Amalie Brogaard Pauli


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Can Humans Identify Domains?
Maria Barrett | Max Müller-Eberstein | Elisa Bassignana | Amalie Brogaard Pauli | Mike Zhang | Rob van der Goot
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Textual domain is a crucial property within the Natural Language Processing (NLP) community due to its effects on downstream model performance. The concept itself is, however, loosely defined and, in practice, refers to any non-typological property, such as genre, topic, medium or style of a document. We investigate the core notion of domains via human proficiency in identifying related intrinsic textual properties, specifically the concepts of genre (communicative purpose) and topic (subject matter). We publish our annotations in TGeGUM: A collection of 9.1k sentences from the GUM dataset (Zeldes, 2017) with single sentence and larger context (i.e., prose) annotations for one of 11 genres (source type), and its topic/subtopic as per the Dewey Decimal library classification system (Dewey, 1979), consisting of 10/100 hierarchical topics of increased granularity. Each instance is annotated by three annotators, for a total of 32.7k annotations, allowing us to examine the level of human disagreement and the relative difficulty of each annotation task. With a Fleiss’ kappa of at most 0.53 on the sentence level and 0.66 at the prose level, it is evident that despite the ubiquity of domains in NLP, there is little human consensus on how to define them. By training classifiers to perform the same task, we find that this uncertainty also extends to NLP models.


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DaNLP: An open-source toolkit for Danish Natural Language Processing
Amalie Brogaard Pauli | Maria Barrett | Ophélie Lacroix | Rasmus Hvingelby
Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa)

We present an open-source toolkit for Danish Natural Language Processing, enabling easy access to Danish NLP’s latest advancements. The toolkit features wrapper-functions for loading models and datasets in a unified way using third-party NLP frameworks. The toolkit is developed to enhance community building, understanding the need from industry and knowledge sharing. As an example of this, we present Angry Tweets: An Annotation Game to create awareness of Danish NLP and create a new sentiment-annotated dataset.


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DaNE: A Named Entity Resource for Danish
Rasmus Hvingelby | Amalie Brogaard Pauli | Maria Barrett | Christina Rosted | Lasse Malm Lidegaard | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We present a named entity annotation for the Danish Universal Dependencies treebank using the CoNLL-2003 annotation scheme: DaNE. It is the largest publicly available, Danish named entity gold annotation. We evaluate the quality of our annotations intrinsically by double annotating the entire treebank and extrinsically by comparing our annotations to a recently released named entity annotation of the validation and test sections of the Danish Universal Dependencies treebank. We benchmark the new resource by training and evaluating competitive architectures for supervised named entity recognition (NER), including FLAIR, monolingual (Danish) BERT and multilingual BERT. We explore cross-lingual transfer in multilingual BERT from five related languages in zero-shot and direct transfer setups, and we show that even with our modestly-sized training set, we improve Danish NER over a recent cross-lingual approach, as well as over zero-shot transfer from five related languages. Using multilingual BERT, we achieve higher performance by fine-tuning on both DaNE and a larger Bokmål (Norwegian) training set compared to only using DaNE. However, the highest performance isachieved by using a Danish BERT fine-tuned on DaNE. Our dataset enables improvements and applicability for Danish NER beyond cross-lingual methods. We employ a thorough error analysis of the predictions of the best models for seen and unseen entities, as well as their robustness on un-capitalized text. The annotated dataset and all the trained models are made publicly available.