Andrew Zupon


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Automatic Correction of Syntactic Dependency Annotation Differences
Andrew Zupon | Andrew Carnie | Michael Hammond | Mihai Surdeanu
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Annotation inconsistencies between data sets can cause problems for low-resource NLP, where noisy or inconsistent data cannot be easily replaced. We propose a method for automatically detecting annotation mismatches between dependency parsing corpora, along with three related methods for automatically converting the mismatches. All three methods rely on comparing unseen examples in a new corpus with similar examples in an existing corpus. These three methods include a simple lexical replacement using the most frequent tag of the example in the existing corpus, a GloVe embedding-based replacement that considers related examples, and a BERT-based replacement that uses contextualized embeddings to provide examples fine-tuned to our data. We evaluate these conversions by retraining two dependency parsers—Stanza and Parsing as Tagging (PaT)—on the converted and unconverted data. We find that applying our conversions yields significantly better performance in many cases. Some differences observed between the two parsers are observed. Stanza has a more complex architecture with a quadratic algorithm, taking longer to train, but it can generalize from less data. The PaT parser has a simpler architecture with a linear algorithm, speeding up training but requiring more training data to reach comparable or better performance.

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Taxonomy Builder: a Data-driven and User-centric Tool for Streamlining Taxonomy Construction
Mihai Surdeanu | John Hungerford | Yee Seng Chan | Jessica MacBride | Benjamin Gyori | Andrew Zupon | Zheng Tang | Haoling Qiu | Bonan Min | Yan Zverev | Caitlin Hilverman | Max Thomas | Walter Andrews | Keith Alcock | Zeyu Zhang | Michael Reynolds | Steven Bethard | Rebecca Sharp | Egoitz Laparra
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Bridging Human--Computer Interaction and Natural Language Processing

An existing domain taxonomy for normalizing content is often assumed when discussing approaches to information extraction, yet often in real-world scenarios there is none. When one does exist, as the information needs shift, it must be continually extended. This is a slow and tedious task, and one which does not scale well. Here we propose an interactive tool that allows a taxonomy to be built or extended rapidly and with a human in the loop to control precision. We apply insights from text summarization and information extraction to reduce the search space dramatically, then leverage modern pretrained language models to perform contextualized clustering of the remaining concepts to yield candidate nodes for the user to review. We show this allows a user to consider as many as 200 taxonomy concept candidates an hour, to quickly build or extend a taxonomy to better fit information needs.


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An Analysis of Capsule Networks for Part of Speech Tagging in High- and Low-resource Scenarios
Andrew Zupon | Faiz Rafique | Mihai Surdeanu
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Insights from Negative Results in NLP

Neural networks are a common tool in NLP, but it is not always clear which architecture to use for a given task. Different tasks, different languages, and different training conditions can all affect how a neural network will perform. Capsule Networks (CapsNets) are a relatively new architecture in NLP. Due to their novelty, CapsNets are being used more and more in NLP tasks. However, their usefulness is still mostly untested. In this paper, we compare three neural network architectures—LSTM, CNN, and CapsNet—on a part of speech tagging task. We compare these architectures in both high- and low-resource training conditions and find that no architecture consistently performs the best. Our analysis shows that our CapsNet performs nearly as well as a more complex LSTM under certain training conditions, but not others, and that our CapsNet almost always outperforms our CNN. We also find that our CapsNet implementation shows faster prediction times than the LSTM for Scottish Gaelic but not for Spanish, highlighting the effect that the choice of languages can have on the models.


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Lightly-supervised Representation Learning with Global Interpretability
Andrew Zupon | Maria Alexeeva | Marco Valenzuela-Escárcega | Ajay Nagesh | Mihai Surdeanu
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Structured Prediction for NLP

We propose a lightly-supervised approach for information extraction, in particular named entity classification, which combines the benefits of traditional bootstrapping, i.e., use of limited annotations and interpretability of extraction patterns, with the robust learning approaches proposed in representation learning. Our algorithm iteratively learns custom embeddings for both the multi-word entities to be extracted and the patterns that match them from a few example entities per category. We demonstrate that this representation-based approach outperforms three other state-of-the-art bootstrapping approaches on two datasets: CoNLL-2003 and OntoNotes. Additionally, using these embeddings, our approach outputs a globally-interpretable model consisting of a decision list, by ranking patterns based on their proximity to the average entity embedding in a given class. We show that this interpretable model performs close to our complete bootstrapping model, proving that representation learning can be used to produce interpretable models with small loss in performance. This decision list can be edited by human experts to mitigate some of that loss and in some cases outperform the original model.