Anjalie Field


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Annotating Mentions Alone Enables Efficient Domain Adaptation for Coreference Resolution
Nupoor Gandhi | Anjalie Field | Emma Strubell
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Although recent neural models for coreference resolution have led to substantial improvements on benchmark datasets, it remains a challenge to successfully transfer these models to new target domains containing many out-of-vocabulary spans and requiring differing annotation schemes. Typical approaches involve continued training on annotated target-domain data, but obtaining annotations is costly and time-consuming. In this work, we show that adapting mention detection is the key component to successful domain adaptation of coreference models, rather than antecedent linking. We also show annotating mentions alone is nearly twice as fast as annotating full coreference chains. Based on these insights, we propose a method for efficiently adapting coreference models, which includes a high-precision mention detection objective and requires only mention annotations in the target domain. Extensive evaluation across three English coreference datasets: CoNLL-2012 (news/conversation), i2b2/VA (medical notes), and child welfare notes, reveals that our approach facilitates annotation-efficient transfer and results in a 7-14% improvement in average F1 without increasing annotator time.

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Riveter: Measuring Power and Social Dynamics Between Entities
Maria Antoniak | Anjalie Field | Jimin Mun | Melanie Walsh | Lauren Klein | Maarten Sap
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 3: System Demonstrations)

Riveter provides a complete easy-to-use pipeline for analyzing verb connotations associated with entities in text corpora. We prepopulate the package with connotation frames of sentiment, power, and agency, which have demonstrated usefulness for capturing social phenomena, such as gender bias, in a broad range of corpora. For decades, lexical frameworks have been foundational tools in computational social science, digital humanities, and natural language processing, facilitating multifaceted analysis of text corpora. But working with verb-centric lexica specifically requires natural language processing skills, reducing their accessibility to other researchers. By organizing the language processing pipeline, providing complete lexicon scores and visualizations for all entities in a corpus, and providing functionality for users to target specific research questions, Riveter greatly improves the accessibility of verb lexica and can facilitate a broad range of future research.


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Gendered Mental Health Stigma in Masked Language Models
Inna Lin | Lucille Njoo | Anjalie Field | Ashish Sharma | Katharina Reinecke | Tim Althoff | Yulia Tsvetkov
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Mental health stigma prevents many individuals from receiving the appropriate care, and social psychology studies have shown that mental health tends to be overlooked in men. In this work, we investigate gendered mental health stigma in masked language models. In doing so, we operationalize mental health stigma by developing a framework grounded in psychology research: we use clinical psychology literature to curate prompts, then evaluate the models’ propensity to generate gendered words. We find that masked language models capture societal stigma about gender in mental health: models are consistently more likely to predict female subjects than male in sentences about having a mental health condition (32% vs. 19%), and this disparity is exacerbated for sentences that indicate treatment-seeking behavior. Furthermore, we find that different models capture dimensions of stigma differently for men and women, associating stereotypes like anger, blame, and pity more with women with mental health conditions than with men. In showing the complex nuances of models’ gendered mental health stigma, we demonstrate that context and overlapping dimensions of identity are important considerations when assessing computational models’ social biases.

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Challenges and Opportunities in Information Manipulation Detection: An Examination of Wartime Russian Media
Chan Young Park | Julia Mendelsohn | Anjalie Field | Yulia Tsvetkov
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

NLP research on public opinion manipulation campaigns has primarily focused on detecting overt strategies such as fake news and disinformation. However, information manipulation in the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war exemplifies how governments and media also employ more nuanced strategies. We release a new dataset, VoynaSlov, containing 38M+ posts from Russian media outlets on Twitter and VKontakte, as well as public activity and responses, immediately preceding and during the 2022 Russia-Ukraine war. We apply standard and recently-developed NLP models on VoynaSlov to examine agenda setting, framing, and priming, several strategies underlying information manipulation, and reveal variation across media outlet control, social media platform, and time. Our examination of these media effects and extensive discussion of current approaches’ limitations encourage further development of NLP models for understanding information manipulation in emerging crises, as well as other real-world and interdisciplinary tasks.


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A Survey of Race, Racism, and Anti-Racism in NLP
Anjalie Field | Su Lin Blodgett | Zeerak Waseem | Yulia Tsvetkov
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Despite inextricable ties between race and language, little work has considered race in NLP research and development. In this work, we survey 79 papers from the ACL anthology that mention race. These papers reveal various types of race-related bias in all stages of NLP model development, highlighting the need for proactive consideration of how NLP systems can uphold racial hierarchies. However, persistent gaps in research on race and NLP remain: race has been siloed as a niche topic and remains ignored in many NLP tasks; most work operationalizes race as a fixed single-dimensional variable with a ground-truth label, which risks reinforcing differences produced by historical racism; and the voices of historically marginalized people are nearly absent in NLP literature. By identifying where and how NLP literature has and has not considered race, especially in comparison to related fields, our work calls for inclusion and racial justice in NLP research practices.

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Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on NLP for Positive Impact
Anjalie Field | Shrimai Prabhumoye | Maarten Sap | Zhijing Jin | Jieyu Zhao | Chris Brockett
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on NLP for Positive Impact

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Improving Span Representation for Domain-adapted Coreference Resolution
Nupoor Gandhi | Anjalie Field | Yulia Tsvetkov
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Computational Models of Reference, Anaphora and Coreference

Recent work has shown fine-tuning neural coreference models can produce strong performance when adapting to different domains. However, at the same time, this can require a large amount of annotated target examples. In this work, we focus on supervised domain adaptation for clinical notes, proposing the use of concept knowledge to more efficiently adapt coreference models to a new domain. We develop methods to improve the span representations via (1) a retrofitting loss to incentivize span representations to satisfy a knowledge-based distance function and (2) a scaffolding loss to guide the recovery of knowledge from the span representation. By integrating these losses, our model is able to improve our baseline precision and F-1 score. In particular, we show that incorporating knowledge with end-to-end coreference models results in better performance on the most challenging, domain-specific spans.


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Demoting Racial Bias in Hate Speech Detection
Mengzhou Xia | Anjalie Field | Yulia Tsvetkov
Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media

In the task of hate speech detection, there exists a high correlation between African American English (AAE) and annotators’ perceptions of toxicity in current datasets. This bias in annotated training data and the tendency of machine learning models to amplify it cause AAE text to often be mislabeled as abusive/offensive/hate speech (high false positive rate) by current hate speech classifiers. Here, we use adversarial training to mitigate this bias. Experimental results on one hate speech dataset and one AAE dataset suggest that our method is able to reduce the false positive rate for AAE text with only a minimal compromise on the performance of hate speech classification.

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Unsupervised Discovery of Implicit Gender Bias
Anjalie Field | Yulia Tsvetkov
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Despite their prevalence in society, social biases are difficult to identify, primarily because human judgements in this domain can be unreliable. We take an unsupervised approach to identifying gender bias against women at a comment level and present a model that can surface text likely to contain bias. Our main challenge is forcing the model to focus on signs of implicit bias, rather than other artifacts in the data. Thus, our methodology involves reducing the influence of confounds through propensity matching and adversarial learning. Our analysis shows how biased comments directed towards female politicians contain mixed criticisms, while comments directed towards other female public figures focus on appearance and sexualization. Ultimately, our work offers a way to capture subtle biases in various domains without relying on subjective human judgements.

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A Generative Approach to Titling and Clustering Wikipedia Sections
Anjalie Field | Sascha Rothe | Simon Baumgartner | Cong Yu | Abe Ittycheriah
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

We evaluate the performance of transformer encoders with various decoders for information organization through a new task: generation of section headings for Wikipedia articles. Our analysis shows that decoders containing attention mechanisms over the encoder output achieve high-scoring results by generating extractive text. In contrast, a decoder without attention better facilitates semantic encoding and can be used to generate section embeddings. We additionally introduce a new loss function, which further encourages the decoder to generate high-quality embeddings.


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Entity-Centric Contextual Affective Analysis
Anjalie Field | Yulia Tsvetkov
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

While contextualized word representations have improved state-of-the-art benchmarks in many NLP tasks, their potential usefulness for social-oriented tasks remains largely unexplored. We show how contextualized word embeddings can be used to capture affect dimensions in portrayals of people. We evaluate our methodology quantitatively, on held-out affect lexicons, and qualitatively, through case examples. We find that contextualized word representations do encode meaningful affect information, but they are heavily biased towards their training data, which limits their usefulness to in-domain analyses. We ultimately use our method to examine differences in portrayals of men and women.


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Framing and Agenda-setting in Russian News: a Computational Analysis of Intricate Political Strategies
Anjalie Field | Doron Kliger | Shuly Wintner | Jennifer Pan | Dan Jurafsky | Yulia Tsvetkov
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Amidst growing concern over media manipulation, NLP attention has focused on overt strategies like censorship and “fake news”. Here, we draw on two concepts from political science literature to explore subtler strategies for government media manipulation: agenda-setting (selecting what topics to cover) and framing (deciding how topics are covered). We analyze 13 years (100K articles) of the Russian newspaper Izvestia and identify a strategy of distraction: articles mention the U.S. more frequently in the month directly following an economic downturn in Russia. We introduce embedding-based methods for cross-lingually projecting English frames to Russian, and discover that these articles emphasize U.S. moral failings and threats to the U.S. Our work offers new ways to identify subtle media manipulation strategies at the intersection of agenda-setting and framing.