Generic Oracles for Structured Prediction
Christoph Teichmann | Antoine Venant
Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Parsing Technologies and the IWPT 2021 Shared Task on Parsing into Enhanced Universal Dependencies (IWPT 2021)
When learned without exploration, local models for structured prediction tasks are subject to exposure bias and cannot be trained without detailed guidance. Active Imitation Learning (AIL), also known in NLP as Dynamic Oracle Learning, is a general technique for working around these issues by allowing the exploration of different outputs at training time. AIL requires oracle feedback: an oracle is any algorithm which can, given a partial candidate solution and gold annotation, find the correct (minimum loss) next output to produce. This paper describes a general finite state technique for deriving oracles. The technique describe is also efficient and will greatly expand the tasks for which AIL can be used.
We investigate the capacity of mechanisms for compositional semantic parsing to describe relations between sentences and semantic representations. We prove that in order to represent certain relations, mechanisms which are syntactically projective must be able to remember an unbounded number of locations in the semantic representations, where nonprojective mechanisms need not. This is the first result of this kind, and has consequences both for grammar-based and for neural systems.