Logical structure recovery in scientific articles associates text with a semantic section of the article. Although previous work has disregarded the surrounding context of a line, we model this important information by employing line-level attention on top of a transformer-based scientific document processing pipeline. With the addition of loss function engineering and data augmentation techniques with semi-supervised learning, our method improves classification performance by 10% compared to a recent state-of-the-art model. Our parsimonious, text-only method achieves a performance comparable to that of other works that use rich document features such as font and spatial position, using less data without sacrificing performance, resulting in a lightweight training pipeline.
Automatic transfer of text between domains has become popular in recent times. One of its aims is to preserve the semantic content while adapting to the target domain. However, it does not explicitly maintain other attributes between the source and translated text: e.g., text length and descriptiveness. Maintaining constraints in transfer has several downstream applications, including data augmentation and debiasing. We introduce a method for such constrained unsupervised text style transfer by introducing two complementary losses to the generative adversarial network (GAN) family of models. Unlike the competing losses used in GANs, we introduce cooperative losses where the discriminator and the generator cooperate and reduce the same loss. The first is a contrastive loss and the second is a classification loss — aiming to regularize the latent space further and bring similar sentences closer together. We demonstrate that such training retains lexical, syntactic and domain-specific constraints between domains for multiple benchmark datasets, including ones where more than one attribute change. We show that the complementary cooperative losses improve text quality, according to both automated and human evaluation measures.
The robustness of pretrained language models(PLMs) is generally measured using performance drops on two or more domains. However, we do not yet understand the inherent robustness achieved by contributions from different layers of a PLM. We systematically analyze the robustness of these representations layer by layer from two perspectives. First, we measure the robustness of representations by using domain divergence between two domains. We find that i) Domain variance increases from the lower to the upper layers for vanilla PLMs; ii) Models continuously pretrained on domain-specific data (DAPT)(Gururangan et al., 2020) exhibit more variance than their pretrained PLM counterparts; and that iii) Distilled models (e.g., DistilBERT) also show greater domain variance. Second, we investigate the robustness of representations by analyzing the encoded syntactic and semantic information using diagnostic probes. We find that similar layers have similar amounts of linguistic information for data from an unseen domain.
Domain divergence plays a significant role in estimating the performance of a model in new domains. While there is a significant literature on divergence measures, researchers find it hard to choose an appropriate divergence for a given NLP application. We address this shortcoming by both surveying the literature and through an empirical study. We develop a taxonomy of divergence measures consisting of three classes — Information-theoretic, Geometric, and Higher-order measures and identify the relationships between them. Further, to understand the common use-cases of these measures, we recognise three novel applications – 1) Data Selection, 2) Learning Representation, and 3) Decisions in the Wild – and use it to organise our literature. From this, we identify that Information-theoretic measures are prevalent for 1) and 3), and Higher-order measures are more common for 2). To further help researchers choose appropriate measures to predict drop in performance – an important aspect of Decisions in the Wild, we perform correlation analysis spanning 130 domain adaptation scenarios, 3 varied NLP tasks and 12 divergence measures identified from our survey. To calculate these divergences, we consider the current contextual word representations (CWR) and contrast with the older distributed representations. We find that traditional measures over word distributions still serve as strong baselines, while higher-order measures with CWR are effective.
We introduce SciWING, an open-source soft-ware toolkit which provides access to state-of-the-art pre-trained models for scientific document processing (SDP) tasks, such as citation string parsing, logical structure recovery and citation intent classification. Compared to other toolkits, SciWING follows a full neural pipeline and provides a Python inter-face for SDP. When needed, SciWING provides fine-grained control for rapid experimentation with different models by swapping and stacking different modules. Transfer learning from general and scientific documents specific pre-trained transformers (i.e., BERT, SciBERT, etc.) can be performed. SciWING incorporates ready-to-use web and terminal-based applications and demonstrations to aid adoption and development. The toolkit is available from http://sciwing.io and the demos are available at http://rebrand.ly/sciwing-demo.