Anastasia Shimorina


2022

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Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Human Evaluation of NLP Systems (HumEval)
Anya Belz | Maja Popović | Ehud Reiter | Anastasia Shimorina
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Human Evaluation of NLP Systems (HumEval)

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The Human Evaluation Datasheet: A Template for Recording Details of Human Evaluation Experiments in NLP
Anastasia Shimorina | Anya Belz
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Human Evaluation of NLP Systems (HumEval)

This paper presents the Human Evaluation Datasheet (HEDS), a template for recording the details of individual human evaluation experiments in Natural Language Processing (NLP), and reports on first experience of researchers using HEDS sheets in practice. Originally taking inspiration from seminal papers by Bender and Friedman (2018), Mitchell et al. (2019), and Gebru et al. (2020), HEDS facilitates the recording of properties of human evaluations in sufficient detail, and with sufficient standardisation, to support comparability, meta-evaluation,and reproducibility assessments for human evaluations. These are crucial for scientifically principled evaluation, but the overhead of completing a detailed datasheet is substantial, and we discuss possible ways of addressing this and other issues observed in practice.

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Multilingual Abstract Meaning Representation for Celtic Languages
Johannes Heinecke | Anastasia Shimorina
Proceedings of the 4th Celtic Language Technology Workshop within LREC2022

Deep Semantic Parsing into Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) graphs has reached a high quality with neural-based seq2seq approaches. However, the training corpus for AMR is only available for English. Several approaches to process other languages exist, but only for high resource languages. We present an approach to create a multilingual text-to-AMR model for three Celtic languages, Welsh (P-Celtic) and the closely related Irish and Scottish-Gaelic (Q-Celtic). The main success of this approach are underlying multilingual transformers like mT5. We finally show that machine translated test corpora unfairly improve the AMR evaluation for about 1 or 2 points (depending on the language).

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Knowledge Extraction From Texts Based on Wikidata
Anastasia Shimorina | Johannes Heinecke | Frédéric Herledan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Track

This paper presents an effort within our company of developing knowledge extraction pipeline for English, which can be further used for constructing an entreprise-specific knowledge base. We present a system consisting of entity detection and linking, coreference resolution, and relation extraction based on the Wikidata schema. We highlight existing challenges of knowledge extraction by evaluating the deployed pipeline on real-world data. We also make available a database, which can serve as a new resource for sentential relation extraction, and we underline the importance of having balanced data for training classification models.

2021

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The ReproGen Shared Task on Reproducibility of Human Evaluations in NLG: Overview and Results
Anya Belz | Anastasia Shimorina | Shubham Agarwal | Ehud Reiter
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

The NLP field has recently seen a substantial increase in work related to reproducibility of results, and more generally in recognition of the importance of having shared definitions and practices relating to evaluation. Much of the work on reproducibility has so far focused on metric scores, with reproducibility of human evaluation results receiving far less attention. As part of a research programme designed to develop theory and practice of reproducibility assessment in NLP, we organised the first shared task on reproducibility of human evaluations, ReproGen 2021. This paper describes the shared task in detail, summarises results from each of the reproduction studies submitted, and provides further comparative analysis of the results. Out of nine initial team registrations, we received submissions from four teams. Meta-analysis of the four reproduction studies revealed varying degrees of reproducibility, and allowed very tentative first conclusions about what types of evaluation tend to have better reproducibility.

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An Error Analysis Framework for Shallow Surface Realization
Anastasia Shimorina | Yannick Parmentier | Claire Gardent
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 9

Abstract The metrics standardly used to evaluate Natural Language Generation (NLG) models, such as BLEU or METEOR, fail to provide information on which linguistic factors impact performance. Focusing on Surface Realization (SR), the task of converting an unordered dependency tree into a well-formed sentence, we propose a framework for error analysis which permits identifying which features of the input affect the models’ results. This framework consists of two main components: (i) correlation analyses between a wide range of syntactic metrics and standard performance metrics and (ii) a set of techniques to automatically identify syntactic constructs that often co-occur with low performance scores. We demonstrate the advantages of our framework by performing error analysis on the results of 174 system runs submitted to the Multilingual SR shared tasks; we show that dependency edge accuracy correlate with automatic metrics thereby providing a more interpretable basis for evaluation; and we suggest ways in which our framework could be used to improve models and data. The framework is available in the form of a toolkit which can be used both by campaign organizers to provide detailed, linguistically interpretable feedback on the state of the art in multilingual SR, and by individual researchers to improve models and datasets.1

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A Systematic Review of Reproducibility Research in Natural Language Processing
Anya Belz | Shubham Agarwal | Anastasia Shimorina | Ehud Reiter
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Against the background of what has been termed a reproducibility crisis in science, the NLP field is becoming increasingly interested in, and conscientious about, the reproducibility of its results. The past few years have seen an impressive range of new initiatives, events and active research in the area. However, the field is far from reaching a consensus about how reproducibility should be defined, measured and addressed, with diversity of views currently increasing rather than converging. With this focused contribution, we aim to provide a wide-angle, and as near as possible complete, snapshot of current work on reproducibility in NLP,

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The GEM Benchmark: Natural Language Generation, its Evaluation and Metrics
Sebastian Gehrmann | Tosin Adewumi | Karmanya Aggarwal | Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi | Anuoluwapo Aremu | Antoine Bosselut | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Miruna-Adriana Clinciu | Dipanjan Das | Kaustubh Dhole | Wanyu Du | Esin Durmus | Ondřej Dušek | Chris Chinenye Emezue | Varun Gangal | Cristina Garbacea | Tatsunori Hashimoto | Yufang Hou | Yacine Jernite | Harsh Jhamtani | Yangfeng Ji | Shailza Jolly | Mihir Kale | Dhruv Kumar | Faisal Ladhak | Aman Madaan | Mounica Maddela | Khyati Mahajan | Saad Mahamood | Bodhisattwa Prasad Majumder | Pedro Henrique Martins | Angelina McMillan-Major | Simon Mille | Emiel van Miltenburg | Moin Nadeem | Shashi Narayan | Vitaly Nikolaev | Andre Niyongabo Rubungo | Salomey Osei | Ankur Parikh | Laura Perez-Beltrachini | Niranjan Ramesh Rao | Vikas Raunak | Juan Diego Rodriguez | Sashank Santhanam | João Sedoc | Thibault Sellam | Samira Shaikh | Anastasia Shimorina | Marco Antonio Sobrevilla Cabezudo | Hendrik Strobelt | Nishant Subramani | Wei Xu | Diyi Yang | Akhila Yerukola | Jiawei Zhou
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Natural Language Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics (GEM 2021)

We introduce GEM, a living benchmark for natural language Generation (NLG), its Evaluation, and Metrics. Measuring progress in NLG relies on a constantly evolving ecosystem of automated metrics, datasets, and human evaluation standards. Due to this moving target, new models often still evaluate on divergent anglo-centric corpora with well-established, but flawed, metrics. This disconnect makes it challenging to identify the limitations of current models and opportunities for progress. Addressing this limitation, GEM provides an environment in which models can easily be applied to a wide set of tasks and in which evaluation strategies can be tested. Regular updates to the benchmark will help NLG research become more multilingual and evolve the challenge alongside models. This paper serves as the description of the data for the 2021 shared task at the associated GEM Workshop.

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Proceedings of the Workshop on Human Evaluation of NLP Systems (HumEval)
Anya Belz | Shubham Agarwal | Yvette Graham | Ehud Reiter | Anastasia Shimorina
Proceedings of the Workshop on Human Evaluation of NLP Systems (HumEval)

2020

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Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Natural Language Generation from the Semantic Web (WebNLG+)
Thiago Castro Ferreira | Claire Gardent | Nikolai Ilinykh | Chris van der Lee | Simon Mille | Diego Moussallem | Anastasia Shimorina
Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Natural Language Generation from the Semantic Web (WebNLG+)

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A General Benchmarking Framework for Text Generation
Diego Moussallem | Paramjot Kaur | Thiago Ferreira | Chris van der Lee | Anastasia Shimorina | Felix Conrads | Michael Röder | René Speck | Claire Gardent | Simon Mille | Nikolai Ilinykh | Axel-Cyrille Ngonga Ngomo
Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Natural Language Generation from the Semantic Web (WebNLG+)

The RDF-to-text task has recently gained substantial attention due to the continuous growth of RDF knowledge graphs in number and size. Recent studies have focused on systematically comparing RDF-to-text approaches on benchmarking datasets such as WebNLG. Although some evaluation tools have already been proposed for text generation, none of the existing solutions abides by the Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability (FAIR) principles and involves RDF data for the knowledge extraction task. In this paper, we present BENG, a FAIR benchmarking platform for Natural Language Generation (NLG) and Knowledge Extraction systems with focus on RDF data. BENG builds upon the successful benchmarking platform GERBIL, is opensource and is publicly available along with the data it contains.

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The 2020 Bilingual, Bi-Directional WebNLG+ Shared Task: Overview and Evaluation Results (WebNLG+ 2020)
Thiago Castro Ferreira | Claire Gardent | Nikolai Ilinykh | Chris van der Lee | Simon Mille | Diego Moussallem | Anastasia Shimorina
Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Natural Language Generation from the Semantic Web (WebNLG+)

WebNLG+ offers two challenges: (i) mapping sets of RDF triples to English or Russian text (generation) and (ii) converting English or Russian text to sets of RDF triples (semantic parsing). Compared to the eponymous WebNLG challenge, WebNLG+ provides an extended dataset that enable the training, evaluation, and comparison of microplanners and semantic parsers. In this paper, we present the results of the generation and semantic parsing task for both English and Russian and provide a brief description of the participating systems.

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ReproGen: Proposal for a Shared Task on Reproducibility of Human Evaluations in NLG
Anya Belz | Shubham Agarwal | Anastasia Shimorina | Ehud Reiter
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

Across NLP, a growing body of work is looking at the issue of reproducibility. However, replicability of human evaluation experiments and reproducibility of their results is currently under-addressed, and this is of particular concern for NLG where human evaluations are the norm. This paper outlines our ideas for a shared task on reproducibility of human evaluations in NLG which aims (i) to shed light on the extent to which past NLG evaluations are replicable and reproducible, and (ii) to draw conclusions regarding how evaluations can be designed and reported to increase replicability and reproducibility. If the task is run over several years, we hope to be able to document an overall increase in levels of replicability and reproducibility over time.

2019

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Surface Realisation Using Full Delexicalisation
Anastasia Shimorina | Claire Gardent
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Surface realisation (SR) maps a meaning representation to a sentence and can be viewed as consisting of three subtasks: word ordering, morphological inflection and contraction generation (e.g., clitic attachment in Portuguese or elision in French). We propose a modular approach to surface realisation which models each of these components separately, and evaluate our approach on the 10 languages covered by the SR’18 Surface Realisation Shared Task shallow track. We provide a detailed evaluation of how word order, morphological realisation and contractions are handled by the model and an analysis of the differences in word ordering performance across languages.

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LORIA / Lorraine University at Multilingual Surface Realisation 2019
Anastasia Shimorina | Claire Gardent
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Multilingual Surface Realisation (MSR 2019)

This paper presents the LORIA / Lorraine University submission at the Multilingual Surface Realisation shared task 2019 for the shallow track. We outline our approach and evaluate it on 11 languages covered by the shared task. We provide a separate evaluation of each component of our pipeline, concluding on some difficulties and suggesting directions for future work.

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Creating a Corpus for Russian Data-to-Text Generation Using Neural Machine Translation and Post-Editing
Anastasia Shimorina | Elena Khasanova | Claire Gardent
Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Balto-Slavic Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we propose an approach for semi-automatically creating a data-to-text (D2T) corpus for Russian that can be used to learn a D2T natural language generation model. An error analysis of the output of an English-to-Russian neural machine translation system shows that 80% of the automatically translated sentences contain an error and that 53% of all translation errors bear on named entities (NE). We therefore focus on named entities and introduce two post-editing techniques for correcting wrongly translated NEs.

2018

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Handling Rare Items in Data-to-Text Generation
Anastasia Shimorina | Claire Gardent
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

Neural approaches to data-to-text generation generally handle rare input items using either delexicalisation or a copy mechanism. We investigate the relative impact of these two methods on two datasets (E2E and WebNLG) and using two evaluation settings. We show (i) that rare items strongly impact performance; (ii) that combining delexicalisation and copying yields the strongest improvement; (iii) that copying underperforms for rare and unseen items and (iv) that the impact of these two mechanisms greatly varies depending on how the dataset is constructed and on how it is split into train, dev and test.

2017

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The WebNLG Challenge: Generating Text from RDF Data
Claire Gardent | Anastasia Shimorina | Shashi Narayan | Laura Perez-Beltrachini
Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

The WebNLG challenge consists in mapping sets of RDF triples to text. It provides a common benchmark on which to train, evaluate and compare “microplanners”, i.e. generation systems that verbalise a given content by making a range of complex interacting choices including referring expression generation, aggregation, lexicalisation, surface realisation and sentence segmentation. In this paper, we introduce the microplanning task, describe data preparation, introduce our evaluation methodology, analyse participant results and provide a brief description of the participating systems.

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Creating Training Corpora for NLG Micro-Planners
Claire Gardent | Anastasia Shimorina | Shashi Narayan | Laura Perez-Beltrachini
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In this paper, we present a novel framework for semi-automatically creating linguistically challenging micro-planning data-to-text corpora from existing Knowledge Bases. Because our method pairs data of varying size and shape with texts ranging from simple clauses to short texts, a dataset created using this framework provides a challenging benchmark for microplanning. Another feature of this framework is that it can be applied to any large scale knowledge base and can therefore be used to train and learn KB verbalisers. We apply our framework to DBpedia data and compare the resulting dataset with Wen et al. 2016’s. We show that while Wen et al.’s dataset is more than twice larger than ours, it is less diverse both in terms of input and in terms of text. We thus propose our corpus generation framework as a novel method for creating challenging data sets from which NLG models can be learned which are capable of handling the complex interactions occurring during in micro-planning between lexicalisation, aggregation, surface realisation, referring expression generation and sentence segmentation. To encourage researchers to take up this challenge, we made available a dataset of 21,855 data/text pairs created using this framework in the context of the WebNLG shared task.

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Split and Rephrase
Shashi Narayan | Claire Gardent | Shay B. Cohen | Anastasia Shimorina
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We propose a new sentence simplification task (Split-and-Rephrase) where the aim is to split a complex sentence into a meaning preserving sequence of shorter sentences. Like sentence simplification, splitting-and-rephrasing has the potential of benefiting both natural language processing and societal applications. Because shorter sentences are generally better processed by NLP systems, it could be used as a preprocessing step which facilitates and improves the performance of parsers, semantic role labellers and machine translation systems. It should also be of use for people with reading disabilities because it allows the conversion of longer sentences into shorter ones. This paper makes two contributions towards this new task. First, we create and make available a benchmark consisting of 1,066,115 tuples mapping a single complex sentence to a sequence of sentences expressing the same meaning. Second, we propose five models (vanilla sequence-to-sequence to semantically-motivated models) to understand the difficulty of the proposed task.

2011

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Identification of context markers for Russian nouns
Anastasia Shimorina | Maria Grachkova
Proceedings of the 18th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics (NODALIDA 2011)