Event Detection (ED) is the task of identifying and classifying trigger words of event mentions in text. Despite considerable research efforts in recent years for English text, the task of ED in other languages has been significantly less explored. Switching to non-English languages, important research questions for ED include how well existing ED models perform on different languages, how challenging ED is in other languages, and how well ED knowledge and annotation can be transferred across languages. To answer those questions, it is crucial to obtain multilingual ED datasets that provide consistent event annotation for multiple languages. There exist some multilingual ED datasets; however, they tend to cover a handful of languages and mainly focus on popular ones. Many languages are not covered in existing multilingual ED datasets. In addition, the current datasets are often small and not accessible to the public. To overcome those shortcomings, we introduce a new large-scale multilingual dataset for ED (called MINION) that consistently annotates events for 8 different languages; 5 of them have not been supported by existing multilingual datasets. We also perform extensive experiments and analysis to demonstrate the challenges and transferability of ED across languages in MINION that in all call for more research effort in this area. We will release the dataset to promote future research on multilingual ED.
Livestreaming videos have become an effective broadcasting method for both video sharing and educational purposes. However, livestreaming videos contain a considerable amount of off-topic content (i.e., up to 50%) which introduces significant noises and data load to downstream applications. This paper presents BehanceCC, a new human-annotated benchmark dataset for off-topic detection (also called chitchat detection) in livestreaming video transcripts. In addition to describing the challenges of the dataset, our extensive experiments of various baselines reveal the complexity of chitchat detection for livestreaming videos and suggest potential future research directions for this task. The dataset will be made publicly available to foster research in this area.
Question-Answer (QA) is one of the effective methods for storing knowledge which can be used for future retrieval. As such, identifying mentions of questions and their answers in text is necessary for a knowledge construction and retrieval systems. In the literature, QA identification has been well studied in the NLP community. However, most of the prior works are restricted to formal written documents such as papers or websites. As such, Questions and Answers that are presented in informal/noisy documents have not been adequately studied. One of the domains that can significantly benefit from QA identification is the domain of livestreaming video transcripts that involve abundant QA pairs to provide valuable knowledge for future users and services. Since video transcripts are often transcribed automatically for scale, they are prone to errors. Combined with the informal nature of discussion in a video, prior QA identification systems might not be able to perform well in this domain. To enable comprehensive research in this domain, we present a large-scale QA identification dataset annotated by human over transcripts of 500 hours of streamed videos. We employ Behance.net to collect the videos and their automatically obtained transcripts. Furthermore, we conduct extensive analysis on the annotated dataset to understand the complexity of QA identification for livestreaming video transcripts. Our experiments show that the annotated dataset presents unique challenges for existing methods and more research is necessary to explore more effective methods. The dataset and the models developed in this work will be publicly released for future research.
Toxic span detection is the task of recognizing offensive spans in a text snippet. Although there has been prior work on classifying text snippets as offensive or not, the task of recognizing spans responsible for the toxicity of a text is not explored yet. In this work, we introduce a novel multi-task framework for toxic span detection in which the model seeks to simultaneously predict offensive words and opinion phrases to leverage their inter-dependencies and improve the performance. Moreover, we introduce a novel regularization mechanism to encourage the consistency of the model predictions across similar inputs for toxic span detection. Our extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model compared to strong baselines.
Event Argument Extraction (EAE) is one of the sub-tasks of event extraction, aiming to recognize the role of each entity mention toward a specific event trigger. Despite the success of prior works in sentence-level EAE, the document-level setting is less explored. In particular, whereas syntactic structures of sentences have been shown to be effective for sentence-level EAE, prior document-level EAE models totally ignore syntactic structures for documents. Hence, in this work, we study the importance of syntactic structures in document-level EAE. Specifically, we propose to employ Optimal Transport (OT) to induce structures of documents based on sentence-level syntactic structures and tailored to EAE task. Furthermore, we propose a novel regularization technique to explicitly constrain the contributions of unrelated context words in the final prediction for EAE. We perform extensive experiments on the benchmark document-level EAE dataset RAMS that leads to the state-of-the-art performance. Moreover, our experiments on the ACE 2005 dataset reveals the effectiveness of the proposed model in the sentence-level EAE by establishing new state-of-the-art results.
Given the increasing number of livestreaming videos, automatic speech recognition and post-processing for livestreaming video transcripts are crucial for efficient data management as well as knowledge mining. A key step in this process is punctuation restoration which restores fundamental text structures such as phrase and sentence boundaries from the video transcripts. This work presents a new human-annotated corpus, called BehancePR, for punctuation restoration in livestreaming video transcripts. Our experiments on BehancePR demonstrate the challenges of punctuation restoration for this domain. Furthermore, we show that popular natural language processing toolkits like Stanford Stanza, Spacy, and Trankit underperform on detecting sentence boundary on non-punctuated transcripts of livestreaming videos. The dataset is publicly accessible at http://github.com/nlp-uoregon/behancepr.
Suicide is a serious problem in every society. Understanding life events of a potential patient is essential for successful suicide-risk assessment and prevention. In this work, we focus on the Event Detection (ED) task to identify event trigger words of suicide-related events in public posts of discussion forums. In particular, we introduce SuicideED: a new dataset for the ED task that features seven suicidal event types to comprehensively capture suicide actions and ideation, and general risk and protective factors. Our experiments with current state-of-the-art ED systems suggest that this domain poses meaningful challenges as there is significant room for improvement of ED models. We will release SuicideED to support future research in this important area.
Event Detection (ED) aims to identify mentions/triggers of real world events in text. In the literature, this task is modeled as a sequence-labeling or word-prediction problem. In this work, we present a novel formulation in which ED is modeled as a word-label alignment task. In particular, given the words in a sentence and possible event types, the objective is to infer an alignment matrix in which event trigger words are aligned with the most likely event types. Moreover, we show that this new perspective facilitates the incorporation of word-label alignment biases to improve alignment matrix for ED. Novel alignment biases and Optimal Transport are introduced to solve our alignment problem for ED. We conduct experiments on a benchmark dataset to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model for ED.
Event Extraction (EE) is one of the fundamental tasks in Information Extraction (IE) that aims to recognize event mentions and their arguments (i.e., participants) from text. Due to its importance, extensive methods and resources have been developed for Event Extraction. However, one limitation of current research for EE involves the under-exploration for non-English languages in which the lack of high-quality multilingual EE datasets for model training and evaluation has been the main hindrance. To address this limitation, we propose a novel Multilingual Event Extraction dataset (MEE) that provides annotation for more than 50K event mentions in 8 typologically different languages. MEE comprehensively annotates data for entity mentions, event triggers and event arguments. We conduct extensive experiments on the proposed dataset to reveal challenges and opportunities for multilingual EE. To foster future research in this direction, our dataset will be publicly available.
We describe Symlink, a SemEval shared task of extracting mathematical symbols and their descriptions from LaTeX source of scientific documents. This is a new task in SemEval 2022, which attracted 180 individual registrations and 59 final submissions from 7 participant teams. We expect the data developed for this task and the findings reported to be valuable for the scientific knowledge extraction and automated knowledge base construction communities. The data used in this task is publicly accessible at https://github.com/nlp-oregon/symlink.
Aspect Term Extraction (ATE) is the task of identifying the word(s) in a review text toward which the author express an opinion. A major challenges for ATE involve data scarcity that hinder the training of deep sequence taggers to identify rare targets. To overcome these issues, we propose a novel method to better exploit the available labeled data for ATE by computing effective complement sentences to augment the input data and facilitate the aspect term prediction. In particular, we introduce a multistep training procedure that first obtains optimal complement representations and sentences for training data with respect to a deep ATE model. Afterward, we fine-tune the generative language model GPT-2 to allow complement sentence generation at test data. The REINFORCE algorithm is employed to incorporate different expected properties into the reward function to perform the fine-tuning. We perform extensive experiments on the benchmark datasets to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed method that achieve the state-of-the-art performance on different datasets.
Event Causality Identification (ECI) is the task of detecting causal relations between events mentioned in the text. Although this task has been extensively studied for English materials, it is under-explored for many other languages. A major reason for this issue is the lack of multilingual datasets that provide consistent annotations for event causality relations in multiple non-English languages. To address this issue, we introduce a new multilingual dataset for ECI, called MECI. The dataset employs consistent annotation guidelines for five typologically different languages, i.e., English, Danish, Spanish, Turkish, and Urdu. Our dataset thus enable a new research direction on cross-lingual transfer learning for ECI. Our extensive experiments demonstrate high quality for MECI that can provide ample research challenges and directions for future research. We will publicly release MECI to promote research on multilingual ECI.
Acronym extraction is the task of identifying acronyms and their expanded forms in texts that is necessary for various NLP applications. Despite major progress for this task in recent years, one limitation of existing AE research is that they are limited to the English language and certain domains (i.e., scientific and biomedical). Challenges of AE in other languages and domains are mainly unexplored. As such, lacking annotated datasets in multiple languages and domains has been a major issue to prevent research in this direction. To address this limitation, we propose a new dataset for multilingual and multi-domain AE. Specifically, 27,200 sentences in 6 different languages and 2 new domains, i.e., legal and scientific, are manually annotated for AE. Our experiments on the dataset show that AE in different languages and learning settings has unique challenges, emphasizing the necessity of further research on multilingual and multi-domain AE.
Keyphrase Prediction (KP) is an established NLP task, aiming to yield representative phrases to summarize the main content of a given document. Despite major progress in recent years, existing works on KP have mainly focused on formal texts such as scientific papers or weblogs. The challenges of KP in informal-text domains are not yet fully studied. To this end, this work studies new challenges of KP in transcripts of videos, an understudied domain for KP that involves informal texts and non-cohesive presentation styles. A bottleneck for KP research in this domain involves the lack of high-quality and large-scale annotated data that hinders the development of advanced KP models. To address this issue, we introduce a large-scale manually-annotated KP dataset in the domain of live-stream video transcripts obtained by automatic speech recognition tools. Concretely, transcripts of 500+ hours of videos streamed on the behance.net platform are manually labeled with important keyphrases. Our analysis of the dataset reveals the challenging nature of KP in transcripts. Moreover, for the first time in KP, we demonstrate the idea of improving KP for long documents (i.e., transcripts) by feeding models with paragraph-level keyphrases, i.e., hierarchical extraction. To foster future research, we will publicly release the dataset and code.
Event extraction (EE) is one of the fundamental tasks for information extraction whose goal is to identify mentions of events and their participants in text. Due to its importance, different methods and datasets have been introduced for EE. However, existing EE datasets are limited to formally written documents such as news articles or scientific papers. As such, the challenges of EE in informal and noisy texts are not adequately studied. In particular, video transcripts constitute an important domain that can benefit tremendously from EE systems (e.g., video retrieval), but has not been studied in EE literature due to the lack of necessary datasets. To address this limitation, we propose the first large-scale EE dataset obtained for transcripts of streamed videos on the video hosting platform Behance to promote future research in this area. In addition, we extensively evaluate existing state-of-the-art EE methods on our new dataset. We demonstrate that such systems cannot achieve adequate performance on the proposed dataset, revealing challenges and opportunities for further research effort.
The task of Event Detection (ED) in Information Extraction aims to recognize and classify trigger words of events in text. The recent progress has featured advanced transformer-based language models (e.g., BERT) as a critical component in state-of-the-art models for ED. However, the length limit for input texts is a barrier for such ED models as they cannot encode long-range document-level context that has been shown to be beneficial for ED. To address this issue, we propose a novel method to model document-level context for ED that dynamically selects relevant sentences in the document for the event prediction of the target sentence. The target sentence will be then augmented with the selected sentences and consumed entirely by transformer-based language models for improved representation learning for ED. To this end, the REINFORCE algorithm is employed to train the relevant sentence selection for ED. Several information types are then introduced to form the reward function for the training process, including ED performance, sentence similarity, and discourse relations. Our extensive experiments on multiple benchmark datasets reveal the effectiveness of the proposed model, leading to new state-of-the-art performance.
We introduce Trankit, a light-weight Transformer-based Toolkit for multilingual Natural Language Processing (NLP). It provides a trainable pipeline for fundamental NLP tasks over 100 languages, and 90 pretrained pipelines for 56 languages. Built on a state-of-the-art pretrained language model, Trankit significantly outperforms prior multilingual NLP pipelines over sentence segmentation, part-of-speech tagging, morphological feature tagging, and dependency parsing while maintaining competitive performance for tokenization, multi-word token expansion, and lemmatization over 90 Universal Dependencies treebanks. Despite the use of a large pretrained transformer, our toolkit is still efficient in memory usage and speed. This is achieved by our novel plug-and-play mechanism with Adapters where a multilingual pretrained transformer is shared across pipelines for different languages. Our toolkit along with pretrained models and code are publicly available at: https://github.com/nlp-uoregon/trankit. A demo website for our toolkit is also available at: http://nlp.uoregon.edu/trankit. Finally, we create a demo video for Trankit at: https://youtu.be/q0KGP3zGjGc.
Acronyms and abbreviations are the short-form of longer phrases and they are ubiquitously employed in various types of writing. Despite their usefulness to save space in writing and reader’s time in reading, they also provide challenges for understanding the text especially if the acronym is not defined in the text or if it is used far from its definition in long texts. To alleviate this issue, there are considerable efforts both from the research community and software developers to build systems for identifying acronyms and finding their correct meanings in the text. However, none of the existing works provide a unified solution capable of processing acronyms in various domains and to be publicly available. Thus, we provide the first web-based acronym identification and disambiguation system which can process acronyms from various domains including scientific, biomedical, and general domains. The web-based system is publicly available at http://iq.cs.uoregon.edu:5000 and a demo video is available at https://youtu.be/IkSh7LqI42M. The system source code is also available at https://github.com/amirveyseh/MadDog.
Event Detection (ED) aims to recognize mentions of events (i.e., event triggers) and their types in text. Recently, several ED datasets in various domains have been proposed. However, the major limitation of these resources is the lack of enough training data for individual event types which hinders the efficient training of data-hungry deep learning models. To overcome this issue, we propose to exploit the powerful pre-trained language model GPT-2 to generate training samples for ED. To prevent the noises inevitable in automatically generated data from hampering training process, we propose to exploit a teacher-student architecture in which the teacher is supposed to learn anchor knowledge from the original data. The student is then trained on combination of the original and GPT-generated data while being led by the anchor knowledge from the teacher. Optimal transport is introduced to facilitate the anchor knowledge-based guidance between the two networks. We evaluate the proposed model on multiple ED benchmark datasets, gaining consistent improvement and establishing state-of-the-art results for ED.
Scientific documents are replete with measurements mentioned in various formats and styles. As such, in a document with multiple quantities and measured entities, the task of associating each quantity to its corresponding measured entity is challenging. Thus, it is necessary to have a method to efficiently extract all measurements and attributes related to them. To this end, in this paper, we propose a novel model for the task of measurement relation extraction (MRE) whose goal is to recognize the relation between measured entities, quantities, and conditions mentioned in a document. Our model employs a deep translation-based architecture to dynamically induce the important words in the document to classify the relation between a pair of entities. Furthermore, we introduce a novel regularization technique based on Information Bottleneck (IB) to filter out the noisy information from the induced set of important words. Our experiments on the recent SemEval 2021 Task 8 datasets reveal the effectiveness of the proposed model.
The goal of Event Argument Extraction (EAE) is to find the role of each entity mention for a given event trigger word. It has been shown in the previous works that the syntactic structures of the sentences are helpful for the deep learning models for EAE. However, a major problem in such prior works is that they fail to exploit the semantic structures of the sentences to induce effective representations for EAE. Consequently, in this work, we propose a novel model for EAE that exploits both syntactic and semantic structures of the sentences with the Graph Transformer Networks (GTNs) to learn more effective sentence structures for EAE. In addition, we introduce a novel inductive bias based on information bottleneck to improve generalization of the EAE models. Extensive experiments are performed to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed model, leading to state-of-the-art performance for EAE on standard datasets.
Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) seeks to predict the sentiment polarity of a sentence toward a specific aspect. Recently, it has been shown that dependency trees can be integrated into deep learning models to produce the state-of-the-art performance for ABSA. However, these models tend to compute the hidden/representation vectors without considering the aspect terms and fail to benefit from the overall contextual importance scores of the words that can be obtained from the dependency tree for ABSA. In this work, we propose a novel graph-based deep learning model to overcome these two issues of the prior work on ABSA. In our model, gate vectors are generated from the representation vectors of the aspect terms to customize the hidden vectors of the graph-based models toward the aspect terms. In addition, we propose a mechanism to obtain the importance scores for each word in the sentences based on the dependency trees that are then injected into the model to improve the representation vectors for ABSA. The proposed model achieves the state-of-the-art performance on three benchmark datasets.
Slot Filling (SF) is one of the sub-tasks of Spoken Language Understanding (SLU) which aims to extract semantic constituents from a given natural language utterance. It is formulated as a sequence labeling task. Recently, it has been shown that contextual information is vital for this task. However, existing models employ contextual information in a restricted manner, e.g., using self-attention. Such methods fail to distinguish the effects of the context on the word representation and the word label. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a novel method to incorporate the contextual information in two different levels, i.e., representation level and task-specific (i.e., label) level. Our extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets on SF show the effectiveness of our model leading to new state-of-the-art results on all three benchmark datasets for the task of SF.
This paper studies the task of Relation Extraction (RE) that aims to identify the semantic relations between two entity mentions in text. In the deep learning models for RE, it has been beneficial to incorporate the syntactic structures from the dependency trees of the input sentences. In such models, the dependency trees are often used to directly structure the network architectures or to obtain the dependency relations between the word pairs to inject the syntactic information into the models via multi-task learning. The major problem with these approaches is the lack of generalization beyond the syntactic structures in the training data or the failure to capture the syntactic importance of the words for RE. In order to overcome these issues, we propose a novel deep learning model for RE that uses the dependency trees to extract the syntax-based importance scores for the words, serving as a tree representation to introduce syntactic information into the models with greater generalization. In particular, we leverage Ordered-Neuron Long-Short Term Memory Networks (ON-LSTM) to infer the model-based importance scores for RE for every word in the sentences that are then regulated to be consistent with the syntax-based scores to enable syntactic information injection. We perform extensive experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, leading to the state-of-the-art performance on three RE benchmark datasets.
Acronyms are the short forms of phrases that facilitate conveying lengthy sentences in documents and serve as one of the mainstays of writing. Due to their importance, identifying acronyms and corresponding phrases (i.e., acronym identification (AI)) and finding the correct meaning of each acronym (i.e., acronym disambiguation (AD)) are crucial for text understanding. Despite the recent progress on this task, there are some limitations in the existing datasets which hinder further improvement. More specifically, limited size of manually annotated AI datasets or noises in the automatically created acronym identification datasets obstruct designing advanced high-performing acronym identification models. Moreover, the existing datasets are mostly limited to the medical domain and ignore other domains. In order to address these two limitations, we first create a manually annotated large AI dataset for scientific domain. This dataset contains 17,506 sentences which is substantially larger than previous scientific AI datasets. Next, we prepare an AD dataset for scientific domain with 62,441 samples which is significantly larger than previous scientific AD dataset. Our experiments show that the existing state-of-the-art models fall far behind human-level performance on both datasets proposed by this work. In addition, we propose a new deep learning model which utilizes the syntactical structure of the sentence to expand an ambiguous acronym in a sentence. The proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art models on the new AD dataset, providing a strong baseline for future research on this dataset.
Detecting cybersecurity events is necessary to keep us informed about the fast growing number of such events reported in text. In this work, we focus on the task of event detection (ED) to identify event trigger words for the cybersecurity domain. In particular, to facilitate the future research, we introduce a new dataset for this problem, characterizing the manual annotation for 30 important cybersecurity event types and a large dataset size to develop deep learning models. Comparing to the prior datasets for this task, our dataset involves more event types and supports the modeling of document-level information to improve the performance. We perform extensive evaluation with the current state-of-the-art methods for ED on the proposed dataset. Our experiments reveal the challenges of cybersecurity ED and present many research opportunities in this area for the future work.
Targeted opinion word extraction (TOWE) is a sub-task of aspect based sentiment analysis (ABSA) which aims to find the opinion words for a given aspect-term in a sentence. Despite their success for TOWE, the current deep learning models fail to exploit the syntactic information of the sentences that have been proved to be useful for TOWE in the prior research. In this work, we propose to incorporate the syntactic structures of the sentences into the deep learning models for TOWE, leveraging the syntax-based opinion possibility scores and the syntactic connections between the words. We also introduce a novel regularization technique to improve the performance of the deep learning models based on the representation distinctions between the words in TOWE. The proposed model is extensively analyzed and achieves the state-of-the-art performance on four benchmark datasets.
Event factuality prediction (EFP) is the task of assessing the degree to which an event mentioned in a sentence has happened. For this task, both syntactic and semantic information are crucial to identify the important context words. The previous work for EFP has only combined these information in a simple way that cannot fully exploit their coordination. In this work, we introduce a novel graph-based neural network for EFP that can integrate the semantic and syntactic information more effectively. Our experiments demonstrate the advantage of the proposed model for EFP.