António Góis


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Predicting Attention Sparsity in Transformers
Marcos Treviso | António Góis | Patrick Fernandes | Erick Fonseca | Andre Martins
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Structured Prediction for NLP

Transformers’ quadratic complexity with respect to the input sequence length has motivated a body of work on efficient sparse approximations to softmax. An alternative path, used by entmax transformers, consists of having built-in exact sparse attention; however this approach still requires quadratic computation. In this paper, we propose Sparsefinder, a simple model trained to identify the sparsity pattern of entmax attention before computing it. We experiment with three variants of our method, based on distances, quantization, and clustering, on two tasks: machine translation (attention in the decoder) and masked language modeling (encoder-only). Our work provides a new angle to study model efficiency by doing extensive analysis of the tradeoff between the sparsity and recall of the predicted attention graph. This allows for detailed comparison between different models along their Pareto curves, important to guide future benchmarks for sparse attention models.


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Learning Non-Monotonic Automatic Post-Editing of Translations from Human Orderings
António Góis | Kyunghyun Cho | André Martins
Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

Recent research in neural machine translation has explored flexible generation orders, as an alternative to left-to-right generation. However, training non-monotonic models brings a new complication: how to search for a good ordering when there is a combinatorial explosion of orderings arriving at the same final result? Also, how do these automatic orderings compare with the actual behaviour of human translators? Current models rely on manually built biases or are left to explore all possibilities on their own. In this paper, we analyze the orderings produced by human post-editors and use them to train an automatic post-editing system. We compare the resulting system with those trained with left-to-right and random post-editing orderings. We observe that humans tend to follow a nearly left-to-right order, but with interesting deviations, such as preferring to start by correcting punctuation or verbs.


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Unbabel’s Participation in the WMT19 Translation Quality Estimation Shared Task
Fabio Kepler | Jonay Trénous | Marcos Treviso | Miguel Vera | António Góis | M. Amin Farajian | António V. Lopes | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 3: Shared Task Papers, Day 2)

We present the contribution of the Unbabel team to the WMT 2019 Shared Task on Quality Estimation. We participated on the word, sentence, and document-level tracks, encompassing 3 language pairs: English-German, English-Russian, and English-French. Our submissions build upon the recent OpenKiwi framework: We combine linear, neural, and predictor-estimator systems with new transfer learning approaches using BERT and XLM pre-trained models. We compare systems individually and propose new ensemble techniques for word and sentence-level predictions. We also propose a simple technique for converting word labels into document-level predictions. Overall, our submitted systems achieve the best results on all tracks and language pairs by a considerable margin.

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Translator2Vec: Understanding and Representing Human Post-Editors
António Góis | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XVII: Research Track