in mental health datasets, advocating for improved methodologies to enhance NLP model reliability in mental health assessments.

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Detecting a Proxy for Potential Comorbid ADHD in People Reporting Anxiety Symptoms from Social Media Data
Claire Lee | Noelle Lim | Michael Guerzhoy

We present a novel task that can elucidate the connection between anxiety and ADHD; use Transformers to make progress toward solving a task that is not solvable by keyword-based classifiers; and discuss a method for visualization of our classifier illuminating the connection between anxiety and ADHD presentations. Up to approximately 50% of adults with ADHD may also have an anxiety disorder and approximately 30% of adults with anxiety may also have ADHD. Patients presenting with anxiety may be treated for anxiety without ADHD ever being considered, possibly affecting treatment. We show how data that bears on ADHD that is comorbid with anxiety can be obtained from social media data, and show that Transformers can be used to detect a proxy for possible comorbid ADHD in people with anxiety symptoms. We collected data from anxiety and ADHD online forums (subreddits). We identified posters who first started posting in the Anxiety subreddit and later started posting in the ADHD subreddit as well. We use this subset of the posters as a proxy for people who presented with anxiety symptoms and then became aware that they might have ADHD. We fine-tune a Transformer architecture-based classifier to classify people who started posting in the Anxiety subreddit and then started posting in the ADHD subreddit vs. people who posted in the Anxiety subreddit without later posting in the ADHD subreddit. We show that a Transformer architecture is capable of achieving reasonable results (76% correct for RoBERTa vs. under 60% correct for the best keyword-based model, both with 50% base rate).

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Overview of the CLPsych 2024 Shared Task: Leveraging Large Language Models to Identify Evidence of Suicidality Risk in Online Posts
Jenny Chim | Adam Tsakalidis | Dimitris Gkoumas | Dana Atzil-Slonim | Yaakov Ophir | Ayah Zirikly | Philip Resnik | Maria Liakata

We present the overview of the CLPsych 2024 Shared Task, focusing on leveraging open source Large Language Models (LLMs) for identifying textual evidence that supports the suicidal risk level of individuals on Reddit. In particular, given a Reddit user, their pre- determined suicide risk level (‘Low’, ‘Mod- erate’ or ‘High’) and all of their posts in the r/SuicideWatch subreddit, we frame the task of identifying relevant pieces of text in their posts supporting their suicidal classification in two ways: (a) on the basis of evidence highlighting (extracting sub-phrases of the posts) and (b) on the basis of generating a summary of such evidence. We annotate a sample of 125 users and introduce evaluation metrics based on (a) BERTScore and (b) natural language inference for the two sub-tasks, respectively. Finally, we provide an overview of the system submissions and summarise the key findings.

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Team ISM at CLPsych 2024: Extracting Evidence of Suicide Risk from Reddit Posts with Knowledge Self-Generation and Output Refinement using A Large Language Model
Vu Tran | Tomoko Matsui

This paper presents our approach to the CLPsych 2024 shared task: utilizing large language models (LLMs) for finding supporting evidence about an individual’s suicide risk level in Reddit posts. Our framework is constructed around an LLM with knowledge self-generation and output refinement. The knowledge self-generation process produces task-related knowledge which is generated by the LLM and leads to accurate risk predictions. The output refinement process, later, with the selected best set of LLM-generated knowledge, refines the outputs by prompting the LLM repeatedly with different knowledge instances interchangeably. We achieved highly competitive results comparing to the top-performance participants with our official recall of 93.5%, recall–precision harmonic-mean of 92.3%, and mean consistency of 96.1%.

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Exploring Instructive Prompts for Large Language Models in the Extraction of Evidence for Supporting Assigned Suicidal Risk Levels
Jiyu Chen | Vincent Nguyen | Xiang Dai | Diego Molla-Aliod | Cecile Paris | Sarvnaz Karimi

Monitoring and predicting the expression of suicidal risk in individuals’ social media posts is a central focus in clinical NLP. Yet, existing approaches frequently lack a crucial explainability component necessary for extracting evidence related to an individual’s mental health state. We describe the CSIRO Data61 team’s evidence extraction system submitted to the CLPsych 2024 shared task. The task aims to investigate the zero-shot capabilities of open-source LLM in extracting evidence regarding an individual’s assigned suicide risk level from social media discourse. The results are assessed against ground truth evidence annotated by psychological experts, with an achieved recall-oriented BERTScore of 0.919. Our findings suggest that LLMs showcase strong feasibility in the extraction of information supporting the evaluation of suicidal risk in social media discourse. Opportunities for refinement exist, notably in crafting concise and effective instructions to guide the extraction process.

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Psychological Assessments with Large Language Models: A Privacy-Focused and Cost-Effective Approach
Sergi Blanco-Cuaresma

This study explores the use of Large Language Models (LLMs) to analyze text comments from Reddit users, aiming to achieve two primary objectives: firstly, to pinpoint critical excerpts that support a predefined psychological assessment of suicidal risk; and secondly, to summarize the material to substantiate the preassigned suicidal risk level. The work is circumscribed to the use of “open-source” LLMs that can be run locally, thereby enhancing data privacy. Furthermore, it prioritizes models with low computational requirements, making it accessible to both individuals and institutions operating on limited computing budgets. The implemented strategy only relies on a carefully crafted prompt and a grammar to guide the LLM’s text completion. Despite its simplicity, the evaluation metrics show outstanding results, making it a valuable privacy-focused and cost-effective approach. This work is part of the Computational Linguistics and Clinical Psychology (CLPsych) 2024 shared task.

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Incorporating Word Count Information into Depression Risk Summary Generation: INF@UoS CLPsych 2024 Submission
Judita Preiss | Zenan Chen

Large language model classifiers do not directly offer transparency: it is not clear why one class is chosen over another. In this work, summaries explaining the suicide risk level assigned using a fine-tuned mental-roberta-base model are generated from key phrases extracted using SHAP explainability using Mistral-7B. The training data for the classifier consists of all Reddit posts of a user in the University of Maryland Reddit Suicidality Dataset, Version 2, with their suicide risk labels along with selected features extracted from each post by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC-22) tool. The resulting model is used to make predictions regarding risk on each post of the users in the evaluation set of the CLPsych 2024 shared task, with a SHAP explainer used to identify the phrases contributing to the top scoring, correct and severe risk categories. Some basic stoplisting is applied to the extracted phrases, along with length based filtering, and a locally run version of Mistral-7B-Instruct-v0.1 is used to create summaries from the highest value (based on SHAP) phrases.

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Extracting and Summarizing Evidence of Suicidal Ideation in Social Media Contents Using Large Language Models
Loitongbam Gyanendro Singh | Junyu Mao | Rudra Mutalik | Stuart Middleton

This paper explores the use of Large Language Models (LLMs) in analyzing social media content for mental health monitoring, specifically focusing on detecting and summarizing evidence of suicidal ideation. We utilized LLMs Mixtral7bx8 and Tulu-2-DPO-70B, applying diverse prompting strategies for effective content extraction and summarization. Our methodology included detailed analysis through Few-shot and Zero-shot learning, evaluating the ability of Chain-of-Thought and Direct prompting strategies. The study achieved notable success in the CLPsych 2024 shared task (ranked top for the evidence extraction task and second for the summarization task), demonstrating the potential of LLMs in mental health interventions and setting a precedent for future research in digital mental health monitoring.

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Detecting Suicide Risk Patterns using Hierarchical Attention Networks with Large Language Models
Koushik L | Vishruth M | Anand Kumar M

Suicide has become a major public health and social concern in the world . This Paper looks into a method through use of LLMs (Large Lan- guage Model) to extract the likely reason for a person to attempt suicide , through analysis of their social media text posts detailing about the event , using this data we can extract the rea- son for the cause such mental state which can provide support for suicide prevention. This submission presents our approach for CLPsych Shared Task 2024. Our model uses Hierarchi- cal Attention Networks (HAN) and Llama2 for finding supporting evidence about an individ- ual’s suicide risk level.

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Using Large Language Models (LLMs) to Extract Evidence from Pre-Annotated Social Media Data
Falwah Alhamed | Julia Ive | Lucia Specia

For numerous years, researchers have employed social media data to gain insights into users’ mental health. Nevertheless, the majority of investigations concentrate on categorizing users into those experiencing depression and those considered healthy, or on detection of suicidal thoughts. In this paper, we aim to extract evidence of a pre-assigned gold label. We used a suicidality dataset containing Reddit posts labeled with the suicide risk level. The task is to use Large Language Models (LLMs) to extract evidence from the post that justifies the given label. We used Meta Llama 7b and lexicons for solving the task and we achieved a precision of 0.96.

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XinHai@CLPsych 2024 Shared Task: Prompting Healthcare-oriented LLMs for Evidence Highlighting in Posts with Suicide Risk
Jingwei Zhu | Ancheng Xu | Minghuan Tan | Min Yang

In this article, we introduce a new method for analyzing and summarizing posts from r/SuicideWatch on Reddit, overcoming the limitations of current techniques in processing complex mental health discussions online. Existing methods often struggle to accurately identify and contextualize subtle expressions of mental health problems, leading to inadequate support and intervention strategies. Our approach combines the open-source Large Language Model (LLM), fine-tuned with health-oriented knowledge, to effectively process Reddit posts. We also design prompts that focus on suicide-related statements, extracting key statements, and generating concise summaries that capture the core aspects of the discussions. The preliminary results indicate that our method improves the understanding of online suicide-related posts compared to existing methodologies.

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A Dual-Prompting for Interpretable Mental Health Language Models
Hyolim Jeon | Dongje Yoo | Daeun Lee | Sejung Son | Seungbae Kim | Jinyoung Han

Despite the increasing demand for AI-based mental health monitoring tools, their practical utility for clinicians is limited by the lack of interpretability. The CLPsych 2024 Shared Task (Chim et al., 2024) aims to enhance the interpretability of Large Language Models (LLMs), particularly in mental health analysis, by providing evidence of suicidality through linguistic content. We propose a dual-prompting approach: (i) Knowledge-aware evidence extraction by leveraging the expert identity and a suicide dictionary with a mental health-specific LLM; and (ii) Evidence summarization by employing an LLM-based consistency evaluator. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of combining domain-specific information, revealing performance improvements and the approach’s potential to aid clinicians in assessing mental state progression.

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Cheap Ways of Extracting Clinical Markers from Texts
Anastasia Sandu | Teodor Mihailescu | Sergiu Nisioi

This paper describes the Unibuc Archaeology team work for CLPsych’s 2024 Shared Task that involved finding evidence within the text supporting the assigned suicide risk level. Two types of evidence were required: highlights (extracting relevant spans within the text) and summaries (aggregating evidence into a synthesis). Our work focuses on evaluating Large Language Models (LLM) as opposed to an alternative method that is much more memory and resource efficient. The first approach employs an LLM that is used for generating the summaries and is guided to provide sequences of text indicating suicidal tendencies through a processing chain for highlights. The second approach involves implementing a good old-fashioned machine learning tf-idf with a logistic regression classifier, whose representative features we use to extract relevant highlights.

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Utilizing Large Language Models to Identify Evidence of Suicidality Risk through Analysis of Emotionally Charged Posts
Ahmet Yavuz Uluslu | Andrianos Michail | Simon Clematide

This paper presents our contribution to the CLPsych 2024 shared task, focusing on the use of open-source large language models (LLMs) for suicide risk assessment through the analysis of social media posts. We achieved first place (out of 15 participating teams) in the task of providing summarized evidence of a user’s suicide risk. Our approach is based on Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG), where we retrieve the top-k (k=5) posts with the highest emotional charge and provide the level of three different negative emotions (sadness, fear, anger) for each post during the generation phase.

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Integrating Supervised Extractive and Generative Language Models for Suicide Risk Evidence Summarization
Rika Tanaka | Yusuke Fukazawa

We propose a method that integrates supervised extractive and generative language models for providing supporting evidence of suicide risk in the CLPsych 2024 shared task. Our approach comprises three steps. Initially, we construct a BERT-based model for estimating sentence-level suicide risk and negative sentiment. Next, we precisely identify high suicide risk sentences by emphasizing elevated probabilities of both suicide risk and negative sentiment. Finally, we integrate generative summaries using the MentaLLaMa framework and extractive summaries from identified high suicide risk sentences and a specialized dictionary of suicidal risk words. SophiaADS, our team, achieved 1st place for highlight extraction and ranked 10th for summary generation, both based on recall and consistency metrics, respectively.

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Archetypes and Entropy: Theory-Driven Extraction of Evidence for Suicide Risk
Vasudha Varadarajan | Allison Lahnala | Adithya V Ganesan | Gourab Dey | Siddharth Mangalik | Ana-Maria Bucur | Nikita Soni | Rajath Rao | Kevin Lanning | Isabella Vallejo | Lucie Flek | H. Andrew Schwartz | Charles Welch | Ryan Boyd

Research on psychological risk factors for suicide has developed for decades. However, combining explainable theory with modern data-driven language model approaches is non-trivial. In this study, we propose and evaluate methods for identifying language patterns aligned with theories of suicide risk by combining theory-driven suicidal archetypes with language model-based and relative entropy-based approaches. Archetypes are based on prototypical statements that evince risk of suicidality while relative entropy considers the ratio of how unusual both a risk-familiar and unfamiliar model find the statements. While both approaches independently performed similarly, we find that combining the two significantly improved the performance in the shared task evaluations, yielding our combined system submission with a BERTScore Recall of 0.906. Consistent with the literature, we find that titles are highly informative as suicide risk evidence, despite the brevity. We conclude that a combination of theory- and data-driven methods are needed in the mental health space and can outperform more modern prompt-based methods.

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Proceedings of The 18th Linguistic Annotation Workshop (LAW-XVIII)

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Proceedings of The 18th Linguistic Annotation Workshop (LAW-XVIII)
Sophie Henning | Manfred Stede

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TreeForm: End-to-end Annotation and Evaluation for Form Document Parsing
Ran Zmigrod | Zhiqiang Ma | Armineh Nourbakhsh | Sameena Shah

Visually Rich Form Understanding (VRFU) poses a complex research problemdue to the documents’ highly structured nature and yet highly variable style and content. Current annotation schemes decompose form understanding and omit key hierarchical structure, making development and evaluation of end-to-end models difficult. In this paper, we propose a novel F1 metric to evaluate form parsers and describe a new content-agnostic, tree-based annotation scheme for VRFU: TreeForm. We provide methods to convert previous annotation schemes into TreeForm structures and evaluate TreeForm predictions using a modified version of the normalized tree-edit distance. We present initial baselines for our end-to-end performance metric and the TreeForm edit distance, averaged over the FUNSD and XFUND datasets, of 61.5 and 26.4 respectively. We hope that TreeForm encourages deeper research in annotating, modeling, and evaluating the complexities of form-like documents.

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Annotation Scheme for English Argument Structure Constructions Treebank
Hakyung Sung | Kristopher Kyle

We introduce a detailed annotation scheme for argument structure constructions (ASCs) along with a manually annotated ASC treebank. This treebank encompasses 10,204 sentences from both first (5,936) and second language English datasets (1,948 for written; 2,320 for spoken). We detail the annotation process and evaluate inter-annotation agreement for overall and each ASC category.

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A Mapping on Current Classifying Categories of Emotions Used in Multimodal Models for Emotion Recognition
Ziwei Gong | Muyin Yao | Xinyi Hu | Xiaoning Zhu | Julia Hirschberg

In Emotion Detection within Natural Language Processing and related multimodal research, the growth of datasets and models has led to a challenge: disparities in emotion classification methods. The lack of commonly agreed upon conventions on the classification of emotions creates boundaries for model comparisons and dataset adaptation. In this paper, we compare the current classification methods in recent models and datasets and propose a valid method to combine different emotion categories. Our proposal arises from experiments across models, psychological theories, and human evaluations, and we examined the effect of proposed mapping on models.

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Surveying the FAIRness of Annotation Tools: Difficult to find, difficult to reuse
Ekaterina Borisova | Raia Abu Ahmad | Leyla Garcia-Castro | Ricardo Usbeck | Georg Rehm

In the realm of Machine Learning and Deep Learning, there is a need for high-quality annotated data to train and evaluate supervised models. An extensive number of annotation tools have been developed to facilitate the data labelling process. However, finding the right tool is a demanding task involving thorough searching and testing. Hence, to effectively navigate the multitude of tools, it becomes essential to ensure their findability, accessibility, interoperability, and reusability (FAIR). This survey addresses the FAIRness of existing annotation software by evaluating 50 different tools against the FAIR principles for research software (FAIR4RS). The study indicates that while being accessible and interoperable, annotation tools are difficult to find and reuse. In addition, there is a need to establish community standards for annotation software development, documentation, and distribution.

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Automatic Annotation Elaboration as Feedback to Sign Language Learners
Alessia Battisti | Sarah Ebling

Beyond enabling linguistic analyses, linguistic annotations may serve as training material for developing automatic language assessment models as well as for providing textual feedback to language learners. Yet these linguistic annotations in their original form are often not easily comprehensible for learners. In this paper, we explore the utilization of GPT-4, as an example of a large language model (LLM), to process linguistic annotations into clear and understandable feedback on their productions for language learners, specifically sign language learners.

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Towards Better Inclusivity: A Diverse Tweet Corpus of English Varieties
Nhi Pham | Lachlan Pham | Adam Meyers

The prevalence of social media presents a growing opportunity to collect and analyse examples of English varieties. Whilst usage of these varieties is often used only in spoken contexts or hard-to-access private messages, social media sites like Twitter provide a platform for users to communicate informally in a scrapeable format. Notably, Indian English (Hinglish), Singaporean English (Singlish), and African-American English (AAE) can be commonly found online. These varieties pose a challenge to existing natural language processing (NLP) tools as they often differ orthographically and syntactically from standard English for which the majority of these tools are built. NLP models trained on standard English texts produced biased outcomes for users of underrepresented varieties (Blodgett and O’Connor, 2017). Some research has aimed to overcome the inherent biases caused by unrepresentative data through techniques like data augmentation or adjusting training models. We aim to address the issue of bias at its root - the data itself. We curate a dataset of tweets from countries with high proportions of underserved English variety speakers, and propose an annotation framework of six categorical classifications along a pseudo-spectrum that measures the degree of standard English and that thereby indirectly aims to surface the manifestations of English varieties in these tweets.

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Building a corpus for the anonymization of Romanian jurisprudence
Vasile Păiș | Dan Tufis | Elena Irimia | Verginica Barbu Mititelu

Access to jurisprudence is of paramount importance for both law professionals (judges, lawyers, law students) and for the larger public. In Romania, the Superior Council of Magistracy holds a large database of jurisprudence from different courts in the country, which is updated daily. However, granting public access requires its anonymization. This paper presents the efforts behind building a corpus for the anonymization process. We present the annotation scheme, the manual annotation methods, and the platform used.

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Class Balancing for Efficient Active Learning in Imbalanced Datasets
Yaron Fairstein | Oren Kalinsky | Zohar Karnin | Guy Kushilevitz | Alexander Libov | Sofia Tolmach

Recent developments in active learning algorithms for NLP tasks show promising results in terms of reducing labelling complexity. In this paper we extend this effort to imbalanced datasets; we bridge between the active learning approach of obtaining diverse andinformative examples, and the heuristic of class balancing used in imbalanced datasets. We develop a novel tune-free weighting technique that canbe applied to various existing active learning algorithms, adding a component of class balancing. We compare several active learning algorithms to their modified version on multiple public datasetsand show that when the classes are imbalanced, with manual annotation effort remaining equal the modified version significantly outperforms the original both in terms of the test metric and the number of obtained minority examples. Moreover, when the imbalance is mild or non-existent (classes are completely balanced), our technique does not harm the base algorithms.

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When is a Metaphor Actually Novel? Annotating Metaphor Novelty in the Context of Automatic Metaphor Detection
Sebastian Reimann | Tatjana Scheffler

We present an in-depth analysis of metaphor novelty, a relatively overlooked phenomenon in NLP. Novel metaphors have been analyzed via scores derived from crowdsourcing in NLP, while in theoretical work they are often defined by comparison to senses in dictionary entries. We reannotate metaphorically used words in the large VU Amsterdam Metaphor Corpus based on whether their metaphoric meaning is present in the dictionary. Based on this, we find that perceived metaphor novelty often clash with the dictionary based definition. We use the new labels to evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art language models for automatic metaphor detection and notice that novel metaphors according to our dictionary-based definition are easier to identify than novel metaphors according to crowd-sourced novelty scores. In a subsequent analysis, we study the correlation between high novelty scores and word frequencies in the pretraining and finetuning corpora, as well as potential problems with rare words for pre-trained language models. In line with previous works, we find a negative correlation between word frequency in the training data and novelty scores and we link these aspects to problems with the tokenization of BERT and RoBERTa.

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Enhancing Text Classification through LLM-Driven Active Learning and Human Annotation
Hamidreza Rouzegar | Masoud Makrehchi

In the context of text classification, the financial burden of annotation exercises for creating training data is a critical issue. Active learning techniques, particularly those rooted in uncertainty sampling, offer a cost-effective solution by pinpointing the most instructive samples for manual annotation. Similarly, Large Language Models (LLMs) such as GPT-3.5 provide an alternative for automated annotation but come with concerns regarding their reliability. This study introduces a novel methodology that integrates human annotators and LLMs within an Active Learning framework. We conducted evaluations on three public datasets. IMDB for sentiment analysis, a Fake News dataset for authenticity discernment, and a Movie Genres dataset for multi-label classification.The proposed framework integrates human annotation with the output of LLMs, depending on the model uncertainty levels. This strategy achieves an optimal balance between cost efficiency and classification performance. The empirical results show a substantial decrease in the costs associated with data annotation while either maintaining or improving model accuracy.

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Using ChatGPT for Annotation of Attitude within the Appraisal Theory: Lessons Learned
Mirela Imamovic | Silvana Deilen | Dylan Glynn | Ekaterina Lapshinova-Koltunski

We investigate the potential of using ChatGPT to annotate complex linguistic phenomena, such as language of evaluation, attitude and emotion. For this, we automatically annotate 11 texts in English, which represent spoken popular science, and evaluate the annotations manually. Our results show that ChatGPT has good precision in itemisation, i.e. detecting linguistic items in the text that carry evaluative meaning. However, we also find that the recall is very low. Besides that, we state that the tool fails in labeling the detected items with the correct categories on a more fine-grained level of granularity. We analyse the errors to find systematic errors related to specific categories in the annotation scheme.

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Are You Serious? Handling Disagreement When Annotating Conspiracy Theory Texts
Ashley Hemm | Sandra Kübler | Michelle Seelig | John Funchion | Manohar Murthi | Kamal Premaratne | Daniel Verdear | Stefan Wuchty

We often assume that annotation tasks, such as annotating for the presence of conspiracy theories, can be annotated with hard labels, without definitions or guidelines. Our annotation experiments, comparing students and experts, show that there is little agreement on basic annotations even among experts. For this reason, we conclude that we need to accept disagreement as an integral part of such annotations.

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A GPT among Annotators: LLM-based Entity-Level Sentiment Annotation
Egil Rønningstad | Erik Velldal | Lilja Øvrelid

We investigate annotator variation for the novel task of Entity-Level Sentiment Analysis (ELSA) which annotates the aggregated sentiment directed towards volitional entities in a text. More specifically, we analyze the annotations of a newly constructed Norwegian ELSA dataset and release additional data with each annotator’s labels for the 247 entities in the dataset’s test split. We also perform a number of experiments prompting ChatGPT for these sentiment labels regarding each entity in the text and compare the generated annotations with the human labels. Cohen’s Kappa for agreement between the best LLM-generated labels and curated gold was 0.425, which indicates that these labels would not have high quality. Our analyses further investigate the errors that ChatGPT outputs, and compare them with the variations that we find among the 5 trained annotators that all annotated the same test data.

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Datasets Creation and Empirical Evaluations of Cross-Lingual Learning on Extremely Low-Resource Languages: A Focus on Comorian Dialects
Abdou Mohamed Naira | Benelallam Imade | Bahafid Abdessalam | Erraji Zakarya

In this era of extensive digitalization, there are a profusion of Intelligent Systems that attempt to understand how languages are structured for the aim of providing solutions in various tasks like Text Summarization, Sentiment Analysis, Speech Recognition, etc. But for multiple reasons going from lack of data to the nonexistence of initiatives, these applications are in an embryonic stage in certain languages and dialects, especially those spoken in the African continent, like Comorian dialects. Today, thanks to the improvement of Pre-trained Large Language Models, a spacious way is open to enable these kind of technologies on these languages. In this study, we are pioneering the representation of Comorian dialects in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) by constructing datasets (Lexicons, Speech Recognition and Raw Text datasets) that could be used on different tasks. We also measure the impact of using pre-trained models on languages closely related to Comorian dialects to enhance the state-of-the-art in NLP for these latter, compared to using pre-trained models on languages that may not necessarily be close to these dialects. We construct models covering the following use cases: Language Identification, Sentiment Analysis, Part-Of-Speech Tagging, and Speech Recognition. Ultimately, we hope that these solutions can catalyze the improvement of similar initiatives in Comorian dialects and in languages facing similar challenges.

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Prompting Implicit Discourse Relation Annotation
Frances Yung | Mansoor Ahmad | Merel Scholman | Vera Demberg

Pre-trained large language models, such as ChatGPT, archive outstanding performance in various reasoning tasks without supervised training and were found to have outperformed crowdsourcing workers. Nonetheless, ChatGPT’s performance in the task of implicit discourse relation classification, prompted by a standard multiple-choice question, is still far from satisfactory and considerably inferior to state-of-the-art supervised approaches. This work investigates several proven prompting techniques to improve ChatGPT’s recognition of discourse relations. In particular, we experimented with breaking down the classification task that involves numerous abstract labels into smaller subtasks. Nonetheless, experiment results show that the inference accuracy hardly changes even with sophisticated prompt engineering, suggesting that implicit discourse relation classification is not yet resolvable under zero-shot or few-shot settings.

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PropBank goes Public: Incorporation into Wikidata
Elizabeth Spaulding | Kathryn Conger | Anatole Gershman | Mahir Morshed | Susan Windisch Brown | James Pustejovsky | Rosario Uceda-Sosa | Sijia Ge | Martha Palmer

This paper presents the first integration of PropBank role information into Wikidata, in order to provide a novel resource for information extraction, one combining Wikidata’s ontological metadata with PropBank’s rich argument structure encoding for event classes. We discuss a technique for PropBank augmentation to existing eventive Wikidata items, as well as identification of gaps in Wikidata’s coverage based on manual examination of over 11,300 PropBank rolesets. We propose five new Wikidata properties to integrate PropBank structure into Wikidata so that the annotated mappings can be added en masse. We then outline the methodology and challenges of this integration, including annotation with the combined resources.

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Reference and discourse structure annotation of elicited chat continuations in German
Katja Jasinskaja | Yuting Li | Fahime Same | David Uerlings

We present the construction of a German chat corpus in an experimental setting. Our primary objective is to advance the methodology of discourse continuation for dialogue. The corpus features a fine-grained, multi-layer annotation of referential expressions and coreferential chains. Additionally, we have developed a comprehensive annotation scheme for coherence relations to describe discourse structure.

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Dependency Annotation of Ottoman Turkish with Multilingual BERT
Şaziye Özateş | Tarık Tıraş | Efe Genç | Esma Bilgin Tasdemir

This study introduces a pretrained large language model-based annotation methodology of the first dependency treebank in Ottoman Turkish. Our experimental results show that, through iteratively i) pseudo-annotating data using a multilingual BERT-based parsing model, ii) manually correcting the pseudo-annotations, and iii) fine-tuning the parsing model with the corrected annotations, we speed up and simplify the challenging dependency annotation process. The resulting treebank, that will be a part of the Universal Dependencies (UD) project, will facilitate automated analysis of Ottoman Turkish documents, unlocking the linguistic richness embedded in this historical heritage.

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Donkii: Characterizing and Detecting Errors in Instruction-Tuning Datasets
Leon Weber | Robert Litschko | Ekaterina Artemova | Barbara Plank

Instruction tuning has become an integral part of training pipelines for Large Language Models (LLMs) and has been shown to yield strong performance gains. In an orthogonal line of research, Annotation Error Detection (AED) has emerged as a tool for detecting quality problems in gold standard labels. So far, however, the application of AED methods has been limited to classification tasks. It is an open question how well AED methods generalize to language generation settings, which are becoming more widespread via LLMs. In this paper, we present a first and novel benchmark for AED on instruction tuning data: Donkii.It comprises three instruction-tuning datasets enriched with error annotations by experts and semi-automatic methods. We also provide a novel taxonomy of error types for instruction-tuning data.We find that all three datasets contain clear errors, which sometimes propagate directly into instruction-tuned LLMs. We propose four AED baselines for the generative setting and evaluate them extensively on the newly introduced dataset. Our results show that the choice of the right AED method and model size is indeed crucial and derive practical recommendations for how to use AED methods to clean instruction-tuning data.

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EEVEE: An Easy Annotation Tool for Natural Language Processing
Axel Sorensen | Siyao Peng | Barbara Plank | Rob Van Der Goot

Annotation tools are the starting point for creating Natural Language Processing (NLP) datasets. There is a wide variety of tools available; setting up these tools is however a hindrance. We propose Eevee, an annotation tool focused on simplicity, efficiency, and ease of use. It can run directly in the browser (no setup required) and uses tab-separated files (as opposed to character offsets or task-specific formats) for annotation. It allows for annotation of multiple tasks on a single dataset and supports four task-types: sequence labeling, span labeling, text classification and seq2seq.

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Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Modular and Open Multilingual NLP (MOOMIN 2024)

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Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Modular and Open Multilingual NLP (MOOMIN 2024)
Raúl Vázquez | Timothee Mickus | Jörg Tiedemann | Ivan Vulić | Ahmet Üstün

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Toward the Modular Training of Controlled Paraphrase Adapters
Teemu Vahtola | Mathias Creutz

Controlled paraphrase generation often focuses on a specific aspect of paraphrasing, for instance syntactically controlled paraphrase generation. However, these models face a limitation: they lack modularity. Consequently adapting them for another aspect, such as lexical variation, needs full retraining of the model each time. To enhance the flexibility in training controlled paraphrase models, our proposition involves incrementally training a modularized system for controlled paraphrase generation for English. We start by fine-tuning a pretrained language model to learn the broad task of paraphrase generation, generally emphasizing meaning preservation and surface form variation. Subsequently, we train a specialized sub-task adapter with limited sub-task specific training data. We can then leverage this adapter in guiding the paraphrase generation process toward a desired output aligning with the distinctive features within the sub-task training data. The preliminary results on comparing the fine-tuned and adapted model against various competing systems indicates that the most successful method for mastering both general paraphrasing skills and task-specific expertise follows a two-stage approach. This approach involves starting with the initial fine-tuning of a generic paraphrase model and subsequently tailoring it for the specific sub-task.

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Soft Prompt Tuning for Cross-Lingual Transfer: When Less is More
Fred Philippy | Siwen Guo | Shohreh Haddadan | Cedric Lothritz | Jacques Klein | Tegawendé F. Bissyandé

Soft Prompt Tuning (SPT) is a parameter-efficient method for adapting pre-trained language models (PLMs) to specific tasks by inserting learnable embeddings, or soft prompts, at the input layer of the PLM, without modifying its parameters. This paper investigates the potential of SPT for cross-lingual transfer. Unlike previous studies on SPT for cross-lingual transfer that often fine-tune both the soft prompt and the model parameters, we adhere to the original intent of SPT by keeping the model parameters frozen and only training the soft prompt. This does not only reduce the computational cost and storage overhead of full-model fine-tuning, but we also demonstrate that this very parameter efficiency intrinsic to SPT can enhance cross-lingual transfer performance to linguistically distant languages. Moreover, we explore how different factors related to the prompt, such as the length or its reparameterization, affect cross-lingual transfer performance.

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Modular Adaptation of Multilingual Encoders to Written Swiss German Dialect
Jannis Vamvas | Noëmi Aepli | Rico Sennrich

Creating neural text encoders for written Swiss German is challenging due to a dearth of training data combined with dialectal variation. In this paper, we build on several existing multilingual encoders and adapt them to Swiss German using continued pre-training. Evaluation on three diverse downstream tasks shows that simply adding a Swiss German adapter to a modular encoder achieves 97.5% of fully monolithic adaptation performance. We further find that for the task of retrieving Swiss German sentences given Standard German queries, adapting a character-level model is more effective than the other adaptation strategies. We release our code and the models trained for our experiments.

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The Impact of Language Adapters in Cross-Lingual Transfer for NLU
Jenny Kunz | Oskar Holmström

Modular deep learning has been proposed for the efficient adaption of pre-trained models to new tasks, domains and languages. In particular, combining language adapters with task adapters has shown potential where no supervised data exists for a language. In this paper, we explore the role of language adapters in zero-shot cross-lingual transfer for natural language understanding (NLU) benchmarks. We study the effect of including a target-language adapter in detailed ablation studies with two multilingual models and three multilingual datasets. Our results show that the effect of target-language adapters is highly inconsistent across tasks, languages and models. Retaining the source-language adapter instead often leads to an equivalent, and sometimes to a better, performance. Removing the language adapter after training has only a weak negative effect, indicating that the language adapters do not have a strong impact on the predictions.

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Mixing and Matching: Combining Independently Trained Translation Model Components
Taido Purason | Andre Tättar | Mark Fishel

This paper investigates how to combine encoders and decoders of different independently trained NMT models. Combining encoders/decoders is not directly possible since the intermediate representations of any two independent NMT models are different and cannot be combined without modification. To address this, firstly, a dimension adapter is added if the encoder and decoder have different embedding dimensionalities, and secondly, representation adapter layers are added to align the encoder’s representations for the decoder to process. As a proof of concept, this paper looks at many-to-Estonian translation and combines a massively multilingual encoder (NLLB) and a high-quality language-specific decoder. The paper successfully demonstrates that the sentence representations of two independent NMT models can be made compatible without changing the pre-trained components while keeping translation quality from deteriorating. Results show improvements in both translation quality and speed for many-to-one translation over the baseline multilingual model.

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Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Language Technology for Equality, Diversity, Inclusion

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Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Language Technology for Equality, Diversity, Inclusion
Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Bharathi B | Paul Buitelaar | Thenmozhi Durairaj | György Kovács | Miguel Ángel García Cumbreras

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Sociocultural knowledge is needed for selection of shots in hate speech detection tasks
Antonis Maronikolakis | Abdullatif Köksal | Hinrich Schuetze

We introduce HATELEXICON, a lexicon of slurs and targets of hate speech for Brazil, Germany, India and Kenya, to aid model development and interpretability. First, we demonstrate how HATELEXICON can be used to interpret model predictions, showing that models developed to classify extreme speech rely heavily on target group names. Further, we propose a culturally-informed method to aid shot selection for training in low-resource settings. In few-shot learning, shot selection is of paramount importance to model performance and we need to ensure we make the most of available data. We work with HASOC German and Hindi data for training and the Multilingual HateCheck (MHC) benchmark for evaluation. We show that selecting shots based on our lexicon leads to models performing better than models trained on shots sampled randomly. Thus, when given only a few training examples, using HATELEXICON to select shots containing more sociocultural information leads to better few-shot performance. With these two use-cases we show how our HATELEXICON can be used for more effective hate speech detection.

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A Dataset for the Detection of Dehumanizing Language
Paul Engelmann | Peter Trolle | Christian Hardmeier

Dehumanization is a mental process that enables the exclusion and ill treatment of a group of people. In this paper, we present two data sets of dehumanizing text, a large, automatically collected corpus and a smaller, manually annotated data set. Both data sets include a combination of political discourse and dialogue from movie subtitles. Our methods give us a broad and varied amount of dehumanization data to work with, enabling further exploratory analysis as well as automatic classification of dehumanization patterns. Both data sets will be publicly released.

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Beyond the Surface: Spurious Cues in Automatic Media Bias Detection
Martin Wessel | Tomáš Horych

This study investigates the robustness and generalization of transformer-based models for automatic media bias detection. We explore the behavior of current bias classifiers by analyzing feature attributions and stress-testing with adversarial datasets. The findings reveal a disproportionate focus on rare but strongly connotated words, suggesting a rather superficial understanding of linguistic bias and challenges in contextual interpretation. This problem is further highlighted by inconsistent bias assessment when stress-tested with different entities and minorities. Enhancing automatic media bias detection models is critical to improving inclusivity in media, ensuring balanced and fair representation of diverse perspectives.

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The Balancing Act: Unmasking and Alleviating ASR Biases in Portuguese
Ajinkya Kulkarni | Anna Tokareva | Rameez Qureshi | Miguel Couceiro

In the field of spoken language understanding, systems like Whisper and Multilingual Massive Speech (MMS) have shown state-of-the-art performances. This study is dedicated to a comprehensive exploration of the Whisper and MMS systems, with a focus on assessing biases in automatic speech recognition (ASR) inherent to casual conversation speech specific to the Portuguese language. Our investigation encompasses various categories, including gender, age, skin tone color, and geo-location. Alongside traditional ASR evaluation metrics such as Word Error Rate (WER), we have incorporated p-value statistical significance for gender bias analysis. Furthermore, we extensively examine the impact of data distribution and empirically show that oversampling techniques alleviate such stereotypical biases. This research represents a pioneering effort in quantifying biases in the Portuguese language context through the application of MMS and Whisper, contributing to a better understanding of ASR systems’ performance in multilingual settings.

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Towards Content Accessibility Through Lexical Simplification for Maltese as a Low-Resource Language
Martina Meli | Marc Tanti | Chris Porter

Natural Language Processing techniques have been developed to assist in simplifying online content while preserving meaning. However, for low-resource languages, like Maltese, there are still numerous challenges and limitations. Lexical Simplification (LS) is a core technique typically adopted to improve content accessibility, and has been widely studied for high-resource languages such as English and French. Motivated by the need to improve access to Maltese content and the limitations in this context, this work set out to develop and evaluate an LS system for Maltese text. An LS pipeline was developed consisting of (1) potential complex word identification, (2) substitute generation, (3) substitute selection, and (4) substitute ranking. An evaluation data set was developed to assess the performance of each step. Results are encouraging and will lead to numerous future work. Finally, a single-blind study was carried out with over 200 participants, where the system’s perceived quality in text simplification was evaluated. Results suggest that meaning is retained about 50% of the time, and when meaning is retained, about 70% of system-generated sentences are either perceived as simpler or of equal simplicity to the original. Challenges remain, and this study proposes a number of areas that may benefit from further research.

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Prompting Fairness: Learning Prompts for Debiasing Large Language Models
Andrei-Victor Chisca | Andrei-Cristian Rad | Camelia Lemnaru

Large language models are prone to internalize social biases due to the characteristics of the data used for their self-supervised training scheme. Considering their recent emergence and wide availability to the general public, it is mandatory to identify and alleviate these biases to avoid perpetuating stereotypes towards underrepresented groups. We present a novel prompt-tuning method for reducing biases in encoder models such as BERT or RoBERTa. Unlike other methods, we only train a small set of additional reusable token embeddings that can be concatenated to any input sequence to reduce bias in the outputs. We particularize this method to gender bias by providing a set of templates used for training the prompts. Evaluations on two benchmarks show that our method is on par with the state of the art while having a limited impact on language modeling ability.

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German Text Simplification: Finetuning Large Language Models with Semi-Synthetic Data
Lars Klöser | Mika Beele | Jan-Niklas Schagen | Bodo Kraft

This study pioneers the use of synthetically generated data for training generative models in document-level text simplification of German texts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with real-world online texts. Addressing the challenge of data scarcity in language simplification, we crawled professionally simplified German texts and synthesized a corpus using GPT-4. We finetune Large Language Models with up to 13 billion parameters on this data and evaluate their performance. This paper employs various methodologies for evaluation and demonstrates the limitations of currently used rule-based metrics. Both automatic and manual evaluations reveal that our models can significantly simplify real-world online texts, indicating the potential of synthetic data in improving text simplification.

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ChatGPT Based Data Augmentation for Improved Parameter-Efficient Debiasing of LLMs
Pengrui Han | Rafal Kocielnik | Adhithya Saravanan | Roy Jiang | Or Sharir | Anima Anandkumar

Large Language models (LLMs), while powerful, exhibit harmful social biases. Debiasing is often challenging due to computational costs, data constraints, and potential degradation of multi-task language capabilities. This work introduces a novel approach utilizing ChatGPT to generate synthetic training data, aiming to enhance the debiasing of LLMs. We propose two strategies: Targeted Prompting, which provides effective debiasing for known biases but necessitates prior specification of bias in question; and General Prompting, which, while slightly less effective, offers debiasing across various categories. We leverage resource-efficient LLM debiasing using adapter tuning and compare the effectiveness of our synthetic data to existing debiasing datasets. Our results reveal that: (1) ChatGPT can efficiently produce high-quality training data for debiasing other LLMs; (2) data produced via our approach surpasses existing datasets in debiasing performance while also preserving internal knowledge of a pre-trained LLM; and (3) synthetic data exhibits generalizability across categories, effectively mitigating various biases, including intersectional ones. These findings underscore the potential of synthetic data in advancing the fairness of LLMs with minimal retraining cost.

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DE-Lite - a New Corpus of Easy German: Compilation, Exploration, Analysis
Sarah Jablotschkin | Elke Teich | Heike Zinsmeister

In this paper, we report on a new corpus of simplified German. It is recently requested from public agencies in Germany to provide information in easy language on their outlets (e.g. websites) so as to facilitate participation in society for people with low-literacy levels related to learning difficulties or low language proficiency (e.g. L2 speakers). While various rule sets and guidelines for Easy German (a specific variant of simplified German) have emerged over time, it is unclear (a) to what extent authors and other content creators, including generative AI tools consistently apply them, and (b) how adequate texts in authentic Easy German really are for the intended audiences. As a first step in gaining insights into these issues and to further LT development for simplified German, we compiled DE-Lite, a corpus of easy-to-read texts including Easy German and comparable Standard German texts, by integrating existing collections and gathering new data from the web. We built n-gram models for an Easy German subcorpus of DE-Lite and comparable Standard German texts in order to identify typical features of Easy German. To this end, we use relative entropy (Kullback-Leibler Divergence), a standard technique for evaluating language models, which we apply here for corpus comparison. Our analysis reveals that some rules of Easy German are fairly dominant (e.g. punctuation) and that text genre has a strong effect on the distinctivity of the two language variants.

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A Diachronic Analysis of Gender-Neutral Language on wikiHow
Katharina Suhr | Michael Roth

As a large how-to website, wikiHow’s mission is to empower every person on the planet to learn how to do anything. An important part of including everyone also linguistically is the use of gender-neutral language. In this short paper, we study in how far articles from wikiHow fulfill this criterion based on manual annotation and automatic classification. In particular, we employ a classifier to analyze how the use of gender-neutral language has developed over time. Our results show that although about 75% of all articles on wikiHow were written in a gender-neutral way from the outset, revisions have a higher tendency to add gender-specific language than to change it to inclusive wording.

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Overview of Third Shared Task on Homophobia and Transphobia Detection in Social Media Comments
Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Prasanna Kumaresan | Ruba Priyadharshini | Paul Buitelaar | Asha Hegde | Hosahalli Shashirekha | Saranya Rajiakodi | Miguel Ángel García | Salud María Jiménez-Zafra | José García-Díaz | Rafael Valencia-García | Kishore Ponnusamy | Poorvi Shetty | Daniel García-Baena

This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the “Homophobia and Transphobia Detection in Social Media Comments” shared task, which was held at the LT-EDI@EACL 2024. The objective of this task was to develop systems capable of identifying instances of homophobia and transphobia within social media comments. This challenge was extended across ten languages: English, Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Kannada, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi, Spanish, and Tulu. Each comment in the dataset was annotated into three categories. The shared task attracted significant interest, with over 60 teams participating through the CodaLab platform. The submission of prediction from the participants was evaluated with the macro F1 score.

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Overview of the Third Shared Task on Speech Recognition for Vulnerable Individuals in Tamil
Bharathi B | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Sripriya N | Rajeswari Natarajan | Suhasini S

The overview of the shared task on speech recognition for vulnerable individuals in Tamil (LT-EDI-2024) is described in this paper. The work comes with a Tamil dataset that was gath- ered from elderly individuals who identify as male, female, or transgender. The audio sam- ples were taken in public places such as marketplaces, vegetable shops, hospitals, etc. The training phase and the testing phase are when the dataset is made available. The task required of the participants was to handle audio signals using various models and techniques, and then turn in their results as transcriptions of the pro- vided test samples. The participant’s results were assessed using WER (Word Error Rate). The transformer-based approach was employed by the participants to achieve automatic voice recognition. This overview paper discusses the findings and various pre-trained transformer- based models that the participants employed.

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Overview of Shared Task on Multitask Meme Classification - Unraveling Misogynistic and Trolls in Online Memes
Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Saranya Rajiakodi | Rahul Ponnusamy | Kathiravan Pannerselvam | Anand Kumar Madasamy | Ramachandran Rajalakshmi | Hariharan LekshmiAmmal | Anshid Kizhakkeparambil | Susminu S Kumar | Bhuvaneswari Sivagnanam | Charmathi Rajkumar

This paper offers a detailed overview of the first shared task on “Multitask Meme Classification - Unraveling Misogynistic and Trolls in Online Memes,” organized as part of the LT-EDI@EACL 2024 conference. The task was set to classify misogynistic content and troll memes within online platforms, focusing specifically on memes in Tamil and Malayalam languages. A total of 52 teams registered for the competition, with four submitting systems for the Tamil meme classification task and three for the Malayalam task. The outcomes of this shared task are significant, providing insights into the current state of misogynistic content in digital memes and highlighting the effectiveness of various computational approaches in identifying such detrimental content. The top-performing model got a macro F1 score of 0.73 in Tamil and 0.87 in Malayalam.

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Overview of Shared Task on Caste and Migration Hate Speech Detection
Saranya Rajiakodi | Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi | Rahul Ponnusamy | Prasanna Kumaresan | Sathiyaraj Thangasamy | Bhuvaneswari Sivagnanam | Charmathi Rajkumar

We present an overview of the first shared task on “Caste and Migration Hate Speech Detection.” The shared task is organized as part of LTEDI@EACL 2024. The system must delineate between binary outcomes, ascertaining whether the text is categorized as a caste/migration hate speech or not. The dataset presented in this shared task is in Tamil, which is one of the under-resource languages. There are a total of 51 teams participated in this task. Among them, 15 teams submitted their research results for the task. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the shared task has been conducted on textual hate speech detection concerning caste and migration. In this study, we have conducted a systematic analysis and detailed presentation of all the contributions of the participants as well as the statistics of the dataset, which is the social media comments in Tamil language to detect hate speech. It also further goes into the details of a comprehensive analysis of the participants’ methodology and their findings.

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Pinealai_StressIdent_LT-EDI@EACL2024: Minimal configurations for Stress Identification in Tamil and Telugu
Anvi Alex Eponon | Ildar Batyrshin | Grigori Sidorov

This paper introduces an approach to stress identification in Tamil and Telugu, leveraging traditional machine learning models—Fasttext for Tamil and Naive Bayes for Telugu—yielding commendable results. The study highlights the scarcity of annotated data and recognizes limitations in phonetic features relevant to these languages, impacting precise information extraction. Our models achieved a macro F1 score of 0.77 for Tamil and 0.72 for Telugu with Fasttext and Naive Bayes, respectively. While the Telugu model secured the second rank in shared tasks, ongoing research is crucial to unlocking the full potential of stress identification in these languages, necessitating the exploration of additional features and advanced techniques specified in the discussions and limitations section.

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byteLLM@LT-EDI-2024: Homophobia/Transphobia Detection in Social Media Comments - Custom Subword Tokenization with Subword2Vec and BiLSTM
Durga Manukonda | Rohith Kodali

This research focuses on Homophobia and Transphobia Detection in Dravidian languages, specifically Telugu, Kannada, Tamil, and Malayalam. Leveraging the Homophobia/ Transphobia Detection dataset, we propose an innovative approach employing a custom-designed tokenizer with a Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BiLSTM) architecture. Our distinctive contribution lies in a tokenizer that reduces model sizes to below 7MB, improving efficiency and addressing real-time deployment challenges. The BiLSTM implementation demonstrates significant enhancements in hate speech detection accuracy, effectively capturing linguistic nuances. Low-size models efficiently alleviate inference challenges, ensuring swift real-time detection and practical deployment. This work pioneers a framework for hate speech detection, providing insights into model size, inference speed, and real-time deployment challenges in combatting online hate speech within Dravidian languages.

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MasonTigers@LT-EDI-2024: An Ensemble Approach Towards Detecting Homophobia and Transphobia in Social Media Comments
Dhiman Goswami | Sadiya Sayara Chowdhury Puspo | Md Nishat Raihan | Al Emran

In this paper, we describe our approaches and results for Task 2 of the LT-EDI 2024 Workshop, aimed at detecting homophobia and/or transphobia across ten languages. Our methodologies include monolingual transformers and ensemble methods, capitalizing on the strengths of each to enhance the performance of the models. The ensemble models worked well, placing our team, MasonTigers, in the top five for eight of the ten languages, as measured by the macro F1 score. Our work emphasizes the efficacy of ensemble methods in multilingual scenarios, addressing the complexities of language-specific tasks.

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JudithJeyafreeda_StressIdent_LT-EDI@EACL2024: GPT for stress identification
Judith Jeyafreeda Andrew

Stress detection from social media texts has proved to play an important role in mental health assessments. People tend to express their stress on social media more easily. Analysing and classifying these texts allows for improvements in development of recommender systems and automated mental health assessments. In this paper, a GPT model is used for classification of social media texts into two classes - stressed and not-stressed. The texts used for classification are in two Dravidian languages - Tamil and Telugu. The results, although not very good shows a promising direction of research to use GPT models for classification.

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cantnlp@LT-EDI-2024: Automatic Detection of Anti-LGBTQ+ Hate Speech in Under-resourced Languages
Sidney Wong | Matthew Durward

This paper describes our homophobia/transphobia in social media comments detection system developed as part of the shared task at LT-EDI-2024. We took a transformer-based approach to develop our multiclass classification model for ten language conditions (English, Spanish, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil, Tulu, and Telugu). We introduced synthetic and organic instances of script-switched language data during domain adaptation to mirror the linguistic realities of social media language as seen in the labelled training data. Our system ranked second for Gujarati and Telugu with varying levels of performance for other language conditions. The results suggest incorporating elements of paralinguistic behaviour such as script-switching may improve the performance of language detection systems especially in the cases of under-resourced languages conditions.

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Lidoma@LT-EDI 2024:Tamil Hate Speech Detection in Migration Discourse
M. Tash | Z. Ahani | M. Zamir | O. Kolesnikova | G. Sidorov

The exponential rise in social media users has revolutionized information accessibility and exchange. While these platforms serve various purposes, they also harbor negative elements, including hate speech and offensive behavior. Detecting hate speech in diverse languages has garnered significant attention in Natural Language Processing (NLP). This paper delves into hate speech detection in Tamil, particularly related to migration and refuge, contributing to the Caste/migration hate speech detection shared task. Employing a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), our model achieved an F1 score of 0.76 in identifying hate speech and significant potential in the domain despite encountering complexities. We provide an overview of related research, methodology, and insights into the competition’s diverse performances, showcasing the landscape of hate speech detection nuances in the Tamil language.

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CEN_Amrita@LT-EDI 2024: A Transformer based Speech Recognition System for Vulnerable Individuals in Tamil
Jairam R | Jyothish G | Premjith B | Viswa M

Speech recognition is known to be a specialized application of speech processing. Automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems are designed to perform the speech-to-text task. Although ASR systems have been the subject of extensive research, they still encounter certain challenges when speech variations arise. The speaker’s age, gender, vulnerability, and other factors are the main causes of the variations in speech. In this work, we propose a fine-tuned speech recognition model for recognising the spoken words of vulnerable individuals in Tamil. This research utilizes a dataset sourced from the LT-EDI@EACL2024 shared task. We trained and tested pre-trained ASR models, including XLS-R and Whisper. The findings highlight that the fine-tuned Whisper ASR model surpasses the XLSR, achieving a word error rate (WER) of 24.452, signifying its superior performance in recognizing speech from diverse individuals.

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kubapok@LT-EDI 2024: Evaluating Transformer Models for Hate Speech Detection in Tamil
Jakub Pokrywka | Krzysztof Jassem

We describe the second-place submission for the shared task organized at the Fourth Workshop on Language Technology for Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion (LT-EDI-2024). The task focuses on detecting caste/migration hate speech in Tamil. The included texts involve the Tamil language in both Tamil script and transliterated into Latin script, with some texts also in English. Considering different scripts, we examined the performance of 12 transformer language models on the dev set. Our analysis revealed that for the whole dataset, the model google/muril-large-cased performs the best. We used an ensemble of several models for the final challenge submission, achieving 0.81 for the test dataset.

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KEC-AI-NLP@LT-EDI-2024:Homophobia and Transphobia Detection in Social Media Comments using Machine Learning
Kogilavani Shanmugavadivel | Malliga Subramanian | Shri R | Srigha S | Samyuktha K | Nithika K

Our work addresses the growing concern of abusive comments in online platforms, particularly focusing on the identification of Homophobia and Transphobia in social media comments. The goal is to categorize comments into three classes: Homophobia, Transphobia, and non-anti LGBT+ comments. Utilizing machine learning techniques and a deep learning model, our work involves training on a English dataset with a designated training set and testing on a validation set. This approach aims to contribute to the understanding and detection of Homophobia and Transphobia within the realm of social media interactions. Our team participated in the shared task organized by LTEDI@EACL 2024 and secured seventh rank in the task of Homophobia/Transphobia Detection in social media comments in Tamil with a macro- f1 score of 0.315. Also, our run was submitted for the English language and secured eighth rank with a macro-F1 score of 0.369. The run submitted for Malayalam language securing fourth rank with a macro- F1 score of 0.883 using the Random Forest model.

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KEC AI DSNLP@LT-EDI-2024:Caste and Migration Hate Speech Detection using Machine Learning Techniques
Kogilavani Shanmugavadivel | Malliga Subramanian | Aiswarya M | Aruna T | Jeevaananth S

Commonly used language defines “hate speech” as objectionable statements that may jeopardize societal harmony by singling out a group or a person based on fundamental traits (including gender, caste, or religion). Using machine learning techniques, our research focuses on identifying hate speech in social media comments. Using a variety of machine learning methods, we created machine learning models to detect hate speech. An approximate Macro F1 of 0.60 was attained by the created models.

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Quartet@LT-EDI 2024: A Support Vector Machine Approach For Caste and Migration Hate Speech Detection
Shaun H | Samyuktaa Sivakumar | Rohan R | Nikilesh Jayaguptha | Durairaj Thenmozhi

Hate speech refers to the offensive remarks against a community or individual based on inherent characteristics. Hate speech against a community based on their caste and native are unfortunately prevalent in the society. Especially with social media platforms being a very popular tool for communication and sharing ideas, people post hate speech against caste or migrants on social medias. The Shared Task LT–EDI 2024: Caste and Migration Hate Speech Detection was created with the objective to create an automatic classification system that detects and classifies hate speech posted on social media targeting a community belonging to a particular caste and migrants. Datasets in Tamil language were provided along with the shared task. We experimented with several traditional models such as Naive Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Logistic Regression, Random Forest Classifier and Decision Tree Classifier out of which Support Vector Machine yielded the best results placing us 8th in the rank list released by the organizers.

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SSN-Nova@LT-EDI 2024: Leveraging Vectorisation Techniques in an Ensemble Approach for Stress Identification in Low-Resource Languages
A Reddy | Ann Thomas | Pranav Moorthi | Bharathi B

This paper presents our submission for Shared task on Stress Identification in Dravidian Languages: StressIdent LT-EDI@EACL2024. The objective of this task is to identify stress levels in individuals based on their social media content. The system is tasked with analysing posts written in a code-mixed language of Tamil and Telugu and categorising them into two labels: “stressed” or “not stressed.” Our approach aimed to leverage feature extraction and juxtapose the performance of widely used traditional, deep learning and transformer models. Our research highlighted that building a pipeline with traditional classifiers proved to significantly improve their performance (0.98 and 0.93 F1-scores in Telugu and Tamil respectively), surpassing the baseline as well as deep learning and transformer models.

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Quartet@LT-EDI 2024: A SVM-ResNet50 Approach For Multitask Meme Classification - Unraveling Misogynistic and Trolls in Online Memes
Shaun H | Samyuktaa Sivakumar | Rohan R | Nikilesh Jayaguptha | Durairaj Thenmozhi

Meme is a very popular term prevailing among almost all social media platforms in recent days. A meme can be a combination of text and image whose sole purpose is meant to be funny and entertain people. Memes can sometimes promote misogynistic content expressing hatred, contempt, or prejudice against women. The Shared Task LT–EDI 2024: Multitask Meme Classification: Unraveling Misogynistic and Trolls in Online Memes Task 1 was created with the purpose to classify social media memes as “misogynistic” and “Non - Misogynistic”. The task encompassed Tamil and Malayalam datasets. We separately classified the textual data using Multinomial Naive Bayes and pictorial data using ResNet50 model. The results of from both data were combined to yield an overall result. We were ranked 2nd for both languages in this task.

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Quartet@LT-EDI 2024: Support Vector Machine Based Approach For Homophobia/Transphobia Detection In Social Media Comments
Shaun H | Samyuktaa Sivakumar | Rohan R | Nikilesh Jayaguptha | Durairaj Thenmozhi

Homophobia and transphobia are terms which are used to describe the fear or hatred towards people who are attracted to the same sex or people whose psychological gender differs from his biological sex. People use social media to exert this behaviour. The increased amount of abusive content negatively affects people in a lot of ways. It makes the environment toxic and unpleasant to LGBTQ+ people. The paper talks about the classification model for classifying the contents into 3 categories which are homophobic, transphobic and nonhomophobic/ transphobic. We used many traditional models like Support Vector Machine, Random Classifier, Logistic Regression and KNearest Neighbour to achieve this. The macro average F1 scores for Malayalam, Telugu, English, Marathi, Kannada, Tamil, Gujarati, Hindi are 0.88, 0.94, 0.96, 0.78, 0.93, 0.77, 0.94, 0.47 and the rank for these languages are 5, 6, 9, 6, 8, 6, 6, 4.

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SSN-Nova@LT-EDI 2024: POS Tagging, Boosting Techniques and Voting Classifiers for Caste And Migration Hate Speech Detection
A Reddy | Ann Thomas | Pranav Moorthi | Bharathi B

This paper presents our submission for the shared task on Caste and Migration Hate Speech Detection: LT-EDI@EACL 20241 . This text classification task aims to foster the creation of models capable of identifying hate speech related to caste and migration. The dataset comprises social media comments, and the goal is to categorize them into negative and positive sentiments. Our approach explores back-translation for data augmentation to address sparse datasets in low-resource Dravidian languages. While Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging is valuable in natural language processing, our work highlights its ineffectiveness in Dravidian languages, with model performance drastically reducing from 0.73 to 0.67 on application. In analyzing boosting and ensemble methods, the voting classifier with traditional models outperforms others and the boosting techniques, underscoring the efficacy of simper models on low-resource data despite augmentation.

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CUET_NLP_Manning@LT-EDI 2024: Transformer-based Approach on Caste and Migration Hate Speech Detection
Md Alam | Hasan Mesbaul Ali Taher | Jawad Hossain | Shawly Ahsan | Mohammed Moshiul Hoque

The widespread use of online communication has caused a significant increase in the spread of hate speech on social media. However, there are also hate crimes based on caste and migration status. Despite several nations efforts to bring equality among their citizens, numerous crimes occur just based on caste. Migration-based hostility happens both in India and in developed countries. A shared task was arranged to address this issue in a low-resourced language such as Tamil. This paper aims to improve the detection of hate speech and hostility based on caste and migration status on social media. To achieve this, this work investigated several Machine Learning (ML), Deep Learning (DL), and transformer-based models, including M-BERT, XLM-R, and Tamil BERT. Experimental results revealed the highest macro f1-score of 0.80 using the M-BERT model, which enabled us to rank 3rd on the shared task.

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DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGE@ LT-EDI 2024:Pretrained Transformer based Automatic Speech Recognition system for Elderly People
Abirami. J | Aruna Devi. S | Dharunika Sasikumar | Bharathi B

In this paper, the main goal of the study is to create an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system that is tailored to the Tamil language. The dataset that was employed includes audio recordings that were obtained from vulnerable populations in the Tamil region, such as elderly men and women and transgender individuals. The pre-trained model Rajaram1996/wav2vec2- large-xlsr-53-tamil is used in the engineering of the ASR system. This existing model is finetuned using a variety of datasets that include typical Tamil voices. The system is then tested with a specific test dataset, and the transcriptions that are produced are sent in for assessment. The Word Error Rate is used to evaluate the system’s performance. Our system has a WER of 37.733.

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Transformers@LT-EDI-EACL2024: Caste and Migration Hate Speech Detection in Tamil Using Ensembling on Transformers
Kriti Singhal | Jatin Bedi

In recent years, there has been a persistent focus on developing systems that can automatically identify the hate speech content circulating on diverse social media platforms. This paper describes the team “Transformers” submission to the Caste and Migration Hate Speech Detection in Tamil shared task by LT-EDI 2024 workshop at EACL 2024. We used an ensemble approach in the shared task, combining various transformer-based pre-trained models using majority voting. The best macro average F1-score achieved was 0.82. We secured the 1st rank in the Caste and Migration Hate Speech in Tamil shared task.

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Algorithm Alliance@LT-EDI-2024: Caste and Migration Hate Speech Detection
Saisandeep Sangeetham | Shreyamanisha Vinay | Kavin Rajan G | Abishna A | Bharathi B

Caste and Migration speech refers to the use of language that distinguishes the offense, violence, and distress on their social, caste, and migration status. Here, caste hate speech targets the imbalance of an individual’s social status and focuses mainly on the degradation of their caste group. While the migration hate speech imposes the differences in nationality, culture, and individual status. These speeches are meant to affront the social status of these people. To detect this hate in the speech, our task on Caste and Migration Hate Speech Detection has been created which classifies human speech into genuine or stimulate categories. For this task, we used multiple classification models such as the train test split model to split the dataset into train and test data, Logistic regression, Support Vector Machine, MLP (multi-layer Perceptron) classifier, Random Forest classifier, KNN classifier, and Decision tree classification. Among these models, The SVM gave the highest macro average F1 score of 0.77 and the average accuracy for these models is around 0.75.

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MEnTr@LT-EDI-2024: Multilingual Ensemble of Transformer Models for Homophobia/Transphobia Detection
Adwita Arora | Aaryan Mattoo | Divya Chaudhary | Ian Gorton | Bijendra Kumar

Detection of Homophobia and Transphobia in social media comments serves as an important step in the overall development of Equality, Diversity and Inclusion (EDI). In this research, we describe the system we formulated while participating in the shared task of Homophobia/ Transphobia detection as a part of the Fourth Workshop On Language Technology For Equality, Diversity, Inclusion (LT-EDI- 2024) at EACL 2024. We used an ensemble of three state-of-the-art multilingual transformer models, namely Multilingual BERT (mBERT), Multilingual Representations for Indic Languages (MuRIL) and XLM-RoBERTa to detect the presence of Homophobia or Transphobia in YouTube comments. The task comprised of datasets in ten languages - Hindi, English, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Gujarati, Marathi, Spanish and Tulu. Our system achieved rank 1 for the Spanish and Tulu tasks, 2 for Telugu, 3 for Marathi and Gujarati, 4 for Tamil, 5 for Hindi and Kannada, 6 for English and 8 for Malayalam. These results speak for the efficacy of our ensemble model as well as the data augmentation strategy we adopted for the detection of anti-LGBT+ language in social media data.

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CUET_DUO@StressIdent_LT-EDI@EACL2024: Stress Identification Using Tamil-Telugu BERT
Abu Raihan | Tanzim Rahman | Md. Rahman | Jawad Hossain | Shawly Ahsan | Avishek Das | Mohammed Moshiul Hoque

The pervasive impact of stress on individuals necessitates proactive identification and intervention measures, especially in social media interaction. This research paper addresses the imperative need for proactive identification and intervention concerning the widespread influence of stress on individuals. This study focuses on the shared task, “Stress Identification in Dravidian Languages,” specifically emphasizing Tamil and Telugu code-mixed languages. The primary objective of the task is to classify social media messages into two categories: stressed and non stressed. We employed various methodologies, from traditional machine-learning techniques to state-of-the-art transformer-based models. Notably, the Tamil-BERT and Telugu-BERT models exhibited exceptional performance, achieving a noteworthy macro F1-score of 0.71 and 0.72, respectively, and securing the 15th position in Tamil code-mixed language and the 9th position in the Telugu code-mixed language. These findings underscore the effectiveness of these models in recognizing stress signals within social media content composed in Tamil and Telugu.

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dkit@LT-EDI-2024: Detecting Homophobia and Transphobia in English Social Media Comments
Sargam Yadav | Abhishek Kaushik | Kevin McDaid

Machine learning and deep learning models have shown great potential in detecting hate speech from social media posts. This study focuses on the homophobia and transphobia detection task of LT-EDI-2024 in English. Several machine learning models, a Deep Neural Network (DNN), and the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) model have been trained on the provided dataset using different feature vectorization techniques. We secured top rank with the best macro-F1 score of 0.4963, which was achieved by fine-tuning the BERT model on the English test set.

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KEC_AI_MIRACLE_MAKERS@LT-EDI-2024: Stress Identification in Dravidian Languages using Machine Learning Techniques
Kogilavani Shanmugavadivel | Malliga Subramanian | Monika J | Monishaa S | Rishibalan B

Identifying an individual where he/she is stressed or not stressed is our shared task topic. we have used several machine learning models for identifying the stress. This paper presents our system submission for the task 1 and 2 for both Tamil and Telugu dataset, focusing on us- ing supervised approaches. For Tamil dataset, we got highest accuracy for the Support Vector Machine model with f1-score of 0.98 and for Telugu dataset, we got highest accuracy for Random Forest algorithm with f1-score of 0.99. By using this model, Stress Identification System will be helpful for an individual to improve their mental health in optimistic manner.

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MUCS@LT-EDI-2024: Exploring Joint Representation for Memes Classification
Sidharth Mahesh | Sonith D | Gauthamraj Gauthamraj | Kavya G | Asha Hegde | H Shashirekha

Misogynistic memes are a category of memes which contain disrespectful language targeting women on social media platforms. Hence, detecting such memes is necessary in order to maintain a healthy social media environment. To address the challenges of detecting misogynistic memes, “Multitask Meme classification - Unraveling Misogynistic and Trolls in Online Memes: LT-EDI@EACL 2024” shared task organized at European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (EACL) 2024, invites researchers to develop models to detect misogynistic memes in Tamil and Malayalam. The shared task has two subtasks, and in this paper, we - team MUCS, describe the learning models submitted to Task 1 - Identification of Misogynistic Memes in Tamil and Malayalam. As memes represent multi-modal data of image and text, three models: i) Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT)+Residual Network (ResNet)-50, ii) Multilingual Representations for Indian Languages (MuRIL)+ResNet-50, and iii) multilingual BERT (mBERT)+ResNet50, are proposed based on joint representation of text and image, for detecting misogynistic memes in Tamil and Malayalam. Among the proposed models, mBERT+ResNet-50 and MuRIL+ ResNet-50 models obtained macro F1 scores of 0.73 and 0.87 for Tamil and Malayalam datasets respectively securing 1st rank for both the datasets in the shared task.

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MUCS@LT-EDI-2024: Learning Approaches to Empower Homophobic/Transphobic Comment Identification
Sonali Kulal | Nethravathi Gidnakanala | Raksha G | Kavya G | Asha Hegde | H Shashirekha

Homophobic/Transphobic (H/T) content includes hatred and discriminatory comments directed at Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer (LGBTQ) individuals on social media platforms. As this unfavourable perception towards LGBTQ individuals may affect them physically and mentally, it is necessary to detect H/T content on social media. This demands automated tools to identify and address H/T content. In view of this, in this paper, we - team MUCS describe the learning models submitted to “Homophobia/Transphobia Detection in social media comments:LT-EDI@EACL 2024” shared task at European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (EACL) 2024. The learning models: i) Homo_Ensemble - an ensemble of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms trained with Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF) of syllable n-grams in the range (1, 3), ii) Homo_TL - a model based on Transfer Learning (TL) approach with Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) models, iii) Homo_probfuse - an ensemble of ML classifiers with soft voting trained using sentence embeddings (except for Hindi), and iv) Homo_FSL - Few-Shot Learning (FSL) models using Sentence Transformer (ST) (only for Tulu), are proposed to detect H/T content in the given languages. Among the models submitted to the shared task, the models that performed better for each language include: i) Homo_Ensemble model obtained macro F1 score of 0.95 securing 4th rank for Telugu language, ii) Homo_TL model obtained macro F1 scores of 0.49, 0.53, 0.45, 0.94, and 0.95 securing 2nd, 2nd, 1st, 1st, and 4th ranks for English, Marathi, Hindi, Kannada, and Gujarathi languages, respectively, iii) Homo_probfuse model obtained macro F1 scores of 0.86, 0.87, and 0.53 securing 2nd, 6th, and 2nd ranks for Tamil, Malayalam, and Spanish languages respectively, and iv) Homo_FSL model obtained a macro F1 score of 0.62 securing 2nd rank for Tulu dataset.

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ASR TAMIL SSN@ LT-EDI-2024: Automatic Speech Recognition system for Elderly People
Suhasini S | Bharathi B

The results of the Shared Task on Speech Recognition for Vulnerable Individuals in Tamil (LT-EDI-2024) are discussed in this paper. The goal is to create an automated system for Tamil voice recognition. The older population that speaks Tamil is the source of the dataset used in this task. The proposed ASR system is designed with pre-trained model akashsivanandan/wav2vec2-large-xls-r300m-tamil-colab-final. The Tamil common speech dataset is utilized to fine-tune the pretrained model that powers our system. The suggested system receives the test data that was released from the task; transcriptions are then created for the test samples and delivered to the task. Word Error Rate (WER) is the evaluation statistic used to assess the provided result based on the task. Our Proposed system attained a WER of 29.297%.

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Proceedings of the First Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Human Resources (NLP4HR 2024)

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Proceedings of the First Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Human Resources (NLP4HR 2024)
Estevam Hruschka | Thom Lake | Naoki Otani | Tom Mitchell

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Deep Learning-based Computational Job Market Analysis: A Survey on Skill Extraction and Classification from Job Postings
Elena Senger | Mike Zhang | Rob Goot | Barbara Plank

Recent years have brought significant advances to Natural Language Processing (NLP), which enabled fast progress in the field of computational job market analysis. Core tasks in this application domain are skill extraction and classification from job postings. Because of its quick growth and its interdisciplinary nature, there is no exhaustive assessment of this field. This survey aims to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive overview of deep learning methodologies, datasets, and terminologies specific to NLP-driven skill extraction. Our comprehensive cataloging of publicly available datasets addresses the lack of consolidated information on dataset creation and characteristics. Finally, the focus on terminology addresses the current lack of consistent definitions for important concepts, such as hard and soft skills, and terms relating to skill extraction and classification.

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Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis for Open-Ended HR Survey Responses
Lois Rink | Job Meijdam | David Graus

Understanding preferences, opinions, and sentiment of the workforce is paramount for effective employee lifecycle management. Open-ended survey responses serve as a valuable source of information. This paper proposes a machine learning approach for aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) of Dutch open-ended responses in employee satisfaction surveys. Our approach aims to overcome the inherent noise and variability in these responses, enabling a comprehensive analysis of sentiments that can support employee lifecycle management. Through response clustering we identify six key aspects (salary, schedule, contact, communication, personal attention, agreements), which we validate by domain experts. We compile a dataset of 1,458 Dutch survey responses, revealing label imbalance in aspects and sentiments. We propose few-shot approaches for ABSA based on Dutch BERT models, and compare them against bag-of-words and zero-shot baselines.Our work significantly contributes to the field of ABSA by demonstrating the first successful application of Dutch pre-trained language models to aspect-based sentiment analysis in the domain of human resources (HR).

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Rethinking Skill Extraction in the Job Market Domain using Large Language Models
Khanh Nguyen | Mike Zhang | Syrielle Montariol | Antoine Bosselut

Skill Extraction involves identifying skills and qualifications mentioned in documents such as job postings and resumes. The task is commonly tackled by training supervised models using a sequence labeling approach with BIO tags. However, the reliance on manually annotated data limits the generalizability of such approaches. Moreover, the common BIO setting limits the ability of the models to capture complex skill patterns and handle ambiguous mentions. In this paper, we explore the use of in-context learning to overcome these challenges, on a benchmark of 6 uniformized skill extraction datasets. Our approach leverages the few-shot learning capabilities of large language models (LLMs) to identify and extract skills from sentences. We show that LLMs, despite not being on par with traditional supervised models in terms of performance, can better handle syntactically complex skill mentions in skill extraction tasks.

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JobSkape: A Framework for Generating Synthetic Job Postings to Enhance Skill Matching
Antoine Magron | Anna Dai | Mike Zhang | Syrielle Montariol | Antoine Bosselut

Recent approaches in skill matching, employing synthetic training data for classification or similarity model training, have shown promising results, reducing the need for time-consuming and expensive annotations. However, previous synthetic datasets have limitations, such as featuring only one skill per sentence and generally comprising short sentences. In this paper, we introduce JobSkape, a framework to generate synthetic data that tackles these limitations, specifically designed to enhance skill-to-taxonomy matching. Within this framework, we create SkillSkape, a comprehensive open-source synthetic dataset of job postings tailored for skill-matching tasks. We introduce several offline metrics that show that our dataset resembles real-world data. Additionally, we present a multi-step pipeline for skill extraction and matching tasks using large language models (LLMs), benchmarking against known supervised methodologies. We outline that the downstream evaluation results on real-world data can beat baselines, underscoring its efficacy and adaptability.

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HR-MultiWOZ: A Task Oriented Dialogue (TOD) Dataset for HR LLM Agent
Weijie Xu | Zicheng Huang | Wenxiang Hu | Xi Fang | Rajesh Cherukuri | Naumaan Nayyar | Lorenzo Malandri | Srinivasan Sengamedu

Recent advancements in Large Language Models (LLMs) have been reshaping Natural Language Processing (NLP) task in several domains. Their use in the field of Human Resources (HR) has still room for expansions and could be beneficial for several time consuming tasks. Examples such as time-off submissions, medical claims filing, and access requests are noteworthy, but they are by no means the sole instances. However the aforementioned developments must grapple with the pivotal challenge of constructing a high-quality training dataset. On one hand, most conversation datasets are solving problems for customers not employees. On the other hand, gathering conversations with HR could raise privacy concerns. To solve it, we introduce HR-Multiwoz, a fully-labeled dataset of 550 conversations spanning 10 HR domains. Our work has the following contributions:(1) It is the first labeled open-sourced conversation dataset in the HR domain for NLP research. (2) It provides a detailed recipe for the data generation procedure along with data analysis and human evaluations. The data generation pipeline is transferrable and can be easily adapted for labeled conversation data generation in other domains. (3) The proposed data-collection pipeline is mostly based on LLMs with minimal human involvement for annotation, which is time and cost-efficient.

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Big City Bias: Evaluating the Impact of Metropolitan Size on Computational Job Market Abilities of Language Models
Charlie Campanella | Rob Goot

Large language models have emerged as a useful technology for job matching, for both candidates and employers. Job matching is often based on a particular geographic location, such as a city or region. However, LMs have known biases, commonly derived from their training data. In this work, we aim to quantify the metropolitan size bias encoded within large language models, evaluating zero-shot salary, employer presence, and commute duration predictions in 384 of the United States’ metropolitan regions. Across all benchmarks, we observe correlations between metropolitan population and the accuracy of predictions, with the smallest 10 metropolitan regions showing upwards of 300% worse benchmark performance than the largest 10.

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Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Understanding Implicit and Underspecified Language

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Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Understanding Implicit and Underspecified Language
Valentina Pyatkin | Daniel Fried | Elias Stengel-Eskin | Elias Stengel-Eskin | Alisa Liu | Sandro Pezzelle

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Taking Action Towards Graceful Interaction: The Effects of Performing Actions on Modelling Policies for Instruction Clarification Requests
Brielen Madureira | David Schlangen

Clarification requests are a mechanism to help solve communication problems, e.g. due to ambiguity or underspecification, in instruction-following interactions. Despite their importance, even skilful models struggle with producing or interpreting such repair acts. In this work, we test three hypotheses concerning the effects of action taking as an auxiliary task in modelling iCR policies. Contrary to initial expectations, we conclude that its contribution to learning an iCR policy is limited, but some information can still be extracted from prediction uncertainty. We present further evidence that even well-motivated, Transformer-based models fail to learn good policies for when to ask Instruction CRs (iCRs), while the task of determining what to ask about can be more successfully modelled. Considering the implications of these findings, we further discuss the shortcomings of the data-driven paradigm for learning meta-communication acts.

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More Labels or Cases? Assessing Label Variation in Natural Language Inference
Cornelia Gruber | Katharina Hechinger | Matthias Assenmacher | Göran Kauermann | Barbara Plank

In this work, we analyze the uncertainty that is inherently present in the labels used for supervised machine learning in natural language inference (NLI). In cases where multiple annotations per instance are available, neither the majority vote nor the frequency of individual class votes is a trustworthy representation of the labeling uncertainty. We propose modeling the votes via a Bayesian mixture model to recover the data-generating process, i.e., the “true” latent classes, and thus gain insight into the class variations. This will enable a better understanding of the confusion happening during the annotation process. We also assess the stability of the proposed estimation procedure by systematically varying the numbers of i) instances and ii) labels. Thereby, we observe that few instances with many labels can predict the latent class borders reasonably well, while the estimation fails for many instances with only a few labels. This leads us to conclude that multiple labels are a crucial building block for properly analyzing label uncertainty.

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Resolving Transcription Ambiguity in Spanish: A Hybrid Acoustic-Lexical System for Punctuation Restoration
Xiliang Zhu | Chia-Tien Chang | Shayna Gardiner | David Rossouw | Jonas Robertson

Punctuation restoration is a crucial step after Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems to enhance transcript readability and facilitate subsequent NLP tasks. Nevertheless, conventional lexical-based approaches are inadequate for solving the punctuation restoration task in Spanish, where ambiguity can be often found between unpunctuated declaratives and questions. In this study, we propose a novel hybrid acoustic-lexical punctuation restoration system for Spanish transcription, which consolidates acoustic and lexical signals through a modular process. Our experiment results show that the proposed system can effectively improve F1 score of question marks and overall punctuation restoration on both public and internal Spanish conversational datasets. Additionally, benchmark comparison against LLMs (Large Language Model) indicates the superiority of our approach in accuracy, reliability and latency. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Word Error Rate (WER) of the ASR module also benefits from our proposed system.

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Assessing the Significance of Encoded Information in Contextualized Representations to Word Sense Disambiguation
Deniz Ekin Yavas

The similarity of representations is crucial for WSD. However, a lot of information is encoded in the contextualized representations, and it is not clear which sentence context features drive this similarity and whether these features are significant to WSD. In this study, we address these questions. First, we identify the sentence context features that are responsible for the similarity of the contextualized representations of different occurrences of words. For this purpose, we conduct an explainability experiment and identify the sentence context features that lead to the formation of the clusters in word sense clustering with CWEs. Then, we provide a qualitative evaluation for assessing the significance of these features to WSD. Our results show that features that lack significance to WSD determine the similarity of the representations even when different senses of a word occur in highly diverse contexts and sentence context provides clear clues for different senses.

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Below the Sea (with the Sharks): Probing Textual Features of Implicit Sentiment in a Literary Case-study
Yuri Bizzoni | Pascale Feldkamp

Literary language presents an ongoing challenge for Sentiment Analysis due to its complex, nuanced, and layered form of expression. It is often suggested that effective literary writing is evocative, operating beneath the surface and understating emotional expression. To explore features of implicitness in literary expression, this study takes Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea as a case for examining implicit sentiment expression. We examine sentences where automatic sentiment annotations show substantial divergences from human sentiment annotations, and probe these sentences for distinctive traits. We find that sentences where humans perceived a strong sentiment while models did not are significantly lower in arousal and higher in concreteness than sentences where humans and models were more aligned, suggesting the importance of simplicity and concreteness for implicit sentiment expression in literary prose.

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Exposing propaganda: an analysis of stylistic cues comparing human annotations and machine classification
Géraud Faye | Benjamin Icard | Morgane Casanova | Julien Chanson | François Maine | François Bancilhon | Guillaume Gadek | Guillaume Gravier | Paul Égré

This paper investigates the language of propaganda and its stylistic features. It presents the PPN dataset, standing for Propagandist Pseudo-News, a multisource, multilingual, multimodal dataset composed of news articles extracted from websites identified as propaganda sources by expert agencies. A limited sample from this set was randomly mixed with papers from the regular French press, and their URL masked, to conduct an annotation-experiment by humans, using 11 distinct labels. The results show that human annotators were able to reliably discriminate between the two types of press across each of the labels. We use different NLP techniques to identify the cues used by annotators, and to compare them with machine classification: first the analyzer VAGO to detect discourse vagueness and subjectivity, and then four different classifiers, two based on RoBERTa, one CATS using syntax, and one XGBoost combining syntactic and semantic features.

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Different Tastes of Entities: Investigating Human Label Variation in Named Entity Annotations
Siyao Peng | Zihang Sun | Sebastian Loftus | Barbara Plank

Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a key information extraction task with a long-standing tradition. While recent studies address and aim to correct annotation errors via re-labeling efforts, little is known about the sources of label variation, such as text ambiguity, annotation error, or guideline divergence. This is especially the case for high-quality datasets and beyond English CoNLL03. This paper studies disagreements in expert-annotated named entity datasets for three varieties: English, Danish, and DialectX. We show that text ambiguity and artificial guideline changes are dominant factors for diverse annotations among high-quality revisions. We survey student annotations on a subset of difficult entities and substantiate the feasibility and necessity of manifold annotations for understanding named entity ambiguities from a distributional perspective.

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Colour Me Uncertain: Representing Vagueness with Probabilistic Semantics
Kin Chun Cheung | Guy Emerson

People successfully communicate in everyday situations using vague language. In particular, colour terms have no clear boundaries as to the ranges of colours they describe. We model people’s reasoning process in a dyadic reference game using the Rational Speech Acts (RSA) framework and probabilistic semantics, and we find that the implementation of probabilistic semantics requires a modification from pure theory to perform well on real-world data. In addition, we explore approaches to handling target disagreements in reference games, an issue that is rarely discussed in the RSA literature.