Anmol Goel


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X-RiSAWOZ: High-Quality End-to-End Multilingual Dialogue Datasets and Few-shot Agents
Mehrad Moradshahi | Tianhao Shen | Kalika Bali | Monojit Choudhury | Gael de Chalendar | Anmol Goel | Sungkyun Kim | Prashant Kodali | Ponnurangam Kumaraguru | Nasredine Semmar | Sina Semnani | Jiwon Seo | Vivek Seshadri | Manish Shrivastava | Michael Sun | Aditya Yadavalli | Chaobin You | Deyi Xiong | Monica Lam
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Task-oriented dialogue research has mainly focused on a few popular languages like English and Chinese, due to the high dataset creation cost for a new language. To reduce the cost, we apply manual editing to automatically translated data. We create a new multilingual benchmark, X-RiSAWOZ, by translating the Chinese RiSAWOZ to 4 languages: English, French, Hindi, Korean; and a code-mixed English-Hindi language.X-RiSAWOZ has more than 18,000 human-verified dialogue utterances for each language, and unlike most multilingual prior work, is an end-to-end dataset for building fully-functioning agents. The many difficulties we encountered in creating X-RiSAWOZ led us to develop a toolset to accelerate the post-editing of a new language dataset after translation. This toolset improves machine translation with a hybrid entity alignment technique that combines neural with dictionary-based methods, along with many automated and semi-automated validation checks. We establish strong baselines for X-RiSAWOZ by training dialogue agents in the zero- and few-shot settings where limited gold data is available in the target language. Our results suggest that our translation and post-editing methodology and toolset can be used to create new high-quality multilingual dialogue agents cost-effectively. Our dataset, code, and toolkit are released open-source.


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An Unsupervised, Geometric and Syntax-aware Quantification of Polysemy
Anmol Goel | Charu Sharma | Ponnurangam Kumaraguru
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Polysemy is the phenomenon where a single word form possesses two or more related senses. It is an extremely ubiquitous part of natural language and analyzing it has sparked rich discussions in the linguistics, psychology and philosophy communities alike. With scarce attention paid to polysemy in computational linguistics, and even scarcer attention toward quantifying polysemy, in this paper, we propose a novel, unsupervised framework to compute and estimate polysemy scores for words in multiple languages. We infuse our proposed quantification with syntactic knowledge in the form of dependency structures. This informs the final polysemy scores of the lexicon motivated by recent linguistic findings that suggest there is an implicit relation between syntax and ambiguity/polysemy. We adopt a graph based approach by computing the discrete Ollivier Ricci curvature on a graph of the contextual nearest neighbors. We test our framework on curated datasets controlling for different sense distributions of words in 3 typologically diverse languages - English, French and Spanish. The effectiveness of our framework is demonstrated by significant correlations of our quantification with expert human annotated language resources like WordNet. We observe a 0.3 point increase in the correlation coefficient as compared to previous quantification studies in English. Our research leverages contextual language models and syntactic structures to empirically support the widely held theoretical linguistic notion that syntax is intricately linked to ambiguity/polysemy.

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SyMCoM - Syntactic Measure of Code Mixing A Study Of English-Hindi Code-Mixing
Prashant Kodali | Anmol Goel | Monojit Choudhury | Manish Shrivastava | Ponnurangam Kumaraguru
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Code mixing is the linguistic phenomenon where bilingual speakers tend to switch between two or more languages in conversations. Recent work on code-mixing in computational settings has leveraged social media code mixed texts to train NLP models. For capturing the variety of code mixing in, and across corpus, Language ID (LID) tags based measures (CMI) have been proposed. Syntactical variety/patterns of code-mixing and their relationship vis-a-vis computational model’s performance is under explored. In this work, we investigate a collection of English(en)-Hindi(hi) code-mixed datasets from a syntactic lens to propose, SyMCoM, an indicator of syntactic variety in code-mixed text, with intuitive theoretical bounds. We train SoTA en-hi PoS tagger, accuracy of 93.4%, to reliably compute PoS tags on a corpus, and demonstrate the utility of SyMCoM by applying it on various syntactical categories on a collection of datasets, and compare datasets using the measure.

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HLDC: Hindi Legal Documents Corpus
Arnav Kapoor | Mudit Dhawan | Anmol Goel | Arjun T H | Akshala Bhatnagar | Vibhu Agrawal | Amul Agrawal | Arnab Bhattacharya | Ponnurangam Kumaraguru | Ashutosh Modi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Many populous countries including India are burdened with a considerable backlog of legal cases. Development of automated systems that could process legal documents and augment legal practitioners can mitigate this. However, there is a dearth of high-quality corpora that is needed to develop such data-driven systems. The problem gets even more pronounced in the case of low resource languages such as Hindi. In this resource paper, we introduce the Hindi Legal Documents Corpus (HLDC), a corpus of more than 900K legal documents in Hindi. Documents are cleaned and structured to enable the development of downstream applications. Further, as a use-case for the corpus, we introduce the task of bail prediction. We experiment with a battery of models and propose a Multi-Task Learning (MTL) based model for the same. MTL models use summarization as an auxiliary task along with bail prediction as the main task. Experiments with different models are indicative of the need for further research in this area.

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PreCogIIITH at HinglishEval : Leveraging Code-Mixing Metrics & Language Model Embeddings To Estimate Code-Mix Quality
Prashant Kodali | Tanmay Sachan | Akshay Goindani | Anmol Goel | Naman Ahuja | Manish Shrivastava | Ponnurangam Kumaraguru
Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Natural Language Generation: Generation Challenges

Code-Mixing is a phenomenon of mixing two or more languages in a speech event and is prevalent in multilingual societies. Given the low-resource nature of Code-Mixing, machine generation of code-mixed text is a prevalent approach for data augmentation. However, evaluating the quality of such machine gen- erated code-mixed text is an open problem. In our submission to HinglishEval, a shared- task collocated with INLG2022, we attempt to build models factors that impact the quality of synthetically generated code-mix text by pre- dicting ratings for code-mix quality. Hingli- shEval Shared Task consists of two sub-tasks - a) Quality rating prediction); b) Disagree- ment prediction. We leverage popular code- mixed metrics and embeddings of multilin- gual large language models (MLLMs) as fea- tures, and train task specific MLP regression models. Our approach could not beat the baseline results. However, for Subtask-A our team ranked a close second on F-1 and Co- hen’s Kappa Score measures and first for Mean Squared Error measure. For Subtask-B our ap- proach ranked third for F1 score, and first for Mean Squared Error measure. Code of our submission can be accessed here.


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CoMeT: Towards Code-Mixed Translation Using Parallel Monolingual Sentences
Devansh Gautam | Prashant Kodali | Kshitij Gupta | Anmol Goel | Manish Shrivastava | Ponnurangam Kumaraguru
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Approaches to Linguistic Code-Switching

Code-mixed languages are very popular in multilingual societies around the world, yet the resources lag behind to enable robust systems on such languages. A major contributing factor is the informal nature of these languages which makes it difficult to collect code-mixed data. In this paper, we propose our system for Task 1 of CACLS 2021 to generate a machine translation system for English to Hinglish in a supervised setting. Translating in the given direction can help expand the set of resources for several tasks by translating valuable datasets from high resource languages. We propose to use mBART, a pre-trained multilingual sequence-to-sequence model, and fully utilize the pre-training of the model by transliterating the roman Hindi words in the code-mixed sentences to Devanagri script. We evaluate how expanding the input by concatenating Hindi translations of the English sentences improves mBART’s performance. Our system gives a BLEU score of 12.22 on test set. Further, we perform a detailed error analysis of our proposed systems and explore the limitations of the provided dataset and metrics.