Ajinkya Kale


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Fine-grained Image Captioning with CLIP Reward
Jaemin Cho | Seunghyun Yoon | Ajinkya Kale | Franck Dernoncourt | Trung Bui | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Modern image captioning models are usually trained with text similarity objectives. However, since reference captions in public datasets often describe the most salient common objects, models trained with the text similarity objectives tend to ignore specific and detailed aspects of an image that distinguish it from others. Towards more descriptive and distinctive caption generation, we propose to use CLIP, a multimodal encoder trained on huge image-text pairs from the web, to calculate multi-modal similarity and use it as a reward function. We also propose a simple finetuning strategy of CLIP text encoder to improve grammar that does not require extra text annotation. This completely eliminates the need for reference captions during the reward computation. To comprehensively evaluate descriptive captions, we introduce FineCapEval, a new dataset for caption evaluation with fine-grained criteria: overall, background, object, relations. In our experiments on text-to-image retrieval and FineCapEval, the proposed CLIP-guided model generates more distinctive captions than the CIDEroptimized model. We also show that our unsupervised grammar finetuning of the CLIP text encoder alleviates the degeneration problem of the naive CLIP reward. Lastly, we show human analysis where the annotators strongly prefer CLIP reward to CIDEr and MLE objectives on diverse criteria.


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Search Query Language Identification Using Weak Labeling
Ritiz Tambi | Ajinkya Kale | Tracy Holloway King
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Language identification is a well-known task for natural language documents. In this paper we explore search query language identification which is usually the first task before any other query understanding. Without loss of generalization, we run our experiments on the Adobe Stock search engine. Even though the domain is relatively generic because Adobe Stock queries cover a broad range of objects and concepts, out-of-the-box language identifiers do not perform well due to the extremely short text found in queries. Unlike other well-studied supervised approaches for this task, we examine a practical approach for the cold start problem for automatically getting large-scale query-language pairs for training. We describe the process of creating weak-labeled training data and then human-annotated evaluation data for the search query language identification task. The effectiveness of this technique is demonstrated by training a gradient boosting model for language classification given a query. We out-perform the open domain text model baselines by a large margin.