Amir Soleimani


pdf bib
NonFactS: NonFactual Summary Generation for Factuality Evaluation in Document Summarization
Amir Soleimani | Christof Monz | Marcel Worring
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Pre-trained abstractive summarization models can generate fluent summaries and achieve high ROUGE scores. Previous research has found that these models often generate summaries that are inconsistent with their context document and contain nonfactual information. To evaluate factuality in document summarization, a document-level Natural Language Inference (NLI) classifier can be used. However, training such a classifier requires large-scale high-quality factual and nonfactual samples. To that end, we introduce NonFactS, a data generation model, to synthesize nonfactual summaries given a context document and a human-annotated (reference) factual summary. Compared to previous methods, our nonfactual samples are more abstractive and more similar to their corresponding factual samples, resulting in state-of-the-art performance on two factuality evaluation benchmarks, FALSESUM and SUMMAC. Our experiments demonstrate that even without human-annotated summaries, NonFactS can use random sentences to generate nonfactual summaries and a classifier trained on these samples generalizes to out-of-domain documents.


pdf bib
Zero-Shot Aspect-Based Scientific Document Summarization using Self-Supervised Pre-training
Amir Soleimani | Vassilina Nikoulina | Benoit Favre | Salah Ait Mokhtar
Proceedings of the 21st Workshop on Biomedical Language Processing

We study the zero-shot setting for the aspect-based scientific document summarization task. Summarizing scientific documents with respect to an aspect can remarkably improve document assistance systems and readers experience. However, existing large-scale datasets contain a limited variety of aspects, causing summarization models to over-fit to a small set of aspects and a specific domain. We establish baseline results in zero-shot performance (over unseen aspects and the presence of domain shift), paraphrasing, leave-one-out, and limited supervised samples experimental setups. We propose a self-supervised pre-training approach to enhance the zero-shot performance. We leverage the PubMed structured abstracts to create a biomedical aspect-based summarization dataset. Experimental results on the PubMed and FacetSum aspect-based datasets show promising performance when the model is pre-trained using unlabelled in-domain data.


pdf bib
NLQuAD: A Non-Factoid Long Question Answering Data Set
Amir Soleimani | Christof Monz | Marcel Worring
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

We introduce NLQuAD, the first data set with baseline methods for non-factoid long question answering, a task requiring document-level language understanding. In contrast to existing span detection question answering data sets, NLQuAD has non-factoid questions that are not answerable by a short span of text and demanding multiple-sentence descriptive answers and opinions. We show the limitation of the F1 score for evaluation of long answers and introduce Intersection over Union (IoU), which measures position-sensitive overlap between the predicted and the target answer spans. To establish baseline performances, we compare BERT, RoBERTa, and Longformer models. Experimental results and human evaluations show that Longformer outperforms the other architectures, but results are still far behind a human upper bound, leaving substantial room for improvements. NLQuAD’s samples exceed the input limitation of most pre-trained Transformer-based models, encouraging future research on long sequence language models.