The gaze behaviour of a reader is helpful in solving several NLP tasks such as automatic essay grading. However, collecting gaze behaviour from readers is costly in terms of time and money. In this paper, we propose a way to improve automatic essay grading using gaze behaviour, which is learnt at run time using a multi-task learning framework. To demonstrate the efficacy of this multi-task learning based approach to automatic essay grading, we collect gaze behaviour for 48 essays across 4 essay sets, and learn gaze behaviour for the rest of the essays, numbering over 7000 essays. Using the learnt gaze behaviour, we can achieve a statistically significant improvement in performance over the state-of-the-art system for the essay sets where we have gaze data. We also achieve a statistically significant improvement for 4 other essay sets, numbering about 6000 essays, where we have no gaze behaviour data available. Our approach establishes that learning gaze behaviour improves automatic essay grading.
The paper presents a first attempt towards unsupervised neural text simplification that relies only on unlabeled text corpora. The core framework is composed of a shared encoder and a pair of attentional-decoders, crucially assisted by discrimination-based losses and denoising. The framework is trained using unlabeled text collected from en-Wikipedia dump. Our analysis (both quantitative and qualitative involving human evaluators) on public test data shows that the proposed model can perform text-simplification at both lexical and syntactic levels, competitive to existing supervised methods. It also outperforms viable unsupervised baselines. Adding a few labeled pairs helps improve the performance further.
In this tutorial, we wish to cover the foundational, methodological, and system development aspects of translating structured data (such as data in tabular form) and knowledge bases (such as knowledge graphs) into natural language. The attendees of the tutorial will be able to take away from this tutorial, (1) the basic ideas around how modern NLP and NLG techniques could be applied to describe and summarize textual data in format that is non-linguistic in nature or has some structure, and (2) a few interesting open-ended questions, which could lead to significant research contributions in future. The tutorial aims to convey challenges and nuances in structured data translation, data representation techniques, and domain adaptable solutions for translation of the data into natural language form. Various solutions, starting from traditional rule based/heuristic driven and modern data-driven and ultra-modern deep-neural style architectures will be discussed, followed by a brief discussion on evaluation and quality estimation. A significant portion of the tutorial will be dedicated towards unsupervised, scalable, and adaptable solutions, given that systems for such an important task will never naturally enjoy sustainable large scale domain independent labeled (parallel) data.
In this paper, we propose a novel framework for sarcasm generation; the system takes a literal negative opinion as input and translates it into a sarcastic version. Our framework does not require any paired data for training. Sarcasm emanates from context-incongruity which becomes apparent as the sentence unfolds. Our framework introduces incongruity into the literal input version through modules that: (a) filter factual content from the input opinion, (b) retrieve incongruous phrases related to the filtered facts and (c) synthesize sarcastic text from the incongruous filtered and incongruous phrases. The framework employs reinforced neural sequence to sequence learning and information retrieval and is trained only using unlabeled non-sarcastic and sarcastic opinions. Since no labeled dataset exists for such a task, for evaluation, we manually prepare a benchmark dataset containing literal opinions and their sarcastic paraphrases. Qualitative and quantitative performance analyses on the data reveal our system’s superiority over baselines built using known unsupervised statistical and neural machine translation and style transfer techniques.
We present a framework for generating natural language description from structured data such as tables; the problem comes under the category of data-to-text natural language generation (NLG). Modern data-to-text NLG systems typically use end-to-end statistical and neural architectures that learn from a limited amount of task-specific labeled data, and therefore exhibit limited scalability, domain-adaptability, and interpretability. Unlike these systems, ours is a modular, pipeline-based approach, and does not require task-specific parallel data. Rather, it relies on monolingual corpora and basic off-the-shelf NLP tools. This makes our system more scalable and easily adaptable to newer domains.Our system utilizes a three-staged pipeline that: (i) converts entries in the structured data to canonical form, (ii) generates simple sentences for each atomic entry in the canonicalized representation, and (iii) combines the sentences to produce a coherent, fluent, and adequate paragraph description through sentence compounding and co-reference replacement modules. Experiments on a benchmark mixed-domain data set curated for paragraph description from tables reveals the superiority of our system over existing data-to-text approaches. We also demonstrate the robustness of our system in accepting other popular data sets covering diverse data types such as knowledge graphs and key-value maps.
Predicting a reader’s rating of text quality is a challenging task that involves estimating different subjective aspects of the text, like structure, clarity, etc. Such subjective aspects are better handled using cognitive information. One such source of cognitive information is gaze behaviour. In this paper, we show that gaze behaviour does indeed help in effectively predicting the rating of text quality. To do this, we first we model text quality as a function of three properties - organization, coherence and cohesion. Then, we demonstrate how capturing gaze behaviour helps in predicting each of these properties, and hence the overall quality, by reporting improvements obtained by adding gaze features to traditional textual features for score prediction. We also hypothesize that if a reader has fully understood the text, the corresponding gaze behaviour would give a better indication of the assigned rating, as opposed to partial understanding. Our experiments validate this hypothesis by showing greater agreement between the given rating and the predicted rating when the reader has a full understanding of the text.
The sentiment aggregation problem accounts for analyzing the sentiment of a user towards various aspects/features of a product, and meaningfully assimilating the pragmatic significance of these features/aspects from an opinionated text. The current paper addresses the sentiment aggregation problem, by assigning weights to each aspect appearing in the user-generated content, that are proportionate to the strategic importance of the aspect in the pragmatic domain. The novelty of this paper is in computing the pragmatic significance (weight) of each aspect, using graph centrality measures (applied on domain specific ontology-graphs extracted from ConceptNet), and deeply ingraining these weights while aggregating the sentiments from opinionated text. We experiment over multiple real-life product review data. Our system consistently outperforms the state of the art - by as much as a F-score of 20.39% in one case.
Automatic analysis of curriculum vitae (CVs) of applicants is of tremendous importance in recruitment scenarios. The semi-structuredness of CVs, however, makes CV processing a challenging task. We propose a solution towards transforming CVs to follow a unified structure, thereby, paving ways for smoother CV analysis. The problem of restructuring is posed as a section relabeling problem, where each section of a given CV gets reassigned to a predefined label. Our relabeling method relies on semantic relatedness computed between section header, content and labels, based on phrase-embeddings learned from a large pool of CVs. We follow different heuristics to measure semantic relatedness. Our best heuristic achieves an F-score of 93.17% on a test dataset with gold-standard labels obtained using manual annotation.
Cognitive NLP systems- i.e., NLP systems that make use of behavioral data - augment traditional text-based features with cognitive features extracted from eye-movement patterns, EEG signals, brain-imaging etc. Such extraction of features is typically manual. We contend that manual extraction of features may not be the best way to tackle text subtleties that characteristically prevail in complex classification tasks like Sentiment Analysis and Sarcasm Detection, and that even the extraction and choice of features should be delegated to the learning system. We introduce a framework to automatically extract cognitive features from the eye-movement/gaze data of human readers reading the text and use them as features along with textual features for the tasks of sentiment polarity and sarcasm detection. Our proposed framework is based on Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The CNN learns features from both gaze and text and uses them to classify the input text. We test our technique on published sentiment and sarcasm labeled datasets, enriched with gaze information, to show that using a combination of automatically learned text and gaze features often yields better classification performance over (i) CNN based systems that rely on text input alone and (ii) existing systems that rely on handcrafted gaze and textual features.
We present a compendium of 110 Statistical Machine Translation systems built from parallel corpora of 11 Indian languages belonging to both Indo-Aryan and Dravidian families. We analyze the relationship between translation accuracy and the language families involved. We feel that insights obtained from this analysis will provide guidelines for creating machine translation systems of specific Indian language pairs. We build phrase based systems and some extensions. Across multiple languages, we show improvements on the baseline phrase based systems using these extensions: (1) source side reordering for English-Indian language translation, and (2) transliteration of untranslated words for Indian language-Indian language translation. These enhancements harness shared characteristics of Indian languages. To stimulate similar innovation widely in the NLP community, we have made the trained models for these language pairs publicly available.