Aldo Lipani


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Learning to Execute Actions or Ask Clarification Questions
Zhengxiang Shi | Yue Feng | Aldo Lipani
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Collaborative tasks are ubiquitous activities where a form of communication is required in order to reach a joint goal. Collaborative building is one of such tasks. We wish to develop an intelligent builder agent in a simulated building environment (Minecraft) that can build whatever users wish to build by just talking to the agent. In order to achieve this goal, such agents need to be able to take the initiative by asking clarification questions when further information is needed. Existing works on Minecraft Corpus Dataset only learn to execute instructions neglecting the importance of asking for clarifications. In this paper, we extend the Minecraft Corpus Dataset by annotating all builder utterances into eight types, including clarification questions, and propose a new builder agent model capable of determining when to ask or execute instructions. Experimental results show that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on the collaborative building task with a substantial improvement. We also define two new tasks, the learning to ask task and the joint learning task. The latter consists of solving both collaborating building and learning to ask tasks jointly.

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Dynamic Schema Graph Fusion Network for Multi-Domain Dialogue State Tracking
Yue Feng | Aldo Lipani | Fanghua Ye | Qiang Zhang | Emine Yilmaz
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Dialogue State Tracking (DST) aims to keep track of users’ intentions during the course of a conversation. In DST, modelling the relations among domains and slots is still an under-studied problem. Existing approaches that have considered such relations generally fall short in: (1) fusing prior slot-domain membership relations and dialogue-aware dynamic slot relations explicitly, and (2) generalizing to unseen domains. To address these issues, we propose a novel Dynamic Schema Graph Fusion Network (DSGFNet), which generates a dynamic schema graph to explicitly fuse the prior slot-domain membership relations and dialogue-aware dynamic slot relations. It also uses the schemata to facilitate knowledge transfer to new domains. DSGFNet consists of a dialogue utterance encoder, a schema graph encoder, a dialogue-aware schema graph evolving network, and a schema graph enhanced dialogue state decoder. Empirical results on benchmark datasets (i.e., SGD, MultiWOZ2.1, and MultiWOZ2.2), show that DSGFNet outperforms existing methods.


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Subsequence Based Deep Active Learning for Named Entity Recognition
Puria Radmard | Yassir Fathullah | Aldo Lipani
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Active Learning (AL) has been successfully applied to Deep Learning in order to drastically reduce the amount of data required to achieve high performance. Previous works have shown that lightweight architectures for Named Entity Recognition (NER) can achieve optimal performance with only 25% of the original training data. However, these methods do not exploit the sequential nature of language and the heterogeneity of uncertainty within each instance, requiring the labelling of whole sentences. Additionally, this standard method requires that the annotator has access to the full sentence when labelling. In this work, we overcome these limitations by allowing the AL algorithm to query subsequences within sentences, and propagate their labels to other sentences. We achieve highly efficient results on OntoNotes 5.0, only requiring 13% of the original training data, and CoNLL 2003, requiring only 27%. This is an improvement of 39% and 37% compared to querying full sentences.