Aditya Tiwari


pdf bib
Data Augmentation for Training Dialog Models Robust to Speech Recognition Errors
Longshaokan Wang | Maryam Fazel-Zarandi | Aditya Tiwari | Spyros Matsoukas | Lazaros Polymenakos
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Conversational AI

Speech-based virtual assistants, such as Amazon Alexa, Google assistant, and Apple Siri, typically convert users’ audio signals to text data through automatic speech recognition (ASR) and feed the text to downstream dialog models for natural language understanding and response generation. The ASR output is error-prone; however, the downstream dialog models are often trained on error-free text data, making them sensitive to ASR errors during inference time. To bridge the gap and make dialog models more robust to ASR errors, we leverage an ASR error simulator to inject noise into the error-free text data, and subsequently train the dialog models with the augmented data. Compared to other approaches for handling ASR errors, such as using ASR lattice or end-to-end methods, our data augmentation approach does not require any modification to the ASR or downstream dialog models; our approach also does not introduce any additional latency during inference time. We perform extensive experiments on benchmark data and show that our approach improves the performance of downstream dialog models in the presence of ASR errors, and it is particularly effective in the low-resource situations where there are constraints on model size or the training data is scarce.

pdf bib
Joint Turn and Dialogue level User Satisfaction Estimation on Multi-Domain Conversations
Praveen Kumar Bodigutla | Aditya Tiwari | Spyros Matsoukas | Josep Valls-Vargas | Lazaros Polymenakos
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Dialogue level quality estimation is vital for optimizing data driven dialogue management. Current automated methods to estimate turn and dialogue level user satisfaction employ hand-crafted features and rely on complex annotation schemes, which reduce the generalizability of the trained models. We propose a novel user satisfaction estimation approach which minimizes an adaptive multi-task loss function in order to jointly predict turn-level Response Quality labels provided by experts and explicit dialogue-level ratings provided by end users. The proposed BiLSTM based deep neural net model automatically weighs each turn’s contribution towards the estimated dialogue-level rating, implicitly encodes temporal dependencies, and removes the need to hand-craft features. On dialogues sampled from 28 Alexa domains, two dialogue systems and three user groups, the joint dialogue-level satisfaction estimation model achieved up to an absolute 27% (0.43 -> 0.70) and 7% (0.63 -> 0.70) improvement in linear correlation performance over baseline deep neural net and benchmark Gradient boosting regression models, respectively.