Aditya Yadavalli


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Exploring the Effect of Dialect Mismatched Language Models in Telugu Automatic Speech Recognition
Aditya Yadavalli | Ganesh Sai Mirishkar | Anil Vuppala
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Student Research Workshop

Previous research has found that Acoustic Models (AM) of an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system are susceptible to dialect variations within a language, thereby adversely affecting the ASR. To counter this, researchers have proposed to build a dialect-specific AM while keeping the Language Model (LM) constant for all the dialects. This study explores the effect of dialect mismatched LM by considering three different Telugu regional dialects: Telangana, Coastal Andhra, and Rayalaseema. We show that dialect variations that surface in the form of a different lexicon, grammar, and occasionally semantics can significantly degrade the performance of the LM under mismatched conditions. Therefore, this degradation has an adverse effect on the ASR even when dialect-specific AM is used. We show a degradation of up to 13.13 perplexity points when LM is used under mismatched conditions. Furthermore, we show a degradation of over 9% and over 15% in Character Error Rate (CER) and Word Error Rate (WER), respectively, in the ASR systems when using mismatched LMs over matched LMs.


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IE-CPS Lexicon: An Automatic Speech Recognition Oriented Indian-English Pronunciation Dictionary
Shelly Jain | Aditya Yadavalli | Ganesh Mirishkar | Chiranjeevi Yarra | Anil Kumar Vuppala
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON)

Indian English (IE), on the surface, seems quite similar to standard English. However, closer observation shows that it has actually been influenced by the surrounding vernacular languages at several levels from phonology to vocabulary and syntax. Due to this, automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems developed for American or British varieties of English result in poor performance on Indian English data. The most prominent feature of Indian English is the characteristic pronunciation of the speakers. The systems are unable to learn these acoustic variations while modelling and cannot parse the non-standard articulation of non-native speakers. For this purpose, we propose a new phone dictionary developed based on the Indian language Common Phone Set (CPS). The dictionary maps the phone set of American English to existing Indian phones based on perceptual similarity. This dictionary is named Indian English Common Phone Set (IE-CPS). Using this, we build an Indian English ASR system and compare its performance with an American English ASR system on speech data of both varieties of English. Our experiments on the IE-CPS show that it is quite effective at modelling the pronunciation of the average speaker of Indian English. ASR systems trained on Indian English data perform much better when modelled using IE-CPS, achieving a reduction in the word error rate (WER) of upto 3.95% when used in place of CMUdict. This shows the need for a different lexicon for Indian English.

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An Investigation of Hybrid architectures for Low Resource Multilingual Speech Recognition system in Indian context
Ganesh Mirishkar | Aditya Yadavalli | Anil Kumar Vuppala
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON)

India is a land of language diversity. There are approximately 2000 languages spoken around, and among which officially registered are 23. In those, there are very few with Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) capability. The reason for this is the fact that building an ASR system requires thousands of hours of annotated speech data, a vast amount of text, and a lexicon that can span all the words in the language. At the same time, it is observed that Indian languages share a common phonetic base. In this work, we build a multilingual speech recognition system for low-resource languages by leveraging the shared phonetic space. Deep Neural architectures play a vital role in improving the performance of low-resource ASR systems. The typical strategy used to train the multilingual acoustic model is merging various languages as a unified group. In this paper, the speech recognition system is built using six Indian languages, namely Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi, Odia, Tamil, and Telugu. Various state-of-the-art experiments were performed using different acoustic modeling and language modeling techniques.