Amanpreet Singh


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TOPICAL: TOPIC Pages AutomagicaLly
John Giorgi | Amanpreet Singh | Doug Downey | Sergey Feldman | Lucy Wang
Proceedings of the 2024 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (Volume 3: System Demonstrations)

Topic pages aggregate useful information about an entity or concept into a single succinct and accessible article. Automated creation of topic pages would enable their rapid curation as information resources, providing an alternative to traditional web search. While most prior work has focused on generating topic pages about biographical entities, in this work, we develop a completely automated process to generate high-quality topic pages for scientific entities, with a focus on biomedical concepts. We release TOPICAL, a web app and associated open-source code, comprising a model pipeline combining retrieval, clustering, and prompting, that makes it easy for anyone to generate topic pages for a wide variety of biomedical entities on demand. In a human evaluation of 150 diverse topic pages generated using TOPICAL, we find that the vast majority were considered relevant, accurate, and coherent, with correct supporting citations. We make all code publicly available and host a free-to-use web app at:


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Embedding Recycling for Language Models
Jon Saad-Falcon | Amanpreet Singh | Luca Soldaini | Mike D’Arcy | Arman Cohan | Doug Downey
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023

Real-world applications of neural language models often involve running many different models over the same corpus. The high computational cost of these runs has led to interest in techniques that can reuse the contextualized embeddings produced in previous runs to speed training and inference of future ones. We refer to this approach as embedding recycling (ER). While multiple ER techniques have been proposed, their practical effectiveness is still unknown because existing evaluations consider very few models and do not adequately account for overhead costs. We perform an extensive evaluation of ER across eight different models (17 to 900 million parameters) and fourteen tasks in English. We show how a simple ER technique that caches activations from an intermediate layer of a pretrained model, and learns task-specific adapters on the later layers, is broadly effective. For the best-performing baseline in our experiments (DeBERTa-v2 XL), adding a precomputed cache results in a 90% speedup during training and 87-91% speedup for inference, with negligible impact on accuracy. Our analysis reveals important areas of future work.

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SciRepEval: A Multi-Format Benchmark for Scientific Document Representations
Amanpreet Singh | Mike D’Arcy | Arman Cohan | Doug Downey | Sergey Feldman
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Learned representations of scientific documents can serve as valuable input features for downstream tasks without further fine-tuning. However, existing benchmarks for evaluating these representations fail to capture the diversity of relevant tasks. In response, we introduce SciRepEval, the first comprehensive benchmark for training and evaluating scientific document representations. It includes 24 challenging and realistic tasks, 8 of which are new, across four formats: classification, regression, ranking and search. We then use this benchmark to study and improve the generalization ability of scientific document representation models. We show how state-of-the-art models like SPECTER and SciNCL struggle to generalize across the task formats, and that simple multi-task training fails to improve them. However, a new approach that learns multiple embeddings per document, each tailored to a different format, can improve performance. We experiment with task-format-specific control codes and adapters and find they outperform the existing single-embedding state-of-the-art by over 2 points absolute. We release the resulting family of multi-format models, called SPECTER2, for the community to use and build on.

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PaperMage: A Unified Toolkit for Processing, Representing, and Manipulating Visually-Rich Scientific Documents
Kyle Lo | Zejiang Shen | Benjamin Newman | Joseph Chang | Russell Authur | Erin Bransom | Stefan Candra | Yoganand Chandrasekhar | Regan Huff | Bailey Kuehl | Amanpreet Singh | Chris Wilhelm | Angele Zamarron | Marti A. Hearst | Daniel Weld | Doug Downey | Luca Soldaini
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Despite growing interest in applying natural language processing (NLP) and computer vision (CV) models to the scholarly domain, scientific documents remain challenging to work with. They’re often in difficult-to-use PDF formats, and the ecosystem of models to process them is fragmented and incomplete. We introduce PaperMage, an open-source Python toolkit for analyzing and processing visually-rich, structured scientific documents. PaperMage offers clean and intuitive abstractions for seamlessly representing and manipulating both textual and visual document elements. PaperMage achieves this by integrating disparate state-of-the-art NLP and CV models into a unified framework, and provides turn-key recipes for common scientific document processing use-cases. PaperMage has powered multiple research prototypes of AI applications over scientific documents, along with Semantic Scholar’s large-scale production system for processing millions of PDFs. GitHub:


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SpecNFS: A Challenge Dataset Towards Extracting Formal Models from Natural Language Specifications
Sayontan Ghosh | Amanpreet Singh | Alex Merenstein | Wei Su | Scott A. Smolka | Erez Zadok | Niranjan Balasubramanian
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Can NLP assist in building formal models for verifying complex systems? We study this challenge in the context of parsing Network File System (NFS) specifications. We define a semantic-dependency problem over SpecIR, a representation language we introduce to model sentences appearing in NFS specification documents (RFCs) as IF-THEN statements, and present an annotated dataset of 1,198 sentences. We develop and evaluate semantic-dependency parsing systems for this problem. Evaluations show that even when using a state-of-the-art language model, there is significant room for improvement, with the best models achieving an F1 score of only 60.5 and 33.3 in the named-entity-recognition and dependency-link-prediction sub-tasks, respectively. We also release additional unlabeled data and other domain-related texts. Experiments show that these additional resources increase the F1 measure when used for simple domain-adaption and transfer-learning-based approaches, suggesting fruitful directions for further research


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Dynabench: Rethinking Benchmarking in NLP
Douwe Kiela | Max Bartolo | Yixin Nie | Divyansh Kaushik | Atticus Geiger | Zhengxuan Wu | Bertie Vidgen | Grusha Prasad | Amanpreet Singh | Pratik Ringshia | Zhiyi Ma | Tristan Thrush | Sebastian Riedel | Zeerak Waseem | Pontus Stenetorp | Robin Jia | Mohit Bansal | Christopher Potts | Adina Williams
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We introduce Dynabench, an open-source platform for dynamic dataset creation and model benchmarking. Dynabench runs in a web browser and supports human-and-model-in-the-loop dataset creation: annotators seek to create examples that a target model will misclassify, but that another person will not. In this paper, we argue that Dynabench addresses a critical need in our community: contemporary models quickly achieve outstanding performance on benchmark tasks but nonetheless fail on simple challenge examples and falter in real-world scenarios. With Dynabench, dataset creation, model development, and model assessment can directly inform each other, leading to more robust and informative benchmarks. We report on four initial NLP tasks, illustrating these concepts and highlighting the promise of the platform, and address potential objections to dynamic benchmarking as a new standard for the field.


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Infosys Machine Translation System for WMT20 Similar Language Translation Task
Kamalkumar Rathinasamy | Amanpreet Singh | Balaguru Sivasambagupta | Prajna Prasad Neerchal | Vani Sivasankaran
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper describes Infosys’s submission to the WMT20 Similar Language Translation shared task. We participated in Indo-Aryan language pair in the language direction Hindi to Marathi. Our baseline system is byte-pair encoding based transformer model trained with the Fairseq sequence modeling toolkit. Our final system is an ensemble of two transformer models, which ranked first in WMT20 evaluation. One model is designed to learn the nuances of translation of this low resource language pair by taking advantage of the fact that the source and target languages are same alphabet languages. The other model is the result of experimentation with the proportion of back-translated data to the parallel data to improve translation fluency.


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Neural Network Acceptability Judgments
Alex Warstadt | Amanpreet Singh | Samuel R. Bowman
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 7

This paper investigates the ability of artificial neural networks to judge the grammatical acceptability of a sentence, with the goal of testing their linguistic competence. We introduce the Corpus of Linguistic Acceptability (CoLA), a set of 10,657 English sentences labeled as grammatical or ungrammatical from published linguistics literature. As baselines, we train several recurrent neural network models on acceptability classification, and find that our models outperform unsupervised models by Lau et al. (2016) on CoLA. Error-analysis on specific grammatical phenomena reveals that both Lau et al.’s models and ours learn systematic generalizations like subject-verb-object order. However, all models we test perform far below human level on a wide range of grammatical constructions.


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GLUE: A Multi-Task Benchmark and Analysis Platform for Natural Language Understanding
Alex Wang | Amanpreet Singh | Julian Michael | Felix Hill | Omer Levy | Samuel Bowman
Proceedings of the 2018 EMNLP Workshop BlackboxNLP: Analyzing and Interpreting Neural Networks for NLP

Human ability to understand language is general, flexible, and robust. In contrast, most NLU models above the word level are designed for a specific task and struggle with out-of-domain data. If we aspire to develop models with understanding beyond the detection of superficial correspondences between inputs and outputs, then it is critical to develop a unified model that can execute a range of linguistic tasks across different domains. To facilitate research in this direction, we present the General Language Understanding Evaluation (GLUE, a benchmark of nine diverse NLU tasks, an auxiliary dataset for probing models for understanding of specific linguistic phenomena, and an online platform for evaluating and comparing models. For some benchmark tasks, training data is plentiful, but for others it is limited or does not match the genre of the test set. GLUE thus favors models that can represent linguistic knowledge in a way that facilitates sample-efficient learning and effective knowledge-transfer across tasks. While none of the datasets in GLUE were created from scratch for the benchmark, four of them feature privately-held test data, which is used to ensure that the benchmark is used fairly. We evaluate baselines that use ELMo (Peters et al., 2018), a powerful transfer learning technique, as well as state-of-the-art sentence representation models. The best models still achieve fairly low absolute scores. Analysis with our diagnostic dataset yields similarly weak performance over all phenomena tested, with some exceptions.