Aravindan Raghuveer


pdf bib
ReTAG: Reasoning Aware Table to Analytic Text Generation
Deepanway Ghosal | Preksha Nema | Aravindan Raghuveer
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The task of table summarization involves generating text that both succinctly and accurately represents the table or a specific set of highlighted cells within a table. While significant progress has been made in table to text generation techniques, models still mostly generate descriptive summaries, which reiterates the information contained within the table in sentences. Through analysis of popular table to text benchmarks (ToTTo (Parikh et al., 2020 and InfoTabs (Gupta et al., 2020) we observe that in order to generate the ideal summary, multiple types of reasoning is needed coupled with access to knowledge beyond the scope of the table. To address this gap, we propose ReTAG, a table and reasoning aware model that uses vector-quantization to infuse different types of analytical reasoning into the output. ReTAG achieves 2.2%, 2.9% improvement on the PARENT metric in the relevant slice of ToTTo and InfoTabs for the table to text generation task over state of the art baselines. Through human evaluation, we observe that output from ReTAG is upto 12% more faithful and analytical compared to a strong table-aware model. To the best of our knowledge, ReTAG is the first model that can controllably use multiple reasoning methods within a structure-aware sequence to sequence model to surpass state of the art performance in multiple table to text tasks. We extend (and open source 35.6K analytical, 55.9k descriptive instances) the ToTTo, InfoTabs datasets with the reasoning categories used in each reference sentences.

pdf bib
Bi-Phone: Modeling Inter Language Phonetic Influences in Text
Abhirut Gupta | Ananya B. Sai | Richard Sproat | Yuri Vasilevski | James Ren | Ambarish Jash | Sukhdeep Sodhi | Aravindan Raghuveer
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

A large number of people are forced to use the Web in a language they have low literacy in due to technology asymmetries. Written text in the second language (L2) from such users often contains a large number of errors that are influenced by their native language (L1).We propose a method to mine phoneme confusions (sounds in L2 that an L1 speaker is likely to conflate) for pairs of L1 and L2.These confusions are then plugged into a generative model (Bi-Phone) for synthetically producing corrupted L2 text. Through human evaluations, we show that Bi-Phone generates plausible corruptions that differ across L1s and also have widespread coverage on the Web.We also corrupt the popular language understanding benchmark SuperGLUE with our technique (FunGLUE for Phonetically Noised GLUE) and show that SoTA language understating models perform poorly. We also introduce a new phoneme prediction pre-training task which helps byte models to recover performance close to SuperGLUE. Finally, we also release the SuperGLUE benchmark to promote further research in phonetically robust language models. To the best of our knowledge, FunGLUE is the first benchmark to introduce L1-L2 interactions in text.


pdf bib
CoCoa: An Encoder-Decoder Model for Controllable Code-switched Generation
Sneha Mondal | Ritika . | Shreya Pathak | Preethi Jyothi | Aravindan Raghuveer
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Code-switching has seen growing interest in recent years as an important multilingual NLP phenomenon. Generating code-switched text for data augmentation has been sufficiently well-explored. However, there is no prior work on generating code-switched text with fine-grained control on the degree of code-switching and the lexical choices used to convey formality. We present CoCoa, an encoder-decoder translation model that converts monolingual Hindi text to Hindi-English code-switched text with both encoder-side and decoder-side interventions to achieve fine-grained controllable generation. CoCoa can be invoked at test-time to synthesize code-switched text that is simultaneously faithful to syntactic and lexical attributes relevant to code-switching. CoCoa outputs were subjected to rigorous subjective and objective evaluations. Human evaluations establish that our outputs are of superior quality while being faithful to desired attributes. We show significantly improved BLEU scores when compared with human-generated code-switched references. Compared to competitive baselines, we show 10% reduction in perplexity on a language modeling task and also demonstrate clear improvements on a downstream code-switched sentiment analysis task.

pdf bib
T-STAR: Truthful Style Transfer using AMR Graph as Intermediate Representation
Anubhav Jangra | Preksha Nema | Aravindan Raghuveer
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Unavailability of parallel corpora for training text style transfer (TST) models is a very challenging yet common scenario. Also, TST models implicitly need to preserve the content while transforming a source sentence into the target style. To tackle these problems, an intermediate representation is often constructed that is devoid of style while still preserving the meaning of the source sentence. In this work, we study the usefulness of Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) graph as the intermediate style agnostic representation. We posit that semantic notations like AMR are a natural choice for an intermediate representation. Hence, we propose T-STAR: a model comprising of two components, text-to-AMR encoder and a AMR-to-text decoder. We propose several modeling improvements to enhance the style agnosticity of the generated AMR. To the best of our knowledge, T-STAR is the first work that uses AMR as an intermediate representation for TST. With thorough experimental evaluation we show T-STAR significantly outperforms state of the art techniques by achieving on an average 15.2% higher content preservation with negligible loss (~3%) in style accuracy. Through detailed human evaluation with 90,000 ratings, we also show that T-STAR has upto 50% lesser hallucinations compared to state of the art TST models.


pdf bib
HintedBT: Augmenting Back-Translation with Quality and Transliteration Hints
Sahana Ramnath | Melvin Johnson | Abhirut Gupta | Aravindan Raghuveer
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Back-translation (BT) of target monolingual corpora is a widely used data augmentation strategy for neural machine translation (NMT), especially for low-resource language pairs. To improve effectiveness of the available BT data, we introduce HintedBT—a family of techniques which provides hints (through tags) to the encoder and decoder. First, we propose a novel method of using both high and low quality BT data by providing hints (as source tags on the encoder) to the model about the quality of each source-target pair. We don’t filter out low quality data but instead show that these hints enable the model to learn effectively from noisy data. Second, we address the problem of predicting whether a source token needs to be translated or transliterated to the target language, which is common in cross-script translation tasks (i.e., where source and target do not share the written script). For such cases, we propose training the model with additional hints (as target tags on the decoder) that provide information about the operation required on the source (translation or both translation and transliteration). We conduct experiments and detailed analyses on standard WMT benchmarks for three cross-script low/medium-resource language pairs: Hindi,Gujarati,Tamil-to-English. Our methods compare favorably with five strong and well established baselines. We show that using these hints, both separately and together, significantly improves translation quality and leads to state-of-the-art performance in all three language pairs in corresponding bilingual settings.