Adam Pauls


2021

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Compositional Generalization for Neural Semantic Parsing via Span-level Supervised Attention
Pengcheng Yin | Hao Fang | Graham Neubig | Adam Pauls | Emmanouil Antonios Platanios | Yu Su | Sam Thomson | Jacob Andreas
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We describe a span-level supervised attention loss that improves compositional generalization in semantic parsers. Our approach builds on existing losses that encourage attention maps in neural sequence-to-sequence models to imitate the output of classical word alignment algorithms. Where past work has used word-level alignments, we focus on spans; borrowing ideas from phrase-based machine translation, we align subtrees in semantic parses to spans of input sentences, and encourage neural attention mechanisms to mimic these alignments. This method improves the performance of transformers, RNNs, and structured decoders on three benchmarks of compositional generalization.

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Value-Agnostic Conversational Semantic Parsing
Emmanouil Antonios Platanios | Adam Pauls | Subhro Roy | Yuchen Zhang | Alexander Kyte | Alan Guo | Sam Thomson | Jayant Krishnamurthy | Jason Wolfe | Jacob Andreas | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Conversational semantic parsers map user utterances to executable programs given dialogue histories composed of previous utterances, programs, and system responses. Existing parsers typically condition on rich representations of history that include the complete set of values and computations previously discussed. We propose a model that abstracts over values to focus prediction on type- and function-level context. This approach provides a compact encoding of dialogue histories and predicted programs, improving generalization and computational efficiency. Our model incorporates several other components, including an atomic span copy operation and structural enforcement of well-formedness constraints on predicted programs, that are particularly advantageous in the low-data regime. Trained on the SMCalFlow and TreeDST datasets, our model outperforms prior work by 7.3% and 10.6% respectively in terms of absolute accuracy. Trained on only a thousand examples from each dataset, it outperforms strong baselines by 12.4% and 6.4%. These results indicate that simple representations are key to effective generalization in conversational semantic parsing.

2020

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Task-Oriented Dialogue as Dataflow Synthesis
Jacob Andreas | John Bufe | David Burkett | Charles Chen | Josh Clausman | Jean Crawford | Kate Crim | Jordan DeLoach | Leah Dorner | Jason Eisner | Hao Fang | Alan Guo | David Hall | Kristin Hayes | Kellie Hill | Diana Ho | Wendy Iwaszuk | Smriti Jha | Dan Klein | Jayant Krishnamurthy | Theo Lanman | Percy Liang | Christopher H. Lin | Ilya Lintsbakh | Andy McGovern | Aleksandr Nisnevich | Adam Pauls | Dmitrij Petters | Brent Read | Dan Roth | Subhro Roy | Jesse Rusak | Beth Short | Div Slomin | Ben Snyder | Stephon Striplin | Yu Su | Zachary Tellman | Sam Thomson | Andrei Vorobev | Izabela Witoszko | Jason Wolfe | Abby Wray | Yuchen Zhang | Alexander Zotov
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 8

We describe an approach to task-oriented dialogue in which dialogue state is represented as a dataflow graph. A dialogue agent maps each user utterance to a program that extends this graph. Programs include metacomputation operators for reference and revision that reuse dataflow fragments from previous turns. Our graph-based state enables the expression and manipulation of complex user intents, and explicit metacomputation makes these intents easier for learned models to predict. We introduce a new dataset, SMCalFlow, featuring complex dialogues about events, weather, places, and people. Experiments show that dataflow graphs and metacomputation substantially improve representability and predictability in these natural dialogues. Additional experiments on the MultiWOZ dataset show that our dataflow representation enables an otherwise off-the-shelf sequence-to-sequence model to match the best existing task-specific state tracking model. The SMCalFlow dataset, code for replicating experiments, and a public leaderboard are available at https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/project/dataflow-based-dialogue-semantic-machines.

2012

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Syntactic Transfer Using a Bilingual Lexicon
Greg Durrett | Adam Pauls | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning

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Large-Scale Syntactic Language Modeling with Treelets
Adam Pauls | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2011

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Faster and Smaller N-Gram Language Models
Adam Pauls | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

2010

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Unsupervised Syntactic Alignment with Inversion Transduction Grammars
Adam Pauls | Dan Klein | David Chiang | Kevin Knight
Human Language Technologies: The 2010 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Bayesian Inference for Finite-State Transducers
David Chiang | Jonathan Graehl | Kevin Knight | Adam Pauls | Sujith Ravi
Human Language Technologies: The 2010 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Top-Down K-Best A* Parsing
Adam Pauls | Dan Klein | Chris Quirk
Proceedings of the ACL 2010 Conference Short Papers

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Efficient Optimization of an MDL-Inspired Objective Function for Unsupervised Part-Of-Speech Tagging
Ashish Vaswani | Adam Pauls | David Chiang
Proceedings of the ACL 2010 Conference Short Papers

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Hierarchical A* Parsing with Bridge Outside Scores
Adam Pauls | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the ACL 2010 Conference Short Papers

2009

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K-Best A* Parsing
Adam Pauls | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the 47th Annual Meeting of the ACL and the 4th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing of the AFNLP

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Asynchronous Binarization for Synchronous Grammars
John DeNero | Adam Pauls | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the ACL-IJCNLP 2009 Conference Short Papers

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Consensus Training for Consensus Decoding in Machine Translation
Adam Pauls | John DeNero | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Efficient Parsing for Transducer Grammars
John DeNero | Mohit Bansal | Adam Pauls | Dan Klein
Proceedings of Human Language Technologies: The 2009 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Hierarchical Search for Parsing
Adam Pauls | Dan Klein
Proceedings of Human Language Technologies: The 2009 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

2007

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Learning Structured Models for Phone Recognition
Slav Petrov | Adam Pauls | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 2007 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning (EMNLP-CoNLL)

2006

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Multi-Document Summarization of Evaluative Text
Giuseppe Carenini | Raymond Ng | Adam Pauls
11th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics