Aru Maekawa


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Can we obtain significant success in RST discourse parsing by using Large Language Models?
Aru Maekawa | Tsutomu Hirao | Hidetaka Kamigaito | Manabu Okumura
Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recently, decoder-only pre-trained large language models (LLMs), with several tens of billion parameters, have significantly impacted a wide range of natural language processing (NLP) tasks. While encoder-only or encoder-decoder pre-trained language models have already proved to be effective in discourse parsing, the extent to which LLMs can perform this task remains an open research question. Therefore, this paper explores how beneficial such LLMs are for Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) discourse parsing. Here, the parsing process for both fundamental top-down and bottom-up strategies is converted into prompts, which LLMs can work with. We employ Llama 2 and fine-tune it with QLoRA, which has fewer parameters that can be tuned. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets, RST-DT, Instr-DT, and the GUM corpus, demonstrate that Llama 2 with 70 billion parameters in the bottom-up strategy obtained state-of-the-art (SOTA) results with significant differences. Furthermore, our parsers demonstrated generalizability when evaluated on RST-DT, showing that, in spite of being trained with the GUM corpus, it obtained similar performances to those of existing parsers trained with RST-DT.


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Generative Replay Inspired by Hippocampal Memory Indexing for Continual Language Learning
Aru Maekawa | Hidetaka Kamigaito | Kotaro Funakoshi | Manabu Okumura
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Continual learning aims to accumulate knowledge to solve new tasks without catastrophic forgetting for previously learned tasks. Research on continual learning has led to the development of generative replay, which prevents catastrophic forgetting by generating pseudo-samples for previous tasks and learning them together with new tasks. Inspired by the biological brain, we propose the hippocampal memory indexing to enhance the generative replay by controlling sample generation using compressed features of previous training samples. It enables the generation of a specific training sample from previous tasks, thus improving the balance and quality of generated replay samples. Experimental results indicate that our method effectively controls the sample generation and consistently outperforms the performance of current generative replay methods.

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Dataset Distillation with Attention Labels for Fine-tuning BERT
Aru Maekawa | Naoki Kobayashi | Kotaro Funakoshi | Manabu Okumura
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Dataset distillation aims to create a small dataset of informative synthetic samples to rapidly train neural networks that retain the performance of the original dataset. In this paper, we focus on constructing distilled few-shot datasets for natural language processing (NLP) tasks to fine-tune pre-trained transformers. Specifically, we propose to introduce attention labels, which can efficiently distill the knowledge from the original dataset and transfer it to the transformer models via attention probabilities. We evaluated our dataset distillation methods in four various NLP tasks and demonstrated that it is possible to create distilled few-shot datasets with the attention labels, yielding impressive performances for fine-tuning BERT. Specifically, in AGNews, a four-class news classification task, our distilled few-shot dataset achieved up to 93.2% accuracy, which is 98.5% performance of the original dataset even with only one sample per class and only one gradient step.