Artidoro Pagnoni


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Socratic Pretraining: Question-Driven Pretraining for Controllable Summarization
Artidoro Pagnoni | Alex Fabbri | Wojciech Kryscinski | Chien-Sheng Wu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In long document controllable summarization, where labeled data is scarce, pretrained models struggle to adapt to the task and effectively respond to user queries. In this paper, we introduce Socratic pretraining, a question-driven, unsupervised pretraining objective specifically designed to improve controllability in summarization tasks. By training a model to generate and answer relevant questions in a given context, Socratic pretraining enables the model to more effectively adhere to user-provided queries and identify relevant content to be summarized. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach through extensive experimentation on two summarization domains, short stories and dialogue, and multiple control strategies: keywords, questions, and factoid QA pairs. Our pretraining method relies only on unlabeled documents and a question generation system and outperforms pre-finetuning approaches that use additional supervised data. Furthermore, our results show that Socratic pretraining cuts task-specific labeled data requirements in half, is more faithful to user-provided queries, and achieves state-of-the-art performance on QMSum and SQuALITY.


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Threat Scenarios and Best Practices to Detect Neural Fake News
Artidoro Pagnoni | Martin Graciarena | Yulia Tsvetkov
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In this work, we discuss different threat scenarios from neural fake news generated by state-of-the-art language models. Through our experiments, we assess the performance of generated text detection systems under these threat scenarios. For each scenario, we also identify the minimax strategy for the detector that minimizes its worst-case performance. This constitutes a set of best practices that practitioners can rely on. In our analysis, we find that detectors are prone to shortcut learning (lack of out-of-distribution generalization) and discuss approaches to mitigate this problem and improve detectors more broadly. Finally, we argue that strong detectors should be released along with new generators.

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EvEntS ReaLM: Event Reasoning of Entity States via Language Models
Evangelia Spiliopoulou | Artidoro Pagnoni | Yonatan Bisk | Eduard Hovy
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

This paper investigates models of event implications. Specifically, how well models predict entity state-changes, by targeting their understanding of physical attributes. Nominally, Large Language models (LLM) have been exposed to procedural knowledge about how objects interact, yet our benchmarking shows they fail to reason about the world. Conversely, we also demonstrate that existing approaches often misrepresent the surprising abilities of LLMs via improper task encodings and that proper model prompting can dramatically improve performance of reported baseline results across multiple tasks. In particular, our results indicate that our prompting technique is especially useful for unseen attributes (out-of-domain) or when only limited data is available.


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StructSum: Summarization via Structured Representations
Vidhisha Balachandran | Artidoro Pagnoni | Jay Yoon Lee | Dheeraj Rajagopal | Jaime Carbonell | Yulia Tsvetkov
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Abstractive text summarization aims at compressing the information of a long source document into a rephrased, condensed summary. Despite advances in modeling techniques, abstractive summarization models still suffer from several key challenges: (i) layout bias: they overfit to the style of training corpora; (ii) limited abstractiveness: they are optimized to copying n-grams from the source rather than generating novel abstractive summaries; (iii) lack of transparency: they are not interpretable. In this work, we propose a framework based on document-level structure induction for summarization to address these challenges. To this end, we propose incorporating latent and explicit dependencies across sentences in the source document into end-to-end single-document summarization models. Our framework complements standard encoder-decoder summarization models by augmenting them with rich structure-aware document representations based on implicitly learned (latent) structures and externally-derived linguistic (explicit) structures. We show that our summarization framework, trained on the CNN/DM dataset, improves the coverage of content in the source documents, generates more abstractive summaries by generating more novel n-grams, and incorporates interpretable sentence-level structures, while performing on par with standard baselines.

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Understanding Factuality in Abstractive Summarization with FRANK: A Benchmark for Factuality Metrics
Artidoro Pagnoni | Vidhisha Balachandran | Yulia Tsvetkov
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Modern summarization models generate highly fluent but often factually unreliable outputs. This motivated a surge of metrics attempting to measure the factuality of automatically generated summaries. Due to the lack of common benchmarks, these metrics cannot be compared. Moreover, all these methods treat factuality as a binary concept and fail to provide deeper insights on the kinds of inconsistencies made by different systems. To address these limitations, we devise a typology of factual errors and use it to collect human annotations of generated summaries from state-of-the-art summarization systems for the CNN/DM and XSum datasets. Through these annotations we identify the proportion of different categories of factual errors and benchmark factuality metrics, showing their correlation with human judgement as well as their specific strengths and weaknesses.


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Definition Frames: Using Definitions for Hybrid Concept Representations
Evangelia Spiliopoulou | Artidoro Pagnoni | Eduard Hovy
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Advances in word representations have shown tremendous improvements in downstream NLP tasks, but lack semantic interpretability. In this paper, we introduce Definition Frames (DF), a matrix distributed representation extracted from definitions, where each dimension is semantically interpretable. DF dimensions correspond to the Qualia structure relations: a set of relations that uniquely define a term. Our results show that DFs have competitive performance with other distributional semantic approaches on word similarity tasks.