Alexandra Birch


2021

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Surprise Language Challenge: Developing a Neural Machine Translation System between Pashto and English in Two Months
Alexandra Birch | Barry Haddow | Antonio Valerio Miceli Barone | Jindrich Helcl | Jonas Waldendorf | Felipe Sánchez Martínez | Mikel Forcada | Víctor Sánchez Cartagena | Juan Antonio Pérez-Ortiz | Miquel Esplà-Gomis | Wilker Aziz | Lina Murady | Sevi Sariisik | Peggy van der Kreeft | Kay Macquarrie
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XVIII: Research Track

In the media industry and the focus of global reporting can shift overnight. There is a compelling need to be able to develop new machine translation systems in a short period of time and in order to more efficiently cover quickly developing stories. As part of the EU project GoURMET and which focusses on low-resource machine translation and our media partners selected a surprise language for which a machine translation system had to be built and evaluated in two months(February and March 2021). The language selected was Pashto and an Indo-Iranian language spoken in Afghanistan and Pakistan and India. In this period we completed the full pipeline of development of a neural machine translation system: data crawling and cleaning and aligning and creating test sets and developing and testing models and and delivering them to the user partners. In this paperwe describe rapid data creation and experiments with transfer learning and pretraining for this low-resource language pair. We find that starting from an existing large model pre-trained on 50languages leads to far better BLEU scores than pretraining on one high-resource language pair with a smaller model. We also present human evaluation of our systems and which indicates that the resulting systems perform better than a freely available commercial system when translating from English into Pashto direction and and similarly when translating from Pashto into English.

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Few-shot learning through contextual data augmentation
Farid Arthaud | Rachel Bawden | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Machine translation (MT) models used in industries with constantly changing topics, such as translation or news agencies, need to adapt to new data to maintain their performance over time. Our aim is to teach a pre-trained MT model to translate previously unseen words accurately, based on very few examples. We propose (i) an experimental setup allowing us to simulate novel vocabulary appearing in human-submitted translations, and (ii) corresponding evaluation metrics to compare our approaches. We extend a data augmentation approach using a pretrained language model to create training examples with similar contexts for novel words. We compare different fine-tuning and data augmentation approaches and show that adaptation on the scale of one to five examples is possible. Combining data augmentation with randomly selected training sentences leads to the highest BLEU score and accuracy improvements. Impressively, with only 1 to 5 examples, our model reports better accuracy scores than a reference system trained with on average 313 parallel examples.

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Exploring Unsupervised Pretraining Objectives for Machine Translation
Christos Baziotis | Ivan Titov | Alexandra Birch | Barry Haddow
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

2020

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Multiword Expression aware Neural Machine Translation
Andrea Zaninello | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Multiword Expressions (MWEs) are a frequently occurring phenomenon found in all natural languages that is of great importance to linguistic theory, natural language processing applications, and machine translation systems. Neural Machine Translation (NMT) architectures do not handle these expressions well and previous studies have rarely addressed MWEs in this framework. In this work, we show that annotation and data augmentation, using external linguistic resources, can improve both translation of MWEs that occur in the source, and the generation of MWEs on the target, and increase performance by up to 5.09 BLEU points on MWE test sets. We also devise a MWE score to specifically assess the quality of MWE translation which agrees with human evaluation. We make available the MWE score implementation – along with MWE-annotated training sets and corpus-based lists of MWEs – for reproduction and extension.

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The University of Edinburgh’s English-Tamil and English-Inuktitut Submissions to the WMT20 News Translation Task
Rachel Bawden | Alexandra Birch | Radina Dobreva | Arturo Oncevay | Antonio Valerio Miceli Barone | Philip Williams
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

We describe the University of Edinburgh’s submissions to the WMT20 news translation shared task for the low resource language pair English-Tamil and the mid-resource language pair English-Inuktitut. We use the neural machine translation transformer architecture for all submissions and explore a variety of techniques to improve translation quality to compensate for the lack of parallel training data. For the very low-resource English-Tamil, this involves exploring pretraining, using both language model objectives and translation using an unrelated high-resource language pair (German-English), and iterative backtranslation. For English-Inuktitut, we explore the use of multilingual systems, which, despite not being part of the primary submission, would have achieved the best results on the test set.

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Bridging Linguistic Typology and Multilingual Machine Translation with Multi-View Language Representations
Arturo Oncevay | Barry Haddow | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Sparse language vectors from linguistic typology databases and learned embeddings from tasks like multilingual machine translation have been investigated in isolation, without analysing how they could benefit from each other’s language characterisation. We propose to fuse both views using singular vector canonical correlation analysis and study what kind of information is induced from each source. By inferring typological features and language phylogenies, we observe that our representations embed typology and strengthen correlations with language relationships. We then take advantage of our multi-view language vector space for multilingual machine translation, where we achieve competitive overall translation accuracy in tasks that require information about language similarities, such as language clustering and ranking candidates for multilingual transfer. With our method, we can easily project and assess new languages without expensive retraining of massive multilingual or ranking models, which are major disadvantages of related approaches.

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Language Model Prior for Low-Resource Neural Machine Translation
Christos Baziotis | Barry Haddow | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

The scarcity of large parallel corpora is an important obstacle for neural machine translation. A common solution is to exploit the knowledge of language models (LM) trained on abundant monolingual data. In this work, we propose a novel approach to incorporate a LM as prior in a neural translation model (TM). Specifically, we add a regularization term, which pushes the output distributions of the TM to be probable under the LM prior, while avoiding wrong predictions when the TM “disagrees” with the LM. This objective relates to knowledge distillation, where the LM can be viewed as teaching the TM about the target language. The proposed approach does not compromise decoding speed, because the LM is used only at training time, unlike previous work that requires it during inference. We present an analysis of the effects that different methods have on the distributions of the TM. Results on two low-resource machine translation datasets show clear improvements even with limited monolingual data.

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Architecture of a Scalable, Secure and Resilient Translation Platform for Multilingual News Media
Susie Coleman | Andrew Secker | Rachel Bawden | Barry Haddow | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Language Technology Platforms

This paper presents an example architecture for a scalable, secure and resilient Machine Translation (MT) platform, using components available via Amazon Web Services (AWS). It is increasingly common for a single news organisation to publish and monitor news sources in multiple languages. A growth in news sources makes this increasingly challenging and time-consuming but MT can help automate some aspects of this process. Building a translation service provides a single integration point for news room tools that use translation technology allowing MT models to be integrated into a system once, rather than each time the translation technology is needed. By using a range of services provided by AWS, it is possible to architect a platform where multiple pre-existing technologies are combined to build a solution, as opposed to developing software from scratch for deployment on a single virtual machine. This increases the speed at which a platform can be developed and allows the use of well-maintained services. However, a single service also provides challenges. It is key to consider how the platform will scale when handling many users and how to ensure the platform is resilient.

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Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation
Alexandra Birch | Andrew Finch | Hiroaki Hayashi | Kenneth Heafield | Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt | Ioannis Konstas | Xian Li | Graham Neubig | Yusuke Oda
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

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Findings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation
Kenneth Heafield | Hiroaki Hayashi | Yusuke Oda | Ioannis Konstas | Andrew Finch | Graham Neubig | Xian Li | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

We describe the finding of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation, held in concert with the annual conference of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2020). First, we summarize the research trends of papers presented in the proceedings. Second, we describe the results of the three shared tasks 1) efficient neural machine translation (NMT) where participants were tasked with creating NMT systems that are both accurate and efficient, and 2) document-level generation and translation (DGT) where participants were tasked with developing systems that generate summaries from structured data, potentially with assistance from text in another language and 3) STAPLE task: creation of as many possible translations of a given input text. This last shared task was organised by Duolingo.

2019

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Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation
Alexandra Birch | Andrew Finch | Hiroaki Hayashi | Ioannis Konstas | Thang Luong | Graham Neubig | Yusuke Oda | Katsuhito Sudoh
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

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Findings of the Third Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation
Hiroaki Hayashi | Yusuke Oda | Alexandra Birch | Ioannis Konstas | Andrew Finch | Minh-Thang Luong | Graham Neubig | Katsuhito Sudoh
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

This document describes the findings of the Third Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation, held in concert with the annual conference of the Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP 2019). First, we summarize the research trends of papers presented in the proceedings. Second, we describe the results of the two shared tasks 1) efficient neural machine translation (NMT) where participants were tasked with creating NMT systems that are both accurate and efficient, and 2) document generation and translation (DGT) where participants were tasked with developing systems that generate summaries from structured data, potentially with assistance from text in another language.

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On the Importance of Word Boundaries in Character-level Neural Machine Translation
Duygu Ataman | Orhan Firat | Mattia A. Di Gangi | Marcello Federico | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

Neural Machine Translation (NMT) models generally perform translation using a fixed-size lexical vocabulary, which is an important bottleneck on their generalization capability and overall translation quality. The standard approach to overcome this limitation is to segment words into subword units, typically using some external tools with arbitrary heuristics, resulting in vocabulary units not optimized for the translation task. Recent studies have shown that the same approach can be extended to perform NMT directly at the level of characters, which can deliver translation accuracy on-par with subword-based models, on the other hand, this requires relatively deeper networks. In this paper, we propose a more computationally-efficient solution for character-level NMT which implements a hierarchical decoding architecture where translations are subsequently generated at the level of words and characters. We evaluate different methods for open-vocabulary NMT in the machine translation task from English into five languages with distinct morphological typology, and show that the hierarchical decoding model can reach higher translation accuracy than the subword-level NMT model using significantly fewer parameters, while demonstrating better capacity in learning longer-distance contextual and grammatical dependencies than the standard character-level NMT model.

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The University of Edinburgh’s Submissions to the WMT19 News Translation Task
Rachel Bawden | Nikolay Bogoychev | Ulrich Germann | Roman Grundkiewicz | Faheem Kirefu | Antonio Valerio Miceli Barone | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)

The University of Edinburgh participated in the WMT19 Shared Task on News Translation in six language directions: English↔Gujarati, English↔Chinese, German→English, and English→Czech. For all translation directions, we created or used back-translations of monolingual data in the target language as additional synthetic training data. For English↔Gujarati, we also explored semi-supervised MT with cross-lingual language model pre-training, and translation pivoting through Hindi. For translation to and from Chinese, we investigated character-based tokenisation vs. sub-word segmentation of Chinese text. For German→English, we studied the impact of vast amounts of back-translated training data on translation quality, gaining a few additional insights over Edunov et al. (2018). For English→Czech, we compared different preprocessing and tokenisation regimes.

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Global Under-Resourced Media Translation (GoURMET)
Alexandra Birch | Barry Haddow | Ivan Tito | Antonio Valerio Miceli Barone | Rachel Bawden | Felipe Sánchez-Martínez | Mikel L. Forcada | Miquel Esplà-Gomis | Víctor Sánchez-Cartagena | Juan Antonio Pérez-Ortiz | Wilker Aziz | Andrew Secker | Peggy van der Kreeft
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XVII: Translator, Project and User Tracks

2018

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Evaluating Discourse Phenomena in Neural Machine Translation
Rachel Bawden | Rico Sennrich | Alexandra Birch | Barry Haddow
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

For machine translation to tackle discourse phenomena, models must have access to extra-sentential linguistic context. There has been recent interest in modelling context in neural machine translation (NMT), but models have been principally evaluated with standard automatic metrics, poorly adapted to evaluating discourse phenomena. In this article, we present hand-crafted, discourse test sets, designed to test the models’ ability to exploit previous source and target sentences. We investigate the performance of recently proposed multi-encoder NMT models trained on subtitles for English to French. We also explore a novel way of exploiting context from the previous sentence. Despite gains using BLEU, multi-encoder models give limited improvement in the handling of discourse phenomena: 50% accuracy on our coreference test set and 53.5% for coherence/cohesion (compared to a non-contextual baseline of 50%). A simple strategy of decoding the concatenation of the previous and current sentence leads to good performance, and our novel strategy of multi-encoding and decoding of two sentences leads to the best performance (72.5% for coreference and 57% for coherence/cohesion), highlighting the importance of target-side context.

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Marian: Fast Neural Machine Translation in C++
Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt | Roman Grundkiewicz | Tomasz Dwojak | Hieu Hoang | Kenneth Heafield | Tom Neckermann | Frank Seide | Ulrich Germann | Alham Fikri Aji | Nikolay Bogoychev | André F. T. Martins | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of ACL 2018, System Demonstrations

We present Marian, an efficient and self-contained Neural Machine Translation framework with an integrated automatic differentiation engine based on dynamic computation graphs. Marian is written entirely in C++. We describe the design of the encoder-decoder framework and demonstrate that a research-friendly toolkit can achieve high training and translation speed.

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Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Neural Machine Translation and Generation
Alexandra Birch | Andrew Finch | Thang Luong | Graham Neubig | Yusuke Oda
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Neural Machine Translation and Generation

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Findings of the Second Workshop on Neural Machine Translation and Generation
Alexandra Birch | Andrew Finch | Minh-Thang Luong | Graham Neubig | Yusuke Oda
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Neural Machine Translation and Generation

This document describes the findings of the Second Workshop on Neural Machine Translation and Generation, held in concert with the annual conference of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2018). First, we summarize the research trends of papers presented in the proceedings, and note that there is particular interest in linguistic structure, domain adaptation, data augmentation, handling inadequate resources, and analysis of models. Second, we describe the results of the workshop’s shared task on efficient neural machine translation, where participants were tasked with creating MT systems that are both accurate and efficient.

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Exploring gap filling as a cheaper alternative to reading comprehension questionnaires when evaluating machine translation for gisting
Mikel L. Forcada | Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia | Barry Haddow | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Research Papers

A popular application of machine translation (MT) is gisting: MT is consumed as is to make sense of text in a foreign language. Evaluation of the usefulness of MT for gisting is surprisingly uncommon. The classical method uses reading comprehension questionnaires (RCQ), in which informants are asked to answer professionally-written questions in their language about a foreign text that has been machine-translated into their language. Recently, gap-filling (GF), a form of cloze testing, has been proposed as a cheaper alternative to RCQ. In GF, certain words are removed from reference translations and readers are asked to fill the gaps left using the machine-translated text as a hint. This paper reports, for the first time, a comparative evaluation, using both RCQ and GF, of translations from multiple MT systems for the same foreign texts, and a systematic study on the effect of variables such as gap density, gap-selection strategies, and document context in GF. The main findings of the study are: (a) both RCQ and GF clearly identify MT to be useful; (b) global RCQ and GF rankings for the MT systems are mostly in agreement; (c) GF scores vary very widely across informants, making comparisons among MT systems hard, and (d) unlike RCQ, which is framed around documents, GF evaluation can be framed at the sentence level. These findings support the use of GF as a cheaper alternative to RCQ.

2017

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Proceedings of the First Workshop on Neural Machine Translation
Thang Luong | Alexandra Birch | Graham Neubig | Andrew Finch
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Neural Machine Translation

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Predicting Target Language CCG Supertags Improves Neural Machine Translation
Maria Nădejde | Siva Reddy | Rico Sennrich | Tomasz Dwojak | Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt | Philipp Koehn | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the Second Conference on Machine Translation

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Deep architectures for Neural Machine Translation
Antonio Valerio Miceli Barone | Jindřich Helcl | Rico Sennrich | Barry Haddow | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the Second Conference on Machine Translation

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The University of Edinburgh’s Neural MT Systems for WMT17
Rico Sennrich | Alexandra Birch | Anna Currey | Ulrich Germann | Barry Haddow | Kenneth Heafield | Antonio Valerio Miceli Barone | Philip Williams
Proceedings of the Second Conference on Machine Translation

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Nematus: a Toolkit for Neural Machine Translation
Rico Sennrich | Orhan Firat | Kyunghyun Cho | Alexandra Birch | Barry Haddow | Julian Hitschler | Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt | Samuel Läubli | Antonio Valerio Miceli Barone | Jozef Mokry | Maria Nădejde
Proceedings of the Software Demonstrations of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We present Nematus, a toolkit for Neural Machine Translation. The toolkit prioritizes high translation accuracy, usability, and extensibility. Nematus has been used to build top-performing submissions to shared translation tasks at WMT and IWSLT, and has been used to train systems for production environments.

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The SUMMA Platform Prototype
Renars Liepins | Ulrich Germann | Guntis Barzdins | Alexandra Birch | Steve Renals | Susanne Weber | Peggy van der Kreeft | Hervé Bourlard | João Prieto | Ondřej Klejch | Peter Bell | Alexandros Lazaridis | Alfonso Mendes | Sebastian Riedel | Mariana S. C. Almeida | Pedro Balage | Shay B. Cohen | Tomasz Dwojak | Philip N. Garner | Andreas Giefer | Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt | Hina Imran | David Nogueira | Ahmed Ali | Sebastião Miranda | Andrei Popescu-Belis | Lesly Miculicich Werlen | Nikos Papasarantopoulos | Abiola Obamuyide | Clive Jones | Fahim Dalvi | Andreas Vlachos | Yang Wang | Sibo Tong | Rico Sennrich | Nikolaos Pappas | Shashi Narayan | Marco Damonte | Nadir Durrani | Sameer Khurana | Ahmed Abdelali | Hassan Sajjad | Stephan Vogel | David Sheppey | Chris Hernon | Jeff Mitchell
Proceedings of the Software Demonstrations of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We present the first prototype of the SUMMA Platform: an integrated platform for multilingual media monitoring. The platform contains a rich suite of low-level and high-level natural language processing technologies: automatic speech recognition of broadcast media, machine translation, automated tagging and classification of named entities, semantic parsing to detect relationships between entities, and automatic construction / augmentation of factual knowledge bases. Implemented on the Docker platform, it can easily be deployed, customised, and scaled to large volumes of incoming media streams.

2016

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HUME: Human UCCA-Based Evaluation of Machine Translation
Alexandra Birch | Omri Abend | Ondřej Bojar | Barry Haddow
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Improving Neural Machine Translation Models with Monolingual Data
Rico Sennrich | Barry Haddow | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Neural Machine Translation of Rare Words with Subword Units
Rico Sennrich | Barry Haddow | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Modeling Selectional Preferences of Verbs and Nouns in String-to-Tree Machine Translation
Maria Nădejde | Alexandra Birch | Philipp Koehn
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 1, Research Papers

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Edinburgh Neural Machine Translation Systems for WMT 16
Rico Sennrich | Barry Haddow | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 2, Shared Task Papers

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Controlling Politeness in Neural Machine Translation via Side Constraints
Rico Sennrich | Barry Haddow | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

2015

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The Edinburgh/JHU Phrase-based Machine Translation Systems for WMT 2015
Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Alexandra Birch | Nikolay Bogoychev | Philipp Koehn
Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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The Edinburgh machine translation systems for IWSLT 2015
Matthias Huck | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

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Mixed domain vs. multi-domain statistical machine translation
Matthias Huck | Alexandra Birch | Barry Haddow
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XV: Papers

2014

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Generalizing a Strongly Lexicalized Parser using Unlabeled Data
Tejaswini Deoskar | Christos Christodoulopoulos | Alexandra Birch | Mark Steedman
Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Edinburgh SLT and MT system description for the IWSLT 2014 evaluation
Alexandra Birch | Matthias Huck | Nadir Durrani | Nikolay Bogoychev | Philipp Koehn
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

This paper describes the University of Edinburgh’s spoken language translation (SLT) and machine translation (MT) systems for the IWSLT 2014 evaluation campaign. In the SLT track, we participated in the German↔English and English→French tasks. In the MT track, we participated in the German↔English, English→French, Arabic↔English, Farsi→English, Hebrew→English, Spanish↔English, and Portuguese-Brazil↔English tasks. For our SLT submissions, we experimented with comparing operation sequence models with bilingual neural network language models. For our MT submissions, we explored using unsupervised transliteration for languages which have a different script than English, in particular for Arabic, Farsi, and Hebrew. We also investigated syntax-based translation and system combination.

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Combined spoken language translation
Markus Freitag | Joern Wuebker | Stephan Peitz | Hermann Ney | Matthias Huck | Alexandra Birch | Nadir Durrani | Philipp Koehn | Mohammed Mediani | Isabel Slawik | Jan Niehues | Eunach Cho | Alex Waibel | Nicola Bertoldi | Mauro Cettolo | Marcello Federico
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

EU-BRIDGE is a European research project which is aimed at developing innovative speech translation technology. One of the collaborative efforts within EU-BRIDGE is to produce joint submissions of up to four different partners to the evaluation campaign at the 2014 International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT). We submitted combined translations to the German→English spoken language translation (SLT) track as well as to the German→English, English→German and English→French machine translation (MT) tracks. In this paper, we present the techniques which were applied by the different individual translation systems of RWTH Aachen University, the University of Edinburgh, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, and Fondazione Bruno Kessler. We then show the combination approach developed at RWTH Aachen University which combined the individual systems. The consensus translations yield empirical gains of up to 2.3 points in BLEU and 1.2 points in TER compared to the best individual system.

2013

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The Feasibility of HMEANT as a Human MT Evaluation Metric
Alexandra Birch | Barry Haddow | Ulrich Germann | Maria Nadejde | Christian Buck | Philipp Koehn
Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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English SLT and MT system description for the IWSLT 2013 evaluation
Alexandra Birch | Nadir Durrani | Philipp Koehn
Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

This paper gives a description of the University of Edinburgh’s (UEDIN) systems for IWSLT 2013. We participated in all the MT tracks and the German-to-English and Englishto-French SLT tracks. Our SLT submissions experimented with including ASR uncertainty into the decoding process via confusion networks, and looked at different ways of punctuating ASR output. Our MT submissions are mainly based on a system used in the recent evaluation campaign at the Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation [1]. We additionally explored the use of generalized representations (Brown clusters, POS and morphological tags) translating out of English into European languages.

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The UEDIN English ASR system for the IWSLT 2013 evaluation
Peter Bell | Fergus McInnes | Siva Reddy Gangireddy | Mark Sinclair | Alexandra Birch | Steve Renals
Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

This paper describes the University of Edinburgh (UEDIN) English ASR system for the IWSLT 2013 Evaluation. Notable features of the system include deep neural network acoustic models in both tandem and hybrid configuration, cross-domain adaptation with multi-level adaptive networks, and the use of a recurrent neural network language model. Improvements to our system since the 2012 evaluation – which include the use of a significantly improved n-gram language model – result in a 19% relative WER reduction on the tst2012 set.

2011

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Simple Semi-Supervised Learning for Prepositional Phrase Attachment
Gregory F. Coppola | Alexandra Birch | Tejaswini Deoskar | Mark Steedman
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Parsing Technologies

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Soft Dependency Constraints for Reordering in Hierarchical Phrase-Based Translation
Yang Gao | Philipp Koehn | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Reordering Metrics for MT
Alexandra Birch | Miles Osborne
Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

2010

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LRscore for Evaluating Lexical and Reordering Quality in MT
Alexandra Birch | Miles Osborne
Proceedings of the Joint Fifth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and MetricsMATR

2009

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462 Machine Translation Systems for Europe
Philipp Koehn | Alexandra Birch | Ralf Steinberger
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XII: Papers

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A Quantitative Analysis of Reordering Phenomena
Alexandra Birch | Phil Blunsom | Miles Osborne
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

2008

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Predicting Success in Machine Translation
Alexandra Birch | Miles Osborne | Philipp Koehn
Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2007

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CCG Supertags in Factored Statistical Machine Translation
Alexandra Birch | Miles Osborne | Philipp Koehn
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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Moses: Open Source Toolkit for Statistical Machine Translation
Philipp Koehn | Hieu Hoang | Alexandra Birch | Chris Callison-Burch | Marcello Federico | Nicola Bertoldi | Brooke Cowan | Wade Shen | Christine Moran | Richard Zens | Chris Dyer | Ondřej Bojar | Alexandra Constantin | Evan Herbst
Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics Companion Volume Proceedings of the Demo and Poster Sessions

2006

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Constraining the Phrase-Based, Joint Probability Statistical Translation Model
Alexandra Birch | Chris Callison-Burch | Miles Osborne | Philipp Koehn
Proceedings on the Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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Constraining the Phrase-Based, Joint Probability Statistical Translation Model
Alexandra Birch | Chris Callison-Burch | Miles Osborne
Proceedings of the 7th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas: Technical Papers

The Joint Probability Model proposed by Marcu and Wong (2002) provides a probabilistic framework for modeling phrase-based statistical machine transla- tion (SMT). The model’s usefulness is, however, limited by the computational complexity of estimating parameters at the phrase level. We present a method of constraining the search space of the Joint Probability Model based on statistically and linguistically motivated word align- ments. This method reduces the complexity and size of the Joint Model and allows it to display performance superior to the standard phrase-based models for small amounts of training material.
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