Anna Korhonen


2021

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Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Computational Typology and Multilingual NLP
Ekaterina Vylomova | Elizabeth Salesky | Sabrina Mielke | Gabriella Lapesa | Ritesh Kumar | Harald Hammarström | Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen | Roi Reichart | Edoardo Maria Ponti | Ryan Cotterell
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Computational Typology and Multilingual NLP

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Combining Deep Generative Models and Multi-lingual Pretraining for Semi-supervised Document Classification
Yi Zhu | Ehsan Shareghi | Yingzhen Li | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Semi-supervised learning through deep generative models and multi-lingual pretraining techniques have orchestrated tremendous success across different areas of NLP. Nonetheless, their development has happened in isolation, while the combination of both could potentially be effective for tackling task-specific labelled data shortage. To bridge this gap, we combine semi-supervised deep generative models and multi-lingual pretraining to form a pipeline for document classification task. Compared to strong supervised learning baselines, our semi-supervised classification framework is highly competitive and outperforms the state-of-the-art counterparts in low-resource settings across several languages.

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LexFit: Lexical Fine-Tuning of Pretrained Language Models
Ivan Vulić | Edoardo Maria Ponti | Anna Korhonen | Goran Glavaš
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Transformer-based language models (LMs) pretrained on large text collections implicitly store a wealth of lexical semantic knowledge, but it is non-trivial to extract that knowledge effectively from their parameters. Inspired by prior work on semantic specialization of static word embedding (WE) models, we show that it is possible to expose and enrich lexical knowledge from the LMs, that is, to specialize them to serve as effective and universal “decontextualized” word encoders even when fed input words “in isolation” (i.e., without any context). Their transformation into such word encoders is achieved through a simple and efficient lexical fine-tuning procedure (termed LexFit) based on dual-encoder network structures. Further, we show that LexFit can yield effective word encoders even with limited lexical supervision and, via cross-lingual transfer, in different languages without any readily available external knowledge. Our evaluation over four established, structurally different lexical-level tasks in 8 languages indicates the superiority of LexFit-based WEs over standard static WEs (e.g., fastText) and WEs from vanilla LMs. Other extensive experiments and ablation studies further profile the LexFit framework, and indicate best practices and performance variations across LexFit variants, languages, and lexical tasks, also directly questioning the usefulness of traditional WE models in the era of large neural models.

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A Closer Look at Few-Shot Crosslingual Transfer: The Choice of Shots Matters
Mengjie Zhao | Yi Zhu | Ehsan Shareghi | Ivan Vulić | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen | Hinrich Schütze
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Few-shot crosslingual transfer has been shown to outperform its zero-shot counterpart with pretrained encoders like multilingual BERT. Despite its growing popularity, little to no attention has been paid to standardizing and analyzing the design of few-shot experiments. In this work, we highlight a fundamental risk posed by this shortcoming, illustrating that the model exhibits a high degree of sensitivity to the selection of few shots. We conduct a large-scale experimental study on 40 sets of sampled few shots for six diverse NLP tasks across up to 40 languages. We provide an analysis of success and failure cases of few-shot transfer, which highlights the role of lexical features. Additionally, we show that a straightforward full model finetuning approach is quite effective for few-shot transfer, outperforming several state-of-the-art few-shot approaches. As a step towards standardizing few-shot crosslingual experimental designs, we make our sampled few shots publicly available.

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Verb Knowledge Injection for Multilingual Event Processing
Olga Majewska | Ivan Vulić | Goran Glavaš | Edoardo Maria Ponti | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Linguistic probing of pretrained Transformer-based language models (LMs) revealed that they encode a range of syntactic and semantic properties of a language. However, they are still prone to fall back on superficial cues and simple heuristics to solve downstream tasks, rather than leverage deeper linguistic information. In this paper, we target a specific facet of linguistic knowledge, the interplay between verb meaning and argument structure. We investigate whether injecting explicit information on verbs’ semantic-syntactic behaviour improves the performance of pretrained LMs in event extraction tasks, where accurate verb processing is paramount. Concretely, we impart the verb knowledge from curated lexical resources into dedicated adapter modules (verb adapters), allowing it to complement, in downstream tasks, the language knowledge obtained during LM-pretraining. We first demonstrate that injecting verb knowledge leads to performance gains in English event extraction. We then explore the utility of verb adapters for event extraction in other languages: we investigate 1) zero-shot language transfer with multilingual Transformers and 2) transfer via (noisy automatic) translation of English verb-based lexical knowledge. Our results show that the benefits of verb knowledge injection indeed extend to other languages, even when relying on noisily translated lexical knowledge.

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Learning Domain-Specialised Representations for Cross-Lingual Biomedical Entity Linking
Fangyu Liu | Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen | Nigel Collier
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Injecting external domain-specific knowledge (e.g., UMLS) into pretrained language models (LMs) advances their capability to handle specialised in-domain tasks such as biomedical entity linking (BEL). However, such abundant expert knowledge is available only for a handful of languages (e.g., English). In this work, by proposing a novel cross-lingual biomedical entity linking task (XL-BEL) and establishing a new XL-BEL benchmark spanning 10 typologically diverse languages, we first investigate the ability of standard knowledge-agnostic as well as knowledge-enhanced monolingual and multilingual LMs beyond the standard monolingual English BEL task. The scores indicate large gaps to English performance. We then address the challenge of transferring domain-specific knowledge in resource-rich languages to resource-poor ones. To this end, we propose and evaluate a series of cross-lingual transfer methods for the XL-BEL task, and demonstrate that general-domain bitext helps propagate the available English knowledge to languages with little to no in-domain data. Remarkably, we show that our proposed domain-specific transfer methods yield consistent gains across all target languages, sometimes up to 20 Precision@1 points, without any in-domain knowledge in the target language, and without any in-domain parallel data.

2020

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Specializing Unsupervised Pretraining Models for Word-Level Semantic Similarity
Anne Lauscher | Ivan Vulić | Edoardo Maria Ponti | Anna Korhonen | Goran Glavaš
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Unsupervised pretraining models have been shown to facilitate a wide range of downstream NLP applications. These models, however, retain some of the limitations of traditional static word embeddings. In particular, they encode only the distributional knowledge available in raw text corpora, incorporated through language modeling objectives. In this work, we complement such distributional knowledge with external lexical knowledge, that is, we integrate the discrete knowledge on word-level semantic similarity into pretraining. To this end, we generalize the standard BERT model to a multi-task learning setting where we couple BERT’s masked language modeling and next sentence prediction objectives with an auxiliary task of binary word relation classification. Our experiments suggest that our “Lexically Informed” BERT (LIBERT), specialized for the word-level semantic similarity, yields better performance than the lexically blind “vanilla” BERT on several language understanding tasks. Concretely, LIBERT outperforms BERT in 9 out of 10 tasks of the GLUE benchmark and is on a par with BERT in the remaining one. Moreover, we show consistent gains on 3 benchmarks for lexical simplification, a task where knowledge about word-level semantic similarity is paramount, as well as large gains on lexical reasoning probes.

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Emergent Communication Pretraining for Few-Shot Machine Translation
Yaoyiran Li | Edoardo Maria Ponti | Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

While state-of-the-art models that rely upon massively multilingual pretrained encoders achieve sample efficiency in downstream applications, they still require abundant amounts of unlabelled text. Nevertheless, most of the world’s languages lack such resources. Hence, we investigate a more radical form of unsupervised knowledge transfer in the absence of linguistic data. In particular, for the first time we pretrain neural networks via emergent communication from referential games. Our key assumption is that grounding communication on images—as a crude approximation of real-world environments—inductively biases the model towards learning natural languages. On the one hand, we show that this substantially benefits machine translation in few-shot settings. On the other hand, this also provides an extrinsic evaluation protocol to probe the properties of emergent languages ex vitro. Intuitively, the closer they are to natural languages, the higher the gains from pretraining on them should be. For instance, in this work we measure the influence of communication success and maximum sequence length on downstream performances. Finally, we introduce a customised adapter layer and annealing strategies for the regulariser of maximum-a-posteriori inference during fine-tuning. These turn out to be crucial to facilitate knowledge transfer and prevent catastrophic forgetting. Compared to a recurrent baseline, our method yields gains of 59.0% 147.6% in BLEU score with only 500 NMT training instances and 65.1% 196.7% with 1,000 NMT training instances across four language pairs. These proof-of-concept results reveal the potential of emergent communication pretraining for both natural language processing tasks in resource-poor settings and extrinsic evaluation of artificial languages.

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Manual Clustering and Spatial Arrangement of Verbs for Multilingual Evaluation and Typology Analysis
Olga Majewska | Ivan Vulić | Diana McCarthy | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

We present the first evaluation of the applicability of a spatial arrangement method (SpAM) to a typologically diverse language sample, and its potential to produce semantic evaluation resources to support multilingual NLP, with a focus on verb semantics. We demonstrate SpAM’s utility in allowing for quick bottom-up creation of large-scale evaluation datasets that balance cross-lingual alignment with language specificity. Starting from a shared sample of 825 English verbs, translated into Chinese, Japanese, Finnish, Polish, and Italian, we apply a two-phase annotation process which produces (i) semantic verb classes and (ii) fine-grained similarity scores for nearly 130 thousand verb pairs. We use the two types of verb data to (a) examine cross-lingual similarities and variation, and (b) evaluate the capacity of static and contextualised representation models to accurately reflect verb semantics, contrasting the performance of large language specific pretraining models with their multilingual equivalent on semantic clustering and lexical similarity, across different domains of verb meaning. We release the data from both phases as a large-scale multilingual resource, comprising 85 verb classes and nearly 130k pairwise similarity scores, offering a wealth of possibilities for further evaluation and research on multilingual verb semantics.

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Spatial Multi-Arrangement for Clustering and Multi-way Similarity Dataset Construction
Olga Majewska | Diana McCarthy | Jasper van den Bosch | Nikolaus Kriegeskorte | Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We present a novel methodology for fast bottom-up creation of large-scale semantic similarity resources to support development and evaluation of NLP systems. Our work targets verb similarity, but the methodology is equally applicable to other parts of speech. Our approach circumvents the bottleneck of slow and expensive manual development of lexical resources by leveraging semantic intuitions of native speakers and adapting a spatial multi-arrangement approach from cognitive neuroscience, used before only with visual stimuli, to lexical stimuli. Our approach critically obtains judgments of word similarity in the context of a set of related words, rather than of word pairs in isolation. We also handle lexical ambiguity as a natural consequence of a two-phase process where verbs are placed in broad semantic classes prior to the fine-grained spatial similarity judgments. Our proposed design produces a large-scale verb resource comprising 17 relatedness-based classes and a verb similarity dataset containing similarity scores for 29,721 unique verb pairs and 825 target verbs, which we release with this paper.

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Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computational Research in Linguistic Typology
Ekaterina Vylomova | Edoardo M. Ponti | Eitan Grossman | Arya D. McCarthy | Yevgeni Berzak | Haim Dubossarsky | Ivan Vulić | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen | Ryan Cotterell
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computational Research in Linguistic Typology

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Multidirectional Associative Optimization of Function-Specific Word Representations
Daniela Gerz | Ivan Vulić | Marek Rei | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We present a neural framework for learning associations between interrelated groups of words such as the ones found in Subject-Verb-Object (SVO) structures. Our model induces a joint function-specific word vector space, where vectors of e.g. plausible SVO compositions lie close together. The model retains information about word group membership even in the joint space, and can thereby effectively be applied to a number of tasks reasoning over the SVO structure. We show the robustness and versatility of the proposed framework by reporting state-of-the-art results on the tasks of estimating selectional preference and event similarity. The results indicate that the combinations of representations learned with our task-independent model outperform task-specific architectures from prior work, while reducing the number of parameters by up to 95%.

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Investigating Word-Class Distributions in Word Vector Spaces
Ryohei Sasano | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

This paper presents an investigation on the distribution of word vectors belonging to a certain word class in a pre-trained word vector space. To this end, we made several assumptions about the distribution, modeled the distribution accordingly, and validated each assumption by comparing the goodness of each model. Specifically, we considered two types of word classes – the semantic class of direct objects of a verb and the semantic class in a thesaurus – and tried to build models that properly estimate how likely it is that a word in the vector space is a member of a given word class. Our results on selectional preference and WordNet datasets show that the centroid-based model will fail to achieve good enough performance, the geometry of the distribution and the existence of subgroups will have limited impact, and also the negative instances need to be considered for adequate modeling of the distribution. We further investigated the relationship between the scores calculated by each model and the degree of membership and found that discriminative learning-based models are best in finding the boundaries of a class, while models based on the offset between positive and negative instances perform best in determining the degree of membership.

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Classification-Based Self-Learning for Weakly Supervised Bilingual Lexicon Induction
Mladen Karan | Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen | Goran Glavaš
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Effective projection-based cross-lingual word embedding (CLWE) induction critically relies on the iterative self-learning procedure. It gradually expands the initial small seed dictionary to learn improved cross-lingual mappings. In this work, we present ClassyMap, a classification-based approach to self-learning, yielding a more robust and a more effective induction of projection-based CLWEs. Unlike prior self-learning methods, our approach allows for integration of diverse features into the iterative process. We show the benefits of ClassyMap for bilingual lexicon induction: we report consistent improvements in a weakly supervised setup (500 seed translation pairs) on a benchmark with 28 language pairs.

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Multi-SimLex: A Large-Scale Evaluation of Multilingual and Crosslingual Lexical Semantic Similarity
Ivan Vulić | Simon Baker | Edoardo Maria Ponti | Ulla Petti | Ira Leviant | Kelly Wing | Olga Majewska | Eden Bar | Matt Malone | Thierry Poibeau | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Computational Linguistics, Volume 46, Issue 4 - December 2020

We introduce Multi-SimLex, a large-scale lexical resource and evaluation benchmark covering data sets for 12 typologically diverse languages, including major languages (e.g., Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, Russian) as well as less-resourced ones (e.g., Welsh, Kiswahili). Each language data set is annotated for the lexical relation of semantic similarity and contains 1,888 semantically aligned concept pairs, providing a representative coverage of word classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs), frequency ranks, similarity intervals, lexical fields, and concreteness levels. Additionally, owing to the alignment of concepts across languages, we provide a suite of 66 crosslingual semantic similarity data sets. Because of its extensive size and language coverage, Multi-SimLex provides entirely novel opportunities for experimental evaluation and analysis. On its monolingual and crosslingual benchmarks, we evaluate and analyze a wide array of recent state-of-the-art monolingual and crosslingual representation models, including static and contextualized word embeddings (such as fastText, monolingual and multilingual BERT, XLM), externally informed lexical representations, as well as fully unsupervised and (weakly) supervised crosslingual word embeddings. We also present a step-by-step data set creation protocol for creating consistent, Multi-Simlex–style resources for additional languages. We make these contributions—the public release of Multi-SimLex data sets, their creation protocol, strong baseline results, and in-depth analyses which can be helpful in guiding future developments in multilingual lexical semantics and representation learning—available via a Web site that will encourage community effort in further expansion of Multi-Simlex to many more languages. Such a large-scale semantic resource could inspire significant further advances in NLP across languages.

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XCOPA: A Multilingual Dataset for Causal Commonsense Reasoning
Edoardo Maria Ponti | Goran Glavaš | Olga Majewska | Qianchu Liu | Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

In order to simulate human language capacity, natural language processing systems must be able to reason about the dynamics of everyday situations, including their possible causes and effects. Moreover, they should be able to generalise the acquired world knowledge to new languages, modulo cultural differences. Advances in machine reasoning and cross-lingual transfer depend on the availability of challenging evaluation benchmarks. Motivated by both demands, we introduce Cross-lingual Choice of Plausible Alternatives (XCOPA), a typologically diverse multilingual dataset for causal commonsense reasoning in 11 languages, which includes resource-poor languages like Eastern Apurímac Quechua and Haitian Creole. We evaluate a range of state-of-the-art models on this novel dataset, revealing that the performance of current methods based on multilingual pretraining and zero-shot fine-tuning falls short compared to translation-based transfer. Finally, we propose strategies to adapt multilingual models to out-of-sample resource-lean languages where only a small corpus or a bilingual dictionary is available, and report substantial improvements over the random baseline. The XCOPA dataset is freely available at github.com/cambridgeltl/xcopa.

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The Secret is in the Spectra: Predicting Cross-lingual Task Performance with Spectral Similarity Measures
Haim Dubossarsky | Ivan Vulić | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Performance in cross-lingual NLP tasks is impacted by the (dis)similarity of languages at hand: e.g., previous work has suggested there is a connection between the expected success of bilingual lexicon induction (BLI) and the assumption of (approximate) isomorphism between monolingual embedding spaces. In this work we present a large-scale study focused on the correlations between monolingual embedding space similarity and task performance, covering thousands of language pairs and four different tasks: BLI, parsing, POS tagging and MT. We hypothesize that statistics of the spectrum of each monolingual embedding space indicate how well they can be aligned. We then introduce several isomorphism measures between two embedding spaces, based on the relevant statistics of their individual spectra. We empirically show that (1) language similarity scores derived from such spectral isomorphism measures are strongly associated with performance observed in different cross-lingual tasks, and (2) our spectral-based measures consistently outperform previous standard isomorphism measures, while being computationally more tractable and easier to interpret. Finally, our measures capture complementary information to typologically driven language distance measures, and the combination of measures from the two families yields even higher task performance correlations.

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Towards Better Context-aware Lexical Semantics:Adjusting Contextualized Representations through Static Anchors
Qianchu Liu | Diana McCarthy | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

One of the most powerful features of contextualized models is their dynamic embeddings for words in context, leading to state-of-the-art representations for context-aware lexical semantics. In this paper, we present a post-processing technique that enhances these representations by learning a transformation through static anchors. Our method requires only another pre-trained model and no labeled data is needed. We show consistent improvement in a range of benchmark tasks that test contextual variations of meaning both across different usages of a word and across different words as they are used in context. We demonstrate that while the original contextual representations can be improved by another embedding space from both contextualized and static models, the static embeddings, which have lower computational requirements, provide the most gains.

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Probing Pretrained Language Models for Lexical Semantics
Ivan Vulić | Edoardo Maria Ponti | Robert Litschko | Goran Glavaš | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

The success of large pretrained language models (LMs) such as BERT and RoBERTa has sparked interest in probing their representations, in order to unveil what types of knowledge they implicitly capture. While prior research focused on morphosyntactic, semantic, and world knowledge, it remains unclear to which extent LMs also derive lexical type-level knowledge from words in context. In this work, we present a systematic empirical analysis across six typologically diverse languages and five different lexical tasks, addressing the following questions: 1) How do different lexical knowledge extraction strategies (monolingual versus multilingual source LM, out-of-context versus in-context encoding, inclusion of special tokens, and layer-wise averaging) impact performance? How consistent are the observed effects across tasks and languages? 2) Is lexical knowledge stored in few parameters, or is it scattered throughout the network? 3) How do these representations fare against traditional static word vectors in lexical tasks 4) Does the lexical information emerging from independently trained monolingual LMs display latent similarities? Our main results indicate patterns and best practices that hold universally, but also point to prominent variations across languages and tasks. Moreover, we validate the claim that lower Transformer layers carry more type-level lexical knowledge, but also show that this knowledge is distributed across multiple layers.

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SemEval-2020 Task 2: Predicting Multilingual and Cross-Lingual (Graded) Lexical Entailment
Goran Glavaš | Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen | Simone Paolo Ponzetto
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

Lexical entailment (LE) is a fundamental asymmetric lexico-semantic relation, supporting the hierarchies in lexical resources (e.g., WordNet, ConceptNet) and applications like natural language inference and taxonomy induction. Multilingual and cross-lingual NLP applications warrant models for LE detection that go beyond language boundaries. As part of SemEval 2020, we carried out a shared task (Task 2) on multilingual and cross-lingual LE. The shared task spans three dimensions: (1) monolingual vs. cross-lingual LE, (2) binary vs. graded LE, and (3) a set of 6 diverse languages (and 15 corresponding language pairs). We offered two different evaluation tracks: (a) Dist: for unsupervised, fully distributional models that capture LE solely on the basis of unannotated corpora, and (b) Any: for externally informed models, allowed to leverage any resources, including lexico-semantic networks (e.g., WordNet or BabelNet). In the Any track, we recieved runs that push state-of-the-art across all languages and language pairs, for both binary LE detection and graded LE prediction.

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Improving Bilingual Lexicon Induction with Unsupervised Post-Processing of Monolingual Word Vector Spaces
Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen | Goran Glavaš
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP

Work on projection-based induction of cross-lingual word embedding spaces (CLWEs) predominantly focuses on the improvement of the projection (i.e., mapping) mechanisms. In this work, in contrast, we show that a simple method for post-processing monolingual embedding spaces facilitates learning of the cross-lingual alignment and, in turn, substantially improves bilingual lexicon induction (BLI). The post-processing method we examine is grounded in the generalisation of first- and second-order monolingual similarities to the nth-order similarity. By post-processing monolingual spaces before the cross-lingual alignment, the method can be coupled with any projection-based method for inducing CLWE spaces. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this simple monolingual post-processing across a set of 15 typologically diverse languages (i.e., 15*14 BLI setups), and in combination with two different projection methods.

2019

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Semi-Supervised Bootstrapping of Dialogue State Trackers for Task-Oriented Modelling
Bo-Hsiang Tseng | Marek Rei | Paweł Budzianowski | Richard Turner | Bill Byrne | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Dialogue systems benefit greatly from optimizing on detailed annotations, such as transcribed utterances, internal dialogue state representations and dialogue act labels. However, collecting these annotations is expensive and time-consuming, holding back development in the area of dialogue modelling. In this paper, we investigate semi-supervised learning methods that are able to reduce the amount of required intermediate labelling. We find that by leveraging un-annotated data instead, the amount of turn-level annotations of dialogue state can be significantly reduced when building a neural dialogue system. Our analysis on the MultiWOZ corpus, covering a range of domains and topics, finds that annotations can be reduced by up to 30% while maintaining equivalent system performance. We also describe and evaluate the first end-to-end dialogue model created for the MultiWOZ corpus.

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Cross-lingual Semantic Specialization via Lexical Relation Induction
Edoardo Maria Ponti | Ivan Vulić | Goran Glavaš | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Semantic specialization integrates structured linguistic knowledge from external resources (such as lexical relations in WordNet) into pretrained distributional vectors in the form of constraints. However, this technique cannot be leveraged in many languages, because their structured external resources are typically incomplete or non-existent. To bridge this gap, we propose a novel method that transfers specialization from a resource-rich source language (English) to virtually any target language. Our specialization transfer comprises two crucial steps: 1) Inducing noisy constraints in the target language through automatic word translation; and 2) Filtering the noisy constraints via a state-of-the-art relation prediction model trained on the source language constraints. This allows us to specialize any set of distributional vectors in the target language with the refined constraints. We prove the effectiveness of our method through intrinsic word similarity evaluation in 8 languages, and with 3 downstream tasks in 5 languages: lexical simplification, dialog state tracking, and semantic textual similarity. The gains over the previous state-of-art specialization methods are substantial and consistent across languages. Our results also suggest that the transfer method is effective even for lexically distant source-target language pairs. Finally, as a by-product, our method produces lists of WordNet-style lexical relations in resource-poor languages.

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Towards Zero-shot Language Modeling
Edoardo Maria Ponti | Ivan Vulić | Ryan Cotterell | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Can we construct a neural language model which is inductively biased towards learning human language? Motivated by this question, we aim at constructing an informative prior for held-out languages on the task of character-level, open-vocabulary language modelling. We obtain this prior as the posterior over network weights conditioned on the data from a sample of training languages, which is approximated through Laplace’s method. Based on a large and diverse sample of languages, the use of our prior outperforms baseline models with an uninformative prior in both zero-shot and few-shot settings, showing that the prior is imbued with universal linguistic knowledge. Moreover, we harness broad language-specific information available for most languages of the world, i.e., features from typological databases, as distant supervision for held-out languages. We explore several language modelling conditioning techniques, including concatenation and meta-networks for parameter generation. They appear beneficial in the few-shot setting, but ineffective in the zero-shot setting. Since the paucity of even plain digital text affects the majority of the world’s languages, we hope that these insights will broaden the scope of applications for language technology.

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Do We Really Need Fully Unsupervised Cross-Lingual Embeddings?
Ivan Vulić | Goran Glavaš | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Recent efforts in cross-lingual word embedding (CLWE) learning have predominantly focused on fully unsupervised approaches that project monolingual embeddings into a shared cross-lingual space without any cross-lingual signal. The lack of any supervision makes such approaches conceptually attractive. Yet, their only core difference from (weakly) supervised projection-based CLWE methods is in the way they obtain a seed dictionary used to initialize an iterative self-learning procedure. The fully unsupervised methods have arguably become more robust, and their primary use case is CLWE induction for pairs of resource-poor and distant languages. In this paper, we question the ability of even the most robust unsupervised CLWE approaches to induce meaningful CLWEs in these more challenging settings. A series of bilingual lexicon induction (BLI) experiments with 15 diverse languages (210 language pairs) show that fully unsupervised CLWE methods still fail for a large number of language pairs (e.g., they yield zero BLI performance for 87/210 pairs). Even when they succeed, they never surpass the performance of weakly supervised methods (seeded with 500-1,000 translation pairs) using the same self-learning procedure in any BLI setup, and the gaps are often substantial. These findings call for revisiting the main motivations behind fully unsupervised CLWE methods.

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A Systematic Study of Leveraging Subword Information for Learning Word Representations
Yi Zhu | Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

The use of subword-level information (e.g., characters, character n-grams, morphemes) has become ubiquitous in modern word representation learning. Its importance is attested especially for morphologically rich languages which generate a large number of rare words. Despite a steadily increasing interest in such subword-informed word representations, their systematic comparative analysis across typologically diverse languages and different tasks is still missing. In this work, we deliver such a study focusing on the variation of two crucial components required for subword-level integration into word representation models: 1) segmentation of words into subword units, and 2) subword composition functions to obtain final word representations. We propose a general framework for learning subword-informed word representations that allows for easy experimentation with different segmentation and composition components, also including more advanced techniques based on position embeddings and self-attention. Using the unified framework, we run experiments over a large number of subword-informed word representation configurations (60 in total) on 3 tasks (general and rare word similarity, dependency parsing, fine-grained entity typing) for 5 languages representing 3 language types. Our main results clearly indicate that there is no “one-size-fits-all” configuration, as performance is both language- and task-dependent. We also show that configurations based on unsupervised segmentation (e.g., BPE, Morfessor) are sometimes comparable to or even outperform the ones based on supervised word segmentation.

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Bayesian Learning for Neural Dependency Parsing
Ehsan Shareghi | Yingzhen Li | Yi Zhu | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

While neural dependency parsers provide state-of-the-art accuracy for several languages, they still rely on large amounts of costly labeled training data. We demonstrate that in the small data regime, where uncertainty around parameter estimation and model prediction matters the most, Bayesian neural modeling is very effective. In order to overcome the computational and statistical costs of the approximate inference step in this framework, we utilize an efficient sampling procedure via stochastic gradient Langevin dynamics to generate samples from the approximated posterior. Moreover, we show that our Bayesian neural parser can be further improved when integrated into a multi-task parsing and POS tagging framework, designed to minimize task interference via an adversarial procedure. When trained and tested on 6 languages with less than 5k training instances, our parser consistently outperforms the strong bilstm baseline (Kiperwasser and Goldberg, 2016). Compared with the biaffine parser (Dozat et al., 2017) our model achieves an improvement of up to 3% for Vietnames and Irish, while our multi-task model achieves an improvement of up to 9% across five languages: Farsi, Russian, Turkish, Vietnamese, and Irish.

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Show Some Love to Your n-grams: A Bit of Progress and Stronger n-gram Language Modeling Baselines
Ehsan Shareghi | Daniela Gerz | Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

In recent years neural language models (LMs) have set the state-of-the-art performance for several benchmarking datasets. While the reasons for their success and their computational demand are well-documented, a comparison between neural models and more recent developments in n-gram models is neglected. In this paper, we examine the recent progress in n-gram literature, running experiments on 50 languages covering all morphological language families. Experimental results illustrate that a simple extension of Modified Kneser-Ney outperforms an lstm language model on 42 languages while a word-level Bayesian n-gram LM (Shareghi et al., 2017) outperforms the character-aware neural model (Kim et al., 2016) on average across all languages, and its extension which explicitly injects linguistic knowledge (Gerz et al., 2018) on 8 languages. Further experiments on larger Europarl datasets for 3 languages indicate that neural architectures are able to outperform computationally much cheaper n-gram models: n-gram training is up to 15,000x quicker. Our experiments illustrate that standalone n-gram models lend themselves as natural choices for resource-lean or morphologically rich languages, while the recent progress has significantly improved their accuracy.

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Modeling Language Variation and Universals: A Survey on Typological Linguistics for Natural Language Processing
Edoardo Maria Ponti | Helen O’Horan | Yevgeni Berzak | Ivan Vulić | Roi Reichart | Thierry Poibeau | Ekaterina Shutova | Anna Korhonen
Computational Linguistics, Volume 45, Issue 3 - September 2019

Linguistic typology aims to capture structural and semantic variation across the world’s languages. A large-scale typology could provide excellent guidance for multilingual Natural Language Processing (NLP), particularly for languages that suffer from the lack of human labeled resources. We present an extensive literature survey on the use of typological information in the development of NLP techniques. Our survey demonstrates that to date, the use of information in existing typological databases has resulted in consistent but modest improvements in system performance. We show that this is due to both intrinsic limitations of databases (in terms of coverage and feature granularity) and under-utilization of the typological features included in them. We advocate for a new approach that adapts the broad and discrete nature of typological categories to the contextual and continuous nature of machine learning algorithms used in contemporary NLP. In particular, we suggest that such an approach could be facilitated by recent developments in data-driven induction of typological knowledge.

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Investigating Cross-Lingual Alignment Methods for Contextualized Embeddings with Token-Level Evaluation
Qianchu Liu | Diana McCarthy | Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

In this paper, we present a thorough investigation on methods that align pre-trained contextualized embeddings into shared cross-lingual context-aware embedding space, providing strong reference benchmarks for future context-aware crosslingual models. We propose a novel and challenging task, Bilingual Token-level Sense Retrieval (BTSR). It specifically evaluates the accurate alignment of words with the same meaning in cross-lingual non-parallel contexts, currently not evaluated by existing tasks such as Bilingual Contextual Word Similarity and Sentence Retrieval. We show how the proposed BTSR task highlights the merits of different alignment methods. In particular, we find that using context average type-level alignment is effective in transferring monolingual contextualized embeddings cross-lingually especially in non-parallel contexts, and at the same time improves the monolingual space. Furthermore, aligning independently trained models yields better performance than aligning multilingual embeddings with shared vocabulary.

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On the Importance of Subword Information for Morphological Tasks in Truly Low-Resource Languages
Yi Zhu | Benjamin Heinzerling | Ivan Vulić | Michael Strube | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Recent work has validated the importance of subword information for word representation learning. Since subwords increase parameter sharing ability in neural models, their value should be even more pronounced in low-data regimes. In this work, we therefore provide a comprehensive analysis focused on the usefulness of subwords for word representation learning in truly low-resource scenarios and for three representative morphological tasks: fine-grained entity typing, morphological tagging, and named entity recognition. We conduct a systematic study that spans several dimensions of comparison: 1) type of data scarcity which can stem from the lack of task-specific training data, or even from the lack of unannotated data required to train word embeddings, or both; 2) language type by working with a sample of 16 typologically diverse languages including some truly low-resource ones (e.g. Rusyn, Buryat, and Zulu); 3) the choice of the subword-informed word representation method. Our main results show that subword-informed models are universally useful across all language types, with large gains over subword-agnostic embeddings. They also suggest that the effective use of subwords largely depends on the language (type) and the task at hand, as well as on the amount of available data for training the embeddings and task-based models, where having sufficient in-task data is a more critical requirement.

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Proceedings of TyP-NLP: The First Workshop on Typology for Polyglot NLP
Haim Dubossarsky | Arya D. McCarthy | Edoardo Maria Ponti | Ivan Vulić | Ekaterina Vylomova | Yevgeni Berzak | Ryan Cotterell | Manaal Faruqui | Anna Korhonen | Roi Reichart
Proceedings of TyP-NLP: The First Workshop on Typology for Polyglot NLP

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Enhancing biomedical word embeddings by retrofitting to verb clusters
Billy Chiu | Simon Baker | Martha Palmer | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 18th BioNLP Workshop and Shared Task

Verbs play a fundamental role in many biomed-ical tasks and applications such as relation and event extraction. We hypothesize that performance on many downstream tasks can be improved by aligning the input pretrained embeddings according to semantic verb classes.In this work, we show that by using semantic clusters for verbs, a large lexicon of verbclasses derived from biomedical literature, weare able to improve the performance of common pretrained embeddings in downstream tasks by retrofitting them to verb classes. We present a simple and computationally efficient approach using a widely-available “off-the-shelf” retrofitting algorithm to align pretrained embeddings according to semantic verb clusters. We achieve state-of-the-art results on text classification and relation extraction tasks.

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Second-order contexts from lexical substitutes for few-shot learning of word representations
Qianchu Liu | Diana McCarthy | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the Eighth Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM 2019)

There is a growing awareness of the need to handle rare and unseen words in word representation modelling. In this paper, we focus on few-shot learning of emerging concepts that fully exploits only a few available contexts. We introduce a substitute-based context representation technique that can be applied on an existing word embedding space. Previous context-based approaches to modelling unseen words only consider bag-of-word first-order contexts, whereas our method aggregates contexts as second-order substitutes that are produced by a sequence-aware sentence completion model. We experimented with three tasks that aim to test the modelling of emerging concepts. We found that these tasks show different emphasis on first and second order contexts, and our substitute-based method achieves superior performance on naturally-occurring contexts from corpora.

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Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics
Anna Korhonen | David Traum | Lluís Màrquez
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

2018

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Post-Specialisation: Retrofitting Vectors of Words Unseen in Lexical Resources
Ivan Vulić | Goran Glavaš | Nikola Mrkšić | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

Word vector specialisation (also known as retrofitting) is a portable, light-weight approach to fine-tuning arbitrary distributional word vector spaces by injecting external knowledge from rich lexical resources such as WordNet. By design, these post-processing methods only update the vectors of words occurring in external lexicons, leaving the representations of all unseen words intact. In this paper, we show that constraint-driven vector space specialisation can be extended to unseen words. We propose a novel post-specialisation method that: a) preserves the useful linguistic knowledge for seen words; while b) propagating this external signal to unseen words in order to improve their vector representations as well. Our post-specialisation approach explicits a non-linear specialisation function in the form of a deep neural network by learning to predict specialised vectors from their original distributional counterparts. The learned function is then used to specialise vectors of unseen words. This approach, applicable to any post-processing model, yields considerable gains over the initial specialisation models both in intrinsic word similarity tasks, and in two downstream tasks: dialogue state tracking and lexical text simplification. The positive effects persist across three languages, demonstrating the importance of specialising the full vocabulary of distributional word vector spaces.

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Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning
Anna Korhonen | Ivan Titov
Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

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Acquiring Verb Classes Through Bottom-Up Semantic Verb Clustering
Olga Majewska | Diana McCarthy | Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Isomorphic Transfer of Syntactic Structures in Cross-Lingual NLP
Edoardo Maria Ponti | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen | Ivan Vulić
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The transfer or share of knowledge between languages is a potential solution to resource scarcity in NLP. However, the effectiveness of cross-lingual transfer can be challenged by variation in syntactic structures. Frameworks such as Universal Dependencies (UD) are designed to be cross-lingually consistent, but even in carefully designed resources trees representing equivalent sentences may not always overlap. In this paper, we measure cross-lingual syntactic variation, or anisomorphism, in the UD treebank collection, considering both morphological and structural properties. We show that reducing the level of anisomorphism yields consistent gains in cross-lingual transfer tasks. We introduce a source language selection procedure that facilitates effective cross-lingual parser transfer, and propose a typologically driven method for syntactic tree processing which reduces anisomorphism. Our results show the effectiveness of this method for both machine translation and cross-lingual sentence similarity, demonstrating the importance of syntactic structure compatibility for boosting cross-lingual transfer in NLP.

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Language Modeling for Morphologically Rich Languages: Character-Aware Modeling for Word-Level Prediction
Daniela Gerz | Ivan Vulić | Edoardo Ponti | Jason Naradowsky | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 6

Neural architectures are prominent in the construction of language models (LMs). However, word-level prediction is typically agnostic of subword-level information (characters and character sequences) and operates over a closed vocabulary, consisting of a limited word set. Indeed, while subword-aware models boost performance across a variety of NLP tasks, previous work did not evaluate the ability of these models to assist next-word prediction in language modeling tasks. Such subword-level informed models should be particularly effective for morphologically-rich languages (MRLs) that exhibit high type-to-token ratios. In this work, we present a large-scale LM study on 50 typologically diverse languages covering a wide variety of morphological systems, and offer new LM benchmarks to the community, while considering subword-level information. The main technical contribution of our work is a novel method for injecting subword-level information into semantic word vectors, integrated into the neural language modeling training, to facilitate word-level prediction. We conduct experiments in the LM setting where the number of infrequent words is large, and demonstrate strong perplexity gains across our 50 languages, especially for morphologically-rich languages. Our code and data sets are publicly available.

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Adversarial Propagation and Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Transfer of Word Vector Specialization
Edoardo Maria Ponti | Ivan Vulić | Goran Glavaš | Nikola Mrkšić | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Semantic specialization is a process of fine-tuning pre-trained distributional word vectors using external lexical knowledge (e.g., WordNet) to accentuate a particular semantic relation in the specialized vector space. While post-processing specialization methods are applicable to arbitrary distributional vectors, they are limited to updating only the vectors of words occurring in external lexicons (i.e., seen words), leaving the vectors of all other words unchanged. We propose a novel approach to specializing the full distributional vocabulary. Our adversarial post-specialization method propagates the external lexical knowledge to the full distributional space. We exploit words seen in the resources as training examples for learning a global specialization function. This function is learned by combining a standard L2-distance loss with a adversarial loss: the adversarial component produces more realistic output vectors. We show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method across three languages and on three tasks: word similarity, dialog state tracking, and lexical simplification. We report consistent improvements over distributional word vectors and vectors specialized by other state-of-the-art specialization frameworks. Finally, we also propose a cross-lingual transfer method for zero-shot specialization which successfully specializes a full target distributional space without any lexical knowledge in the target language and without any bilingual data.

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On the Relation between Linguistic Typology and (Limitations of) Multilingual Language Modeling
Daniela Gerz | Ivan Vulić | Edoardo Maria Ponti | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

A key challenge in cross-lingual NLP is developing general language-independent architectures that are equally applicable to any language. However, this ambition is largely hampered by the variation in structural and semantic properties, i.e. the typological profiles of the world’s languages. In this work, we analyse the implications of this variation on the language modeling (LM) task. We present a large-scale study of state-of-the art n-gram based and neural language models on 50 typologically diverse languages covering a wide variety of morphological systems. Operating in the full vocabulary LM setup focused on word-level prediction, we demonstrate that a coarse typology of morphological systems is predictive of absolute LM performance. Moreover, fine-grained typological features such as exponence, flexivity, fusion, and inflectional synthesis are borne out to be responsible for the proliferation of low-frequency phenomena which are organically difficult to model by statistical architectures, or for the meaning ambiguity of character n-grams. Our study strongly suggests that these features have to be taken into consideration during the construction of next-level language-agnostic LM architectures, capable of handling morphologically complex languages such as Tamil or Korean.

2017

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HyperLex: A Large-Scale Evaluation of Graded Lexical Entailment
Ivan Vulić | Daniela Gerz | Douwe Kiela | Felix Hill | Anna Korhonen
Computational Linguistics, Volume 43, Issue 4 - December 2017

We introduce HyperLex—a data set and evaluation resource that quantifies the extent of the semantic category membership, that is, type-of relation, also known as hyponymy–hypernymy or lexical entailment (LE) relation between 2,616 concept pairs. Cognitive psychology research has established that typicality and category/class membership are computed in human semantic memory as a gradual rather than binary relation. Nevertheless, most NLP research and existing large-scale inventories of concept category membership (WordNet, DBPedia, etc.) treat category membership and LE as binary. To address this, we asked hundreds of native English speakers to indicate typicality and strength of category membership between a diverse range of concept pairs on a crowdsourcing platform. Our results confirm that category membership and LE are indeed more gradual than binary. We then compare these human judgments with the predictions of automatic systems, which reveals a huge gap between human performance and state-of-the-art LE, distributional and representation learning models, and substantial differences between the models themselves. We discuss a pathway for improving semantic models to overcome this discrepancy, and indicate future application areas for improved graded LE systems.

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Event-Related Features in Feedforward Neural Networks Contribute to Identifying Causal Relations in Discourse
Edoardo Maria Ponti | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Linking Models of Lexical, Sentential and Discourse-level Semantics

Causal relations play a key role in information extraction and reasoning. Most of the times, their expression is ambiguous or implicit, i.e. without signals in the text. This makes their identification challenging. We aim to improve their identification by implementing a Feedforward Neural Network with a novel set of features for this task. In particular, these are based on the position of event mentions and the semantics of events and participants. The resulting classifier outperforms strong baselines on two datasets (the Penn Discourse Treebank and the CSTNews corpus) annotated with different schemes and containing examples in two languages, English and Portuguese. This result demonstrates the importance of events for identifying discourse relations.

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Initializing neural networks for hierarchical multi-label text classification
Simon Baker | Anna Korhonen
BioNLP 2017

Many tasks in the biomedical domain require the assignment of one or more predefined labels to input text, where the labels are a part of a hierarchical structure (such as a taxonomy). The conventional approach is to use a one-vs.-rest (OVR) classification setup, where a binary classifier is trained for each label in the taxonomy or ontology where all instances not belonging to the class are considered negative examples. The main drawbacks to this approach are that dependencies between classes are not leveraged in the training and classification process, and the additional computational cost of training parallel classifiers. In this paper, we apply a new method for hierarchical multi-label text classification that initializes a neural network model final hidden layer such that it leverages label co-occurrence relations such as hypernymy. This approach elegantly lends itself to hierarchical classification. We evaluated this approach using two hierarchical multi-label text classification tasks in the biomedical domain using both sentence- and document-level classification. Our evaluation shows promising results for this approach.

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Decoding Sentiment from Distributed Representations of Sentences
Edoardo Maria Ponti | Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 6th Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM 2017)

Distributed representations of sentences have been developed recently to represent their meaning as real-valued vectors. However, it is not clear how much information such representations retain about the polarity of sentences. To study this question, we decode sentiment from unsupervised sentence representations learned with different architectures (sensitive to the order of words, the order of sentences, or none) in 9 typologically diverse languages. Sentiment results from the (recursive) composition of lexical items and grammatical strategies such as negation and concession. The results are manifold: we show that there is no ‘one-size-fits-all’ representation architecture outperforming the others across the board. Rather, the top-ranking architectures depend on the language at hand. Moreover, we find that in several cases the additive composition model based on skip-gram word vectors may surpass supervised state-of-art architectures such as bi-directional LSTMs. Finally, we provide a possible explanation of the observed variation based on the type of negative constructions in each language.

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Automatic Selection of Context Configurations for Improved Class-Specific Word Representations
Ivan Vulić | Roy Schwartz | Ari Rappoport | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 21st Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL 2017)

This paper is concerned with identifying contexts useful for training word representation models for different word classes such as adjectives (A), verbs (V), and nouns (N). We introduce a simple yet effective framework for an automatic selection of class-specific context configurations. We construct a context configuration space based on universal dependency relations between words, and efficiently search this space with an adapted beam search algorithm. In word similarity tasks for each word class, we show that our framework is both effective and efficient. Particularly, it improves the Spearman’s rho correlation with human scores on SimLex-999 over the best previously proposed class-specific contexts by 6 (A), 6 (V) and 5 (N) rho points. With our selected context configurations, we train on only 14% (A), 26.2% (V), and 33.6% (N) of all dependency-based contexts, resulting in a reduced training time. Our results generalise: we show that the configurations our algorithm learns for one English training setup outperform previously proposed context types in another training setup for English. Moreover, basing the configuration space on universal dependencies, it is possible to transfer the learned configurations to German and Italian. We also demonstrate improved per-class results over other context types in these two languages..

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Morph-fitting: Fine-Tuning Word Vector Spaces with Simple Language-Specific Rules
Ivan Vulić | Nikola Mrkšić | Roi Reichart | Diarmuid Ó Séaghdha | Steve Young | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Morphologically rich languages accentuate two properties of distributional vector space models: 1) the difficulty of inducing accurate representations for low-frequency word forms; and 2) insensitivity to distinct lexical relations that have similar distributional signatures. These effects are detrimental for language understanding systems, which may infer that ‘inexpensive’ is a rephrasing for ‘expensive’ or may not associate ‘acquire’ with ‘acquires’. In this work, we propose a novel morph-fitting procedure which moves past the use of curated semantic lexicons for improving distributional vector spaces. Instead, our method injects morphological constraints generated using simple language-specific rules, pulling inflectional forms of the same word close together and pushing derivational antonyms far apart. In intrinsic evaluation over four languages, we show that our approach: 1) improves low-frequency word estimates; and 2) boosts the semantic quality of the entire word vector collection. Finally, we show that morph-fitted vectors yield large gains in the downstream task of dialogue state tracking, highlighting the importance of morphology for tackling long-tail phenomena in language understanding tasks.

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Cross-Lingual Induction and Transfer of Verb Classes Based on Word Vector Space Specialisation
Ivan Vulić | Nikola Mrkšić | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Existing approaches to automatic VerbNet-style verb classification are heavily dependent on feature engineering and therefore limited to languages with mature NLP pipelines. In this work, we propose a novel cross-lingual transfer method for inducing VerbNets for multiple languages. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which demonstrates how the architectures for learning word embeddings can be applied to this challenging syntactic-semantic task. Our method uses cross-lingual translation pairs to tie each of the six target languages into a bilingual vector space with English, jointly specialising the representations to encode the relational information from English VerbNet. A standard clustering algorithm is then run on top of the VerbNet-specialised representations, using vector dimensions as features for learning verb classes. Our results show that the proposed cross-lingual transfer approach sets new state-of-the-art verb classification performance across all six target languages explored in this work.

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Semantic Specialization of Distributional Word Vector Spaces using Monolingual and Cross-Lingual Constraints
Nikola Mrkšić | Ivan Vulić | Diarmuid Ó Séaghdha | Ira Leviant | Roi Reichart | Milica Gašić | Anna Korhonen | Steve Young
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 5

We present Attract-Repel, an algorithm for improving the semantic quality of word vectors by injecting constraints extracted from lexical resources. Attract-Repel facilitates the use of constraints from mono- and cross-lingual resources, yielding semantically specialized cross-lingual vector spaces. Our evaluation shows that the method can make use of existing cross-lingual lexicons to construct high-quality vector spaces for a plethora of different languages, facilitating semantic transfer from high- to lower-resource ones. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated with state-of-the-art results on semantic similarity datasets in six languages. We next show that Attract-Repel-specialized vectors boost performance in the downstream task of dialogue state tracking (DST) across multiple languages. Finally, we show that cross-lingual vector spaces produced by our algorithm facilitate the training of multilingual DST models, which brings further performance improvements.

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Evaluation by Association: A Systematic Study of Quantitative Word Association Evaluation
Ivan Vulić | Douwe Kiela | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers

Recent work on evaluating representation learning architectures in NLP has established a need for evaluation protocols based on subconscious cognitive measures rather than manually tailored intrinsic similarity and relatedness tasks. In this work, we propose a novel evaluation framework that enables large-scale evaluation of such architectures in the free word association (WA) task, which is firmly grounded in cognitive theories of human semantic representation. This evaluation is facilitated by the existence of large manually constructed repositories of word association data. In this paper, we (1) present a detailed analysis of the new quantitative WA evaluation protocol, (2) suggest new evaluation metrics for the WA task inspired by its direct analogy with information retrieval problems, (3) evaluate various state-of-the-art representation models on this task, and (4) discuss the relationship between WA and prior evaluations of semantic representation with well-known similarity and relatedness evaluation sets. We have made the WA evaluation toolkit publicly available.

2016

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SimVerb-3500: A Large-Scale Evaluation Set of Verb Similarity
Daniela Gerz | Ivan Vulić | Felix Hill | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Anchoring and Agreement in Syntactic Annotations
Yevgeni Berzak | Yan Huang | Andrei Barbu | Anna Korhonen | Boris Katz
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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On the Role of Seed Lexicons in Learning Bilingual Word Embeddings
Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Is “Universal Syntax” Universally Useful for Learning Distributed Word Representations?
Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Computational Language Learning
Anna Korhonen | Alessandro Lenci | Brian Murphy | Thierry Poibeau | Aline Villavicencio
Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Computational Language Learning

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Intrinsic Evaluation of Word Vectors Fails to Predict Extrinsic Performance
Billy Chiu | Anna Korhonen | Sampo Pyysalo
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Evaluating Vector-Space Representations for NLP

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How to Train good Word Embeddings for Biomedical NLP
Billy Chiu | Gamal Crichton | Anna Korhonen | Sampo Pyysalo
Proceedings of the 15th Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing

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Cancer Hallmark Text Classification Using Convolutional Neural Networks
Simon Baker | Anna Korhonen | Sampo Pyysalo
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Building and Evaluating Resources for Biomedical Text Mining (BioTxtM2016)

Methods based on deep learning approaches have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in a range of machine learning tasks and are increasingly applied to natural language processing (NLP). Despite strong results in various established NLP tasks involving general domain texts, there is only limited work applying these models to biomedical NLP. In this paper, we consider a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) approach to biomedical text classification. Evaluation using a recently introduced cancer domain dataset involving the categorization of documents according to the well-established hallmarks of cancer shows that a basic CNN model can achieve a level of performance competitive with a Support Vector Machine (SVM) trained using complex manually engineered features optimized to the task. We further show that simple modifications to the CNN hyperparameters, initialization, and training process allow the model to notably outperform the SVM, establishing a new state of the art result at this task. We make all of the resources and tools introduced in this study available under open licenses from https://cambridgeltl.github.io/cancer-hallmark-cnn/.

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Learning Distributed Representations of Sentences from Unlabelled Data
Felix Hill | Kyunghyun Cho | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Learning to Understand Phrases by Embedding the Dictionary
Felix Hill | Kyunghyun Cho | Anna Korhonen | Yoshua Bengio
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 4

Distributional models that learn rich semantic word representations are a success story of recent NLP research. However, developing models that learn useful representations of phrases and sentences has proved far harder. We propose using the definitions found in everyday dictionaries as a means of bridging this gap between lexical and phrasal semantics. Neural language embedding models can be effectively trained to map dictionary definitions (phrases) to (lexical) representations of the words defined by those definitions. We present two applications of these architectures: reverse dictionaries that return the name of a concept given a definition or description and general-knowledge crossword question answerers. On both tasks, neural language embedding models trained on definitions from a handful of freely-available lexical resources perform as well or better than existing commercial systems that rely on significant task-specific engineering. The results highlight the effectiveness of both neural embedding architectures and definition-based training for developing models that understand phrases and sentences.

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Survey on the Use of Typological Information in Natural Language Processing
Helen O’Horan | Yevgeni Berzak | Ivan Vulić | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

In recent years linguistic typologies, which classify the world’s languages according to their functional and structural properties, have been widely used to support multilingual NLP. While the growing importance of typologies in supporting multilingual tasks has been recognised, no systematic survey of existing typological resources and their use in NLP has been published. This paper provides such a survey as well as discussion which we hope will both inform and inspire future work in the area.

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Robust Text Classification for Sparsely Labelled Data Using Multi-level Embeddings
Simon Baker | Douwe Kiela | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

The conventional solution for handling sparsely labelled data is extensive feature engineering. This is time consuming and task and domain specific. We present a novel approach for learning embedded features that aims to alleviate this problem. Our approach jointly learns embeddings at different levels of granularity (word, sentence and document) along with the class labels. The intuition is that topic semantics represented by embeddings at multiple levels results in better classification. We evaluate this approach in unsupervised and semi-supervised settings on two sparsely labelled classification tasks, outperforming the handcrafted models and several embedding baselines.

2015

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Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Computational Language Learning
Robert Berwick | Anna Korhonen | Alessandro Lenci | Thierry Poibeau | Aline Villavicencio
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Computational Language Learning

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SimLex-999: Evaluating Semantic Models With (Genuine) Similarity Estimation
Felix Hill | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Computational Linguistics, Volume 41, Issue 4 - December 2015

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Unsupervised Declarative Knowledge Induction for Constraint-Based Learning of Information Structure in Scientific Documents
Yufan Guo | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 3

Inferring the information structure of scientific documents is useful for many NLP applications. Existing approaches to this task require substantial human effort. We propose a framework for constraint learning that reduces human involvement considerably. Our model uses topic models to identify latent topics and their key linguistic features in input documents, induces constraints from this information and maps sentences to their dominant information structure categories through a constrained unsupervised model. When the induced constraints are combined with a fully unsupervised model, the resulting model challenges existing lightly supervised feature-based models as well as unsupervised models that use manually constructed declarative knowledge. Our results demonstrate that useful declarative knowledge can be learned from data with very limited human involvement.

2014

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Multi-Modal Models for Concrete and Abstract Concept Meaning
Felix Hill | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 2

Multi-modal models that learn semantic representations from both linguistic and perceptual input outperform language-only models on a range of evaluations, and better reflect human concept acquisition. Most perceptual input to such models corresponds to concrete noun concepts and the superiority of the multi-modal approach has only been established when evaluating on such concepts. We therefore investigate which concepts can be effectively learned by multi-modal models. We show that concreteness determines both which linguistic features are most informative and the impact of perceptual input in such models. We then introduce ridge regression as a means of propagating perceptual information from concrete nouns to more abstract concepts that is more robust than previous approaches. Finally, we present weighted gram matrix combination, a means of combining representations from distinct modalities that outperforms alternatives when both modalities are sufficiently rich.

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Probabilistic Distributional Semantics with Latent Variable Models
Diarmuid Ó Séaghdha | Anna Korhonen
Computational Linguistics, Volume 40, Issue 3 - September 2014

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CRAB 2.0: A text mining tool for supporting literature review in chemical cancer risk assessment
Yufan Guo | Diarmuid Ó Séaghdha | Ilona Silins | Lin Sun | Johan Högberg | Ulla Stenius | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

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Native Language Identification Using Large, Longitudinal Data
Xiao Jiang | Yufan Guo | Jeroen Geertzen | Dora Alexopoulou | Lin Sun | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

Native Language Identification (NLI) is a task aimed at determining the native language (L1) of learners of second language (L2) on the basis of their written texts. To date, research on NLI has focused on relatively small corpora. We apply NLI to the recently released EFCamDat corpus which is not only multiple times larger than previous L2 corpora but also provides longitudinal data at several proficiency levels. Our investigation using accurate machine learning with a wide range of linguistic features reveals interesting patterns in the longitudinal data which are useful for both further development of NLI and its application to research on L2 acquisition.

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Learning Abstract Concept Embeddings from Multi-Modal Data: Since You Probably Can’t See What I Mean
Felix Hill | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

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An Unsupervised Model for Instance Level Subcategorization Acquisition
Simon Baker | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

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Concreteness and Subjectivity as Dimensions of Lexical Meaning
Felix Hill | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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Improving Multi-Modal Representations Using Image Dispersion: Why Less is Sometimes More
Douwe Kiela | Felix Hill | Anna Korhonen | Stephen Clark
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

2013

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Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing
David Yarowsky | Timothy Baldwin | Anna Korhonen | Karen Livescu | Steven Bethard
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Improved Information Structure Analysis of Scientific Documents Through Discourse and Lexical Constraints
Yufan Guo | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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A Tensor-based Factorization Model of Semantic Compositionality
Tim Van de Cruys | Thierry Poibeau | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Concreteness and Corpora: A Theoretical and Practical Study
Felix Hill | Douwe Kiela | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Workshop on Cognitive Modeling and Computational Linguistics (CMCL)

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Improved Lexical Acquisition through DPP-based Verb Clustering
Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Diathesis alternation approximation for verb clustering
Lin Sun | Diana McCarthy | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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Statistical Metaphor Processing
Ekaterina Shutova | Simone Teufel | Anna Korhonen
Computational Linguistics, Volume 39, Issue 2 - June 2013

2012

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Modelling selectional preferences in a lexical hierarchy
Diarmuid Ó Séaghdha | Anna Korhonen
*SEM 2012: The First Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics – Volume 1: Proceedings of the main conference and the shared task, and Volume 2: Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2012)

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Proceedings of the Joint Workshop on Unsupervised and Semi-Supervised Learning in NLP
Omri Abend | Chris Biemann | Anna Korhonen | Ari Rappoport | Roi Reichart | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the Joint Workshop on Unsupervised and Semi-Supervised Learning in NLP

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Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Models of Language Acquisition and Loss
Robert Berwick | Anna Korhonen | Thierry Poibeau | Aline Villavicencio
Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Models of Language Acquisition and Loss

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Semi-supervised learning for automatic conceptual property extraction
Colin Kelly | Barry Devereux | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Cognitive Modeling and Computational Linguistics (CMCL 2012)

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Using Argumentative Zones for Extractive Summarization of Scientific Articles
Danish Contractor | Yufan Guo | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of COLING 2012

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Multi-way Tensor Factorization for Unsupervised Lexical Acquisition
Tim Van de Cruys | Laura Rimell | Thierry Poibeau | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of COLING 2012

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Document and Corpus Level Inference For Unsupervised and Transductive Learning of Information Structure of Scientific Documents
Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of COLING 2012: Posters

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Unsupervised Metaphor Paraphrasing using a Vector Space Model
Ekaterina Shutova | Tim Van de Cruys | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of COLING 2012: Posters

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CRAB Reader: A Tool for Analysis and Visualization of Argumentative Zones in Scientific Literature
Yufan Guo | Ilona Silins | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of COLING 2012: Demonstration Papers

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Learning Syntactic Verb Frames using Graphical Models
Thomas Lippincott | Anna Korhonen | Diarmuid Ó Séaghdha
Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2011

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Proceedings of the First workshop on Unsupervised Learning in NLP
Omri Abend | Anna Korhonen | Ari Rappoport | Roi Reichart
Proceedings of the First workshop on Unsupervised Learning in NLP

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A Weakly-supervised Approach to Argumentative Zoning of Scientific Documents
Yufan Guo | Anna Korhonen | Thierry Poibeau
Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Latent Vector Weighting for Word Meaning in Context
Tim Van de Cruys | Thierry Poibeau | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Hierarchical Verb Clustering Using Graph Factorization
Lin Sun | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Probabilistic models of similarity in syntactic context
Diarmuid Ó Séaghdha | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2010

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Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 First Workshop on Computational Neurolinguistics
Brian Murphy | Kai-min Kevin Chang | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 First Workshop on Computational Neurolinguistics

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Acquiring Human-like Feature-Based Conceptual Representations from Corpora
Colin Kelly | Barry Devereux | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 First Workshop on Computational Neurolinguistics

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Using fMRI activation to conceptual stimuli to evaluate methods for extracting conceptual representations from corpora
Barry Devereux | Colin Kelly | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 First Workshop on Computational Neurolinguistics

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Identifying the Information Structure of Scientific Abstracts: An Investigation of Three Different Schemes
Yufan Guo | Anna Korhonen | Maria Liakata | Ilona Silins | Lin Sun | Ulla Stenius
Proceedings of the 2010 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing

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Annotating the Enron Email Corpus with Number Senses
Stuart Moore | Sabine Buchholz | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

The Enron Email Corpus provides ``Real World'' text in the business email domain, which is a target domain for many speech and language applications. We present a section of this corpus annotated with number senses - labelling each number as a date, time, year, telephone number etc. We show that sense categories and their frequencies are very different in this domain than in newswire text. The annotated corpus can provide valuable material for the development of number sense disambiguation techniques. We have released the annotations into the public domain, to allow other researchers to perform comparisons.

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Exploring variation across biomedical subdomains
Tom Lippincott | Diarmuid Ó Séaghdha | Lin Sun | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2010)

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Metaphor Identification Using Verb and Noun Clustering
Ekaterina Shutova | Lin Sun | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2010)

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Investigating the cross-linguistic potential of VerbNet-style classification
Lin Sun | Thierry Poibeau | Anna Korhonen | Cédric Messiant
Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2010)

2009

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Improving Verb Clustering with Automatically Acquired Selectional Preferences
Lin Sun | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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VerbNet overview, extensions, mappings and applications
Karin Kipper Schuler | Anna Korhonen | Susan Brown
Proceedings of Human Language Technologies: The 2009 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Companion Volume: Tutorial Abstracts

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Automatic Lexical Classification – Balancing between Machine Learning and Linguistics
Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 23rd Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation, Volume 1

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Unsupervised and Constrained Dirichlet Process Mixture Models for Verb Clustering
Andreas Vlachos | Anna Korhonen | Zoubin Ghahramani
Proceedings of the Workshop on Geometrical Models of Natural Language Semantics

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User-Driven Development of Text Mining Resources for Cancer Risk Assessment
Lin Sun | Anna Korhonen | Ilona Silins | Ulla Stenius
Proceedings of the BioNLP 2009 Workshop

2008

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The Choice of Features for Classification of Verbs in Biomedical Texts
Anna Korhonen | Yuval Krymolowski | Nigel Collier
Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2008)

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Automatic Classification of English Verbs Using Rich Syntactic Features
Lin Sun | Anna Korhonen | Yuval Krymolowski
Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Volume-II

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LexSchem: a Large Subcategorization Lexicon for French Verbs
Cédric Messiant | Thierry Poibeau | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

This paper presents LexSchem - the first large, fully automatically acquired subcategorization lexicon for French verbs. The lexicon includes subcategorization frame and frequency information for 3297 French verbs. When evaluated on a set of 20 test verbs against a gold standard dictionary, it shows 0.79 precision, 0.55 recall and 0.65 F-measure. We have made this resource freely available to the research community on the web.

2007

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Proceedings of the Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Computational Language Acquisition
Paula Buttery | Aline Villavicencio | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Computational Language Acquisition

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I will shoot your shopping down and you can shoot all my tins—Automatic Lexical Acquisition from the CHILDES Database
Paula Buttery | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Computational Language Acquisition

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A System for Large-Scale Acquisition of Verbal, Nominal and Adjectival Subcategorization Frames from Corpora
Judita Preiss | Ted Briscoe | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics

2006

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Automatic Classification of Verbs in Biomedical Texts
Anna Korhonen | Yuval Krymolowski | Nigel Collier
Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Extending VerbNet with Novel Verb Classes
Karin Kipper | Anna Korhonen | Neville Ryant | Martha Palmer
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

Lexical classifications have proved useful in supporting various natural language processing (NLP) tasks. The largest verb classification for English is Levin's (1993) work which defined groupings of verbs based on syntactic properties. VerbNet - the largest computational verb lexicon currently available for English - provides detailed syntactic-semantic descriptions of Levin classes. While the classes included are extensive enough for some NLP use, they are not comprehensive. Korhonen and Briscoe (2004) have proposed a significant extension of Levin's classification which incorporates 57 novel classes for verbs not covered (comprehensively) by Levin. This paper describes the integration of these classes into VerbNet. The result is the most extensive Levin-style classification for English verbs which can be highly useful for practical applications.

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A Large Subcategorization Lexicon for Natural Language Processing Applications
Anna Korhonen | Yuval Krymolowski | Ted Briscoe
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

We introduce a large computational subcategorizationlexicon which includes subcategorization frame (SCF) and frequencyinformation for 6,397 English verbs. This extensive lexicon was acquiredautomatically from five corpora and the Web using the current version of the comprehensive subcategorization acquisition system of Briscoe and Carroll (1997). The lexicon is provided freely for research use, along with a script which can be used to filter and build sub-lexicons suited for different natural languageprocessing (NLP) purposes. Documentation is also provided whichexplains each sub-lexicon option and evaluates its accuracy.

2005

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Proceedings of the ACL-SIGLEX Workshop on Deep Lexical Acquisition
Timothy Baldwin | Anna Korhonen | Aline Villavicencio
Proceedings of the ACL-SIGLEX Workshop on Deep Lexical Acquisition

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Automatic Acquisition of Adjectival Subcategorization from Corpora
Jeremy Yallop | Anna Korhonen | Ted Briscoe
Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL’05)

2004

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WSD for subcategorization acquisition task description
Judita Preiss | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of SENSEVAL-3, the Third International Workshop on the Evaluation of Systems for the Semantic Analysis of Text

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Extended Lexical-Semantic Classification of English Verbs
Anna Korhonen | Ted Briscoe
Proceedings of the Computational Lexical Semantics Workshop at HLT-NAACL 2004

2003

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Improving Subcategorization Acquisition Using Word Sense Disambiguation
Anna Korhonen | Judita Preiss
Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Clustering Polysemic Subcategorization Frame Distributions Semantically
Anna Korhonen | Yuval Krymolowski | Zvika Marx
Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

2002

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Subcategorization Acquisition as an Evaluation Method for WSD
Judita Preiss | Anna Korhonen | Ted Briscoe
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’02)

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Improving Subcategorization Acquisition with WSD
Judita Preiss | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the ACL-02 Workshop on Word Sense Disambiguation: Recent Successes and Future Directions

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Semantically Motivated Subcategorization Acquisition
Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the ACL-02 Workshop on Unsupervised Lexical Acquisition

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Assigning Verbs to Semantic Classes via WordNet
Anna Korhonen
COLING-02: SEMANET: Building and Using Semantic Networks

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On the Robustness of Entropy-Based Similarity Measures in Evaluation of Subcategorization Acquisition Systems
Anna Korhonen | Yuval Krymolowski
COLING-02: The 6th Conference on Natural Language Learning 2002 (CoNLL-2002)

2000

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Statistical Filtering and Subcategorization Frame Acquisition
Anna Korhonen | Genevieve Gorrell | Diana McCarthy
2000 Joint SIGDAT Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Very Large Corpora

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Using Semantically Motivated Estimates to Help Subcategorization Acquisition
Anna Korhonen
2000 Joint SIGDAT Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Very Large Corpora

1998

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Detecting Verbal Participation in Diathesis Alternations
Diana McCarthy | Anna Korhonen
COLING 1998 Volume 2: The 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Detecting Verbal Participation in Diathesis Alternations
Diana McCarthy | Anna Korhonen
36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Volume 2

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