Label smoothing has been shown to be an effective regularization strategy in classification, that prevents overfitting and helps in label de-noising. However, extending such methods directly to seq2seq settings, such as Machine Translation, is challenging: the large target output space of such problems makes it intractable to apply label smoothing over all possible outputs. Most existing approaches for seq2seq settings either do token level smoothing, or smooth over sequences generated by randomly substituting tokens in the target sequence. Unlike these works, in this paper, we propose a technique that smooths over well formed relevant sequences that not only have sufficient n-gram overlap with the target sequence, but are also semantically similar. Our method shows a consistent and significant improvement over the state-of-the-art techniques on different datasets.
Most work on multi-document summarization has focused on generic summarization of information present in each individual document set. However, the under-explored setting of update summarization, where the goal is to identify the new information present in each set, is of equal practical interest (e.g., presenting readers with updates on an evolving news topic). In this work, we present SupMMD, a novel technique for generic and update summarization based on the maximum mean discrepancy from kernel two-sample testing. SupMMD combines both supervised learning for salience and unsupervised learning for coverage and diversity. Further, we adapt multiple kernel learning to make use of similarity across multiple information sources (e.g., text features and knowledge based concepts). We show the efficacy of SupMMD in both generic and update summarization tasks by meeting or exceeding the current state-of-the-art on the DUC-2004 and TAC-2009 datasets.