Afra Feyza Akyürek


2022

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On Measuring Social Biases in Prompt-Based Multi-Task Learning
Afra Feyza Akyürek | Sejin Paik | Muhammed Kocyigit | Seda Akbiyik | Serife Leman Runyun | Derry Wijaya
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Large language models trained on a mixture of NLP tasks that are converted into a text-to-text format using prompts, can generalize into novel forms of language and handle novel tasks. A large body of work within prompt engineering attempts to understand the effects of input forms and prompts in achieving superior performance. We consider an alternative measure and inquire whether the way in which an input is encoded affects social biases promoted in outputs. In this paper, we study T0, a large-scale multi-task text-to-text language model trained using prompt-based learning. We consider two different forms of semantically equivalent inputs: question-answer format and premise-hypothesis format. We use an existing bias benchmark for the former BBQ and create the first bias benchmark in natural language inference BBNLI with hand-written hypotheses while also converting each benchmark into the other form. The results on two benchmarks suggest that given two different formulations of essentially the same input, T0 conspicuously acts more biased in question answering form, which is seen during training, compared to premise-hypothesis form which is unlike its training examples. Code and data are released under https://github.com/feyzaakyurek/bbnli.

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Challenges in Measuring Bias via Open-Ended Language Generation
Afra Feyza Akyürek | Muhammed Yusuf Kocyigit | Sejin Paik | Derry Tanti Wijaya
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Gender Bias in Natural Language Processing (GeBNLP)

Researchers have devised numerous ways to quantify social biases vested in pretrained language models. As some language models are capable of generating coherent completions given a set of textual prompts, several prompting datasets have been proposed to measure biases between social groups—posing language generation as a way of identifying biases. In this opinion paper, we analyze how specific choices of prompt sets, metrics, automatic tools and sampling strategies affect bias results. We find out that the practice of measuring biases through text completion is prone to yielding contradicting results under different experiment settings. We additionally provide recommendations for reporting biases in open-ended language generation for a more complete outlook of biases exhibited by a given language model. Code to reproduce the results is released under https://github.com/feyzaakyurek/bias-textgen.

2021

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IndoCollex: A Testbed for Morphological Transformation of Indonesian Colloquial Words
Haryo Akbarianto Wibowo | Made Nindyatama Nityasya | Afra Feyza Akyürek | Suci Fitriany | Alham Fikri Aji | Radityo Eko Prasojo | Derry Tanti Wijaya
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

2020

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Multi-Label and Multilingual News Framing Analysis
Afra Feyza Akyürek | Lei Guo | Randa Elanwar | Prakash Ishwar | Margrit Betke | Derry Tanti Wijaya
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

News framing refers to the practice in which aspects of specific issues are highlighted in the news to promote a particular interpretation. In NLP, although recent works have studied framing in English news, few have studied how the analysis can be extended to other languages and in a multi-label setting. In this work, we explore multilingual transfer learning to detect multiple frames from just the news headline in a genuinely low-resource context where there are few/no frame annotations in the target language. We propose a novel method that can leverage elementary resources consisting of a dictionary and few annotations to detect frames in the target language. Our method performs comparably or better than translating the entire target language headline to the source language for which we have annotated data. This work opens up an exciting new capability of scaling up frame analysis to many languages, even those without existing translation technologies. Lastly, we apply our method to detect frames on the issue of U.S. gun violence in multiple languages and obtain exciting insights on the relationship between different frames of the same problem across different countries with different languages.