Abstractive text summarization is one of the areas influenced by the emergence of pre-trained language models. Current pre-training works in abstractive summarization give more points to the summaries with more words in common with the main text and pay less attention to the semantic similarity between generated sentences and the original document. We propose ARMAN, a Transformer-based encoder-decoder model pre-trained with three novel objectives to address this issue. In ARMAN, salient sentences from a document are selected according to a modified semantic score to be masked and form a pseudo summary. To summarize more accurately and similar to human writing patterns, we applied modified sentence reordering. We evaluated our proposed models on six downstream Persian summarization tasks. Experimental results show that our proposed model achieves state-of-the-art performance on all six summarization tasks measured by ROUGE and BERTScore. Our models also outperform prior works in textual entailment, question paraphrasing, and multiple choice question answering. Finally, we established a human evaluation and show that using the semantic score significantly improves summarization results.
Detecting which parts of a sentence contribute to that sentence’s toxicity—rather than providing a sentence-level verdict of hatefulness— would increase the interpretability of models and allow human moderators to better understand the outputs of the system. This paper presents our team’s, UTNLP, methodology and results in the SemEval-2021 shared task 5 on toxic spans detection. We test multiple models and contextual embeddings and report the best setting out of all. The experiments start with keyword-based models and are followed by attention-based, named entity- based, transformers-based, and ensemble models. Our best approach, an ensemble model, achieves an F1 of 0.684 in the competition’s evaluation phase.