Self-supervised knowledge-graph completion (KGC) relies on estimating a scoring model over (entity, relation, entity)-tuples, for example, by embedding an initial knowledge graph. Prediction quality can be improved by calibrating the scoring model, typically by adjusting the prediction thresholds using manually annotated examples. In this paper, we attempt for the first time cold-start calibration for KGC, where no annotated examples exist initially for calibration, and only a limited number of tuples can be selected for annotation. Our new method ACTC finds good per-relation thresholds efficiently based on a limited set of annotated tuples. Additionally to a few annotated tuples, ACTC also leverages unlabeled tuples by estimating their correctness with Logistic Regression or Gaussian Process classifiers. We also experiment with different methods for selecting candidate tuples for annotation: density-based and random selection. Experiments with five scoring models and an oracle annotator show an improvement of 7% points when using ACTC in the challenging setting with an annotation budget of only 10 tuples, and an average improvement of 4% points over different budgets.
A cost-effective alternative to manual data labeling is weak supervision (WS), where data samples are automatically annotated using a predefined set of labeling functions (LFs), rule-based mechanisms that generate artificial labels for the associated classes. In this work, we investigate noise reduction techniques for WS based on the principle of k-fold cross-validation. We introduce a new algorithm ULF for Unsupervised Labeling Function correction, which denoises WS data by leveraging models trained on all but some LFs to identify and correct biases specific to the held-out LFs. Specifically, ULF refines the allocation of LFs to classes by re-estimating this assignment on highly reliable cross-validated samples. Evaluation on multiple datasets confirms ULF’s effectiveness in enhancing WS learning without the need for manual labeling.
Strategies for improving the training and prediction quality of weakly supervised machine learning models vary in how much they are tailored to a specific task or integrated with a specific model architecture. In this work, we introduce Knodle, a software framework that treats weak data annotations, deep learning models, and methods for improving weakly supervised training as separate, modular components. This modularization gives the training process access to fine-grained information such as data set characteristics, matches of heuristic rules, or elements of the deep learning model ultimately used for prediction. Hence, our framework can encompass a wide range of training methods for improving weak supervision, ranging from methods that only look at correlations of rules and output classes (independently of the machine learning model trained with the resulting labels), to those that harness the interplay of neural networks and weakly labeled data. We illustrate the benchmarking potential of the framework with a performance comparison of several reference implementations on a selection of datasets that are already available in Knodle.