Target Sense Verification (TSV) describes the binary disambiguation task of deciding whether the intended sense of a target word in a context corresponds to a given target sense. In this paper, we introduce WiC-TSV-de, a multi-domain dataset for German Target Sense Verification. While the training and development sets consist of domain-independent instances only, the test set contains domain-bound subsets, originating from four different domains, being Gastronomy, Medicine, Hunting, and Zoology. The domain-bound subsets incorporate adversarial examples such as in-domain ambiguous target senses and context-mixing (i.e., using the target sense in an out-of-domain context) which contribute to the challenging nature of the presented dataset. WiC-TSV-de allows for the development of sense-inventory-independent disambiguation models that can generalise their knowledge for different domain settings. By combining it with the original English WiC-TSV benchmark, we performed monolingual and cross-lingual analysis, where the evaluated baseline models were not able to solve the dataset to a satisfying degree, leaving a big gap to human performance.
We present WiC-TSV, a new multi-domain evaluation benchmark for Word Sense Disambiguation. More specifically, we introduce a framework for Target Sense Verification of Words in Context which grounds its uniqueness in the formulation as binary classification task thus being independent of external sense inventories, and the coverage of various domains. This makes the dataset highly flexible for the evaluation of a diverse set of models and systems in and across domains. WiC-TSV provides three different evaluation settings, depending on the input signals provided to the model. We set baseline performance on the dataset using state-of-the-art language models. Experimental results show that even though these models can perform decently on the task, there remains a gap between machine and human performance, especially in out-of-domain settings. WiC-TSV data is available at https://competitions.codalab.org/competitions/23683.
Legal technology is currently receiving a lot of attention from various angles. In this contribution we describe the main technical components of a system that is currently under development in the European innovation project Lynx, which includes partners from industry and research. The key contribution of this paper is a workflow manager that enables the flexible orchestration of workflows based on a portfolio of Natural Language Processing and Content Curation services as well as a Multilingual Legal Knowledge Graph that contains semantic information and meaningful references to legal documents. We also describe different use cases with which we experiment and develop prototypical solutions.
In this paper we describe the contributions made by the European H2020 project “Prêt-à-LLOD” (‘Ready-to-use Multilingual Linked Language Data for Knowledge Services across Sectors’) to the further development of the Linguistic Linked Open Data (LLOD) infrastructure. Prêt-à-LLOD aims to develop a new methodology for building data value chains applicable to a wide range of sectors and applications and based around language resources and language technologies that can be integrated by means of semantic technologies. We describe the methods implemented for increasing the number of language data sets in the LLOD. We also present the approach for ensuring interoperability and for porting LLOD data sets and services to other infrastructures, as well as the contribution of the projects to existing standards.
We present a portfolio of natural legal language processing and document curation services currently under development in a collaborative European project. First, we give an overview of the project and the different use cases, while, in the main part of the article, we focus upon the 13 different processing services that are being deployed in different prototype applications using a flexible and scalable microservices architecture. Their orchestration is operationalised using a content and document curation workflow manager.