Current image description generation models do not transfer well to the task of describing human faces. To encourage the development of more human-focused descriptions, we developed a new data set of facial descriptions based on the CelebA image data set. We describe the properties of this data set, and present results from a face description generator trained on it, which explores the feasibility of using transfer learning from VGGFace/ResNet CNNs. Comparisons are drawn through both automated metrics and human evaluation by 76 English-speaking participants. The descriptions generated by the VGGFace-LSTM + Attention model are closest to the ground truth according to human evaluation whilst the ResNet-LSTM + Attention model obtained the highest CIDEr and CIDEr-D results (1.252 and 0.686 respectively). Together, the new data set and these experimental results provide data and baselines for future work in this area.
We present SpatialVOC2K, the first multilingual image dataset with spatial relation annotations and object features for image-to-text generation, built using 2,026 images from the PASCAL VOC2008 dataset. The dataset incorporates (i) the labelled object bounding boxes from VOC2008, (ii) geometrical, language and depth features for each object, and (iii) for each pair of objects in both orders, (a) the single best preposition and (b) the set of possible prepositions in the given language that describe the spatial relationship between the two objects. Compared to previous versions of the dataset, we have roughly doubled the size for French, and completely reannotated as well as increased the size of the English portion, providing single best prepositions for English for the first time. Furthermore, we have added explicit 3D depth features for objects. We are releasing our dataset for free reuse, along with evaluation tools to enable comparative evaluation.
Detection of spatial relations between objects in images is currently a popular subject in image description research. A range of different language and geometric object features have been used in this context, but methods have not so far used explicit information about the third dimension (depth), except when manually added to annotations. The lack of such information hampers detection of spatial relations that are inherently 3D. In this paper, we use a fully automatic method for creating a depth map of an image and derive several different object-level depth features from it which we add to an existing feature set to test the effect on spatial relation detection. We show that performance increases are obtained from adding depth features in all scenarios tested.
In this paper, a retrieval-based caption generation system that searches the web for suitable image descriptions is studied. Google’s reverse image search is used to find potentially relevant web multimedia content for query images. Sentences are extracted from web pages and the likelihood of the descriptions is computed to select one sentence from the retrieved text documents. The search mechanism is modified to replace the caption generated by Google with a caption composed of labels and spatial prepositions as part of the query’s text alongside the image. The object labels are obtained using an off-the-shelf R-CNN and a machine learning model is developed to predict the prepositions. The effect on the caption generation system performance when using the generated text is investigated. Both human evaluations and automatic metrics are used to evaluate the retrieved descriptions. Results show that the web-retrieval-based approach performed better when describing single-object images with sentences extracted from stock photography websites. On the other hand, images with two image objects were better described with template-generated sentences composed of object labels and prepositions.