Ahmed Ruby


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Unpacking Ambiguous Structure: A Dataset for Ambiguous Implicit Discourse Relations for English and Egyptian Arabic
Ahmed Ruby | Sara Stymne | Christian Hardmeier
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Discourse (CODI 2023)

In this paper, we present principles of constructing and resolving ambiguity in implicit discourse relations. Following these principles, we created a dataset in both English and Egyptian Arabic that controls for semantic disambiguation, enabling the investigation of prosodic features in future work. In these datasets, examples are two-part sentences with an implicit discourse relation that can be ambiguously read as either causal or concessive, paired with two different preceding context sentences forcing either the causal or the concessive reading. We also validated both datasets by humans and language models (LMs) to study whether context can help humans or LMs resolve ambiguities of implicit relations and identify the intended relation. As a result, this task posed no difficulty for humans, but proved challenging for BERT/CamelBERT and ELECTRA/AraELECTRA models.


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A Mention-Based System for Revision Requirements Detection
Ahmed Ruby | Christian Hardmeier | Sara Stymne
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Understanding Implicit and Underspecified Language

Exploring aspects of sentential meaning that are implicit or underspecified in context is important for sentence understanding. In this paper, we propose a novel architecture based on mentions for revision requirements detection. The goal is to improve understandability, addressing some types of revisions, especially for the Replaced Pronoun type. We show that our mention-based system can predict replaced pronouns well on the mention-level. However, our combined sentence-level system does not improve on the sentence-level BERT baseline. We also present additional contrastive systems, and show results for each type of edit.