Text Classification with Few Examples using Controlled Generalization
Abhijit Mahabal | Jason Baldridge | Burcu Karagol Ayan | Vincent Perot | Dan Roth
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)
Training data for text classification is often limited in practice, especially for applications with many output classes or involving many related classification problems. This means classifiers must generalize from limited evidence, but the manner and extent of generalization is task dependent. Current practice primarily relies on pre-trained word embeddings to map words unseen in training to similar seen ones. Unfortunately, this squishes many components of meaning into highly restricted capacity. Our alternative begins with sparse pre-trained representations derived from unlabeled parsed corpora; based on the available training data, we select features that offers the relevant generalizations. This produces task-specific semantic vectors; here, we show that a feed-forward network over these vectors is especially effective in low-data scenarios, compared to existing state-of-the-art methods. By further pairing this network with a convolutional neural network, we keep this edge in low data scenarios and remain competitive when using full training sets.
How Large Are Lions? Inducing Distributions over Quantitative Attributes
Yanai Elazar | Abhijit Mahabal | Deepak Ramachandran | Tania Bedrax-Weiss | Dan Roth
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics
Most current NLP systems have little knowledge about quantitative attributes of objects and events. We propose an unsupervised method for collecting quantitative information from large amounts of web data, and use it to create a new, very large resource consisting of distributions over physical quantities associated with objects, adjectives, and verbs which we call Distributions over Quantitative (DoQ). This contrasts with recent work in this area which has focused on making only relative comparisons such as “Is a lion bigger than a wolf?”. Our evaluation shows that DoQ compares favorably with state of the art results on existing datasets for relative comparisons of nouns and adjectives, and on a new dataset we introduce.
Robust Handling of Polysemy via Sparse Representations
Abhijit Mahabal | Dan Roth | Sid Mittal
Proceedings of the Seventh Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics
Words are polysemous and multi-faceted, with many shades of meanings. We suggest that sparse distributed representations are more suitable than other, commonly used, (dense) representations to express these multiple facets, and present Category Builder, a working system that, as we show, makes use of sparse representations to support multi-faceted lexical representations. We argue that the set expansion task is well suited to study these meaning distinctions since a word may belong to multiple sets with a different reason for membership in each. We therefore exhibit the performance of Category Builder on this task, while showing that our representation captures at the same time analogy problems such as “the Ganga of Egypt” or “the Voldemort of Tolkien”. Category Builder is shown to be a more expressive lexical representation and to outperform dense representations such as Word2Vec in some analogy classes despite being shown only two of the three input terms.
- Dan Roth 3
- Jason Baldridge 1
- Burcu Karagol-Ayan 1
- Vincent Perot 1
- Sid Mittal 1
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