Anmol Agarwal


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CST5: Data Augmentation for Code-Switched Semantic Parsing
Anmol Agarwal | Jigar Gupta | Rahul Goel | Shyam Upadhyay | Pankaj Joshi | Rengarajan Aravamudhan
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Taming Large Language Models: Controllability in the era of Interactive Assistants!

Extending semantic parsers to code-switched input has been a challenging problem, primarily due to a lack of supervised training data. In this work, we introduce CST5, a new data augmentation technique that fine-tunes a T5 model using a small seed set (≈100 utterances) to generate code-switched utterances from English utterances. We show that CST5 generates high quality code-switched data, both intrinsically (per human evaluation) and extrinsically by comparing baseline models which are trained without data augmentation to models which are trained with augmented data. Empirically we observe that using CST5, one can achieve the same semantic parsing performance by using up to 20x less labeled data. To aid further research in this area, we are also releasing (a) Hinglish-TOP, the largest human annotated code-switched semantic parsing dataset to date, containing 10k human annotated Hindi-English (Hinglish) code-switched utterances, and (b) Over 170K CST5 generated code-switched utterances from the TOPv2 dataset. Human evaluation shows that both the human annotated data as well as the CST5 generated data is of good quality.


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Learning to Automate Follow-up Question Generation using Process Knowledge for Depression Triage on Reddit Posts
Shrey Gupta | Anmol Agarwal | Manas Gaur | Kaushik Roy | Vignesh Narayanan | Ponnurangam Kumaraguru | Amit Sheth
Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Clinical Psychology

Conversational Agents (CAs) powered with deep language models (DLMs) have shown tremendous promise in the domain of mental health. Prominently, the CAs have been used to provide informational or therapeutic services (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy) to patients. However, the utility of CAs to assist in mental health triaging has not been explored in the existing work as it requires a controlled generation of follow-up questions (FQs), which are often initiated and guided by the mental health professionals (MHPs) in clinical settings. In the context of ‘depression’, our experiments show that DLMs coupled with process knowledge in a mental health questionnaire generate 12.54% and 9.37% better FQs based on similarity and longest common subsequence matches to questions in the PHQ-9 dataset respectively, when compared with DLMs without process knowledge support. Despite coupling with process knowledge, we find that DLMs are still prone to hallucination, i.e., generating redundant, irrelevant, and unsafe FQs. We demonstrate the challenge of using existing datasets to train a DLM for generating FQs that adhere to clinical process knowledge. To address this limitation, we prepared an extended PHQ-9 based dataset, PRIMATE, in collaboration with MHPs. PRIMATE contains annotations regarding whether a particular question in the PHQ-9 dataset has already been answered in the user’s initial description of the mental health condition. We used PRIMATE to train a DLM in a supervised setting to identify which of the PHQ-9 questions can be answered directly from the user’s post and which ones would require more information from the user. Using performance analysis based on MCC scores, we show that PRIMATE is appropriate for identifying questions in PHQ-9 that could guide generative DLMs towards controlled FQ generation (with minimal hallucination) suitable for aiding triaging. The dataset created as a part of this research can be obtained from