Ajinkya Kulkarni


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The Balancing Act: Unmasking and Alleviating ASR Biases in Portuguese
Ajinkya Kulkarni | Anna Tokareva | Rameez Qureshi | Miguel Couceiro
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Language Technology for Equality, Diversity, Inclusion

In the field of spoken language understanding, systems like Whisper and Multilingual Massive Speech (MMS) have shown state-of-the-art performances. This study is dedicated to a comprehensive exploration of the Whisper and MMS systems, with a focus on assessing biases in automatic speech recognition (ASR) inherent to casual conversation speech specific to the Portuguese language. Our investigation encompasses various categories, including gender, age, skin tone color, and geo-location. Alongside traditional ASR evaluation metrics such as Word Error Rate (WER), we have incorporated p-value statistical significance for gender bias analysis. Furthermore, we extensively examine the impact of data distribution and empirically show that oversampling techniques alleviate such stereotypical biases. This research represents a pioneering effort in quantifying biases in the Portuguese language context through the application of MMS and Whisper, contributing to a better understanding of ASR systems’ performance in multilingual settings.


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ArTST: Arabic Text and Speech Transformer
Hawau Toyin | Amirbek Djanibekov | Ajinkya Kulkarni | Hanan Aldarmaki
Proceedings of ArabicNLP 2023

We present ArTST, a pre-trained Arabic text and speech transformer for supporting open-source speech technologies for the Arabic language. The model architecture follows the unified-modal framework, SpeechT5, that was recently released for English, and is focused on Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), with plans to extend the model for dialectal and code-switched Arabic in future editions. We pre-trained the model from scratch on MSA speech and text data, and fine-tuned it for the following tasks: Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), Text-To-Speech synthesis (TTS), and spoken dialect identification. In our experiments comparing ArTST with SpeechT5, as well as with previously reported results in these tasks, ArTST performs on a par with or exceeding the current state-of-the-art in all three tasks. Moreover, we find that our pre-training is conducive for generalization, which is particularly evident in the low-resource TTS task. The pre-trained model as well as the fine-tuned ASR and TTS models are released for research use.

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Yet Another Model for Arabic Dialect Identification
Ajinkya Kulkarni | Hanan Aldarmaki
Proceedings of ArabicNLP 2023

In this paper, we describe a spoken Arabic dialect identification (ADI) model for Arabic that consistently outperforms previously published results on two benchmark datasets: ADI-5 and ADI-17. We explore two architectural variations: ResNet and ECAPA-TDNN, coupled with two types of acoustic features: MFCCs and features exratected from the pre-trained self-supervised model UniSpeech-SAT Large, as well as a fusion of all four variants. We find that individually, ECAPA-TDNN network outperforms ResNet, and models with UniSpeech-SAT features outperform models with MFCCs by a large margin. Furthermore, a fusion of all four variants consistently outperforms individual models. Our best models outperform previously reported results on both datasets, with accuracies of 84.7% and 96.9% on ADI-5 and ADI-17, respectively.


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GECko+: a Grammatical and Discourse Error Correction Tool
Eduardo Calò | Léo Jacqmin | Thibo Rosemplatt | Maxime Amblard | Miguel Couceiro | Ajinkya Kulkarni
Actes de la 28e Conférence sur le Traitement Automatique des Langues Naturelles. Volume 3 : Démonstrations

GECko+ : a Grammatical and Discourse Error Correction Tool We introduce GECko+, a web-based writing assistance tool for English that corrects errors both at the sentence and at the discourse level. It is based on two state-of-the-art models for grammar error correction and sentence ordering. GECko+ is available online as a web application that implements a pipeline combining the two models.