Ashim Gupta


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Neural Approaches for Data Driven Dependency Parsing in Sanskrit
Amrith Krishna | Ashim Gupta | Deepak Garasangi | Jeevnesh Sandhan | Pavankumar Satuluri | Pawan Goyal
Proceedings of the Computational Sanskrit & Digital Humanities: Selected papers presented at the 18th World Sanskrit Conference

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IntenDD: A Unified Contrastive Learning Approach for Intent Detection and Discovery
Bhavuk Singhal | Ashim Gupta | V P Shivasankaran | Amrith Krishna
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Identifying intents from dialogue utterances forms an integral component of task-oriented dialogue systems. Intent-related tasks are typically formulated either as a classification task, where the utterances are classified into predefined categories or as a clustering task when new and previously unknown intent categories need to be discovered from these utterances. Further, the intent classification may be modeled in a multiclass (MC) or multilabel (ML) setup. While typically these tasks are modeled as separate tasks, we propose IntenDD a unified approach leveraging a shared utterance encoding backbone. IntenDD uses an entirely unsupervised contrastive learning strategy for representation learning, where pseudo-labels for the unlabeled utterances are generated based on their lexical features. Additionally, we introduce a two-step post-processing setup for the classification tasks using modified adsorption. Here, first, the residuals in the training data are propagated followed by smoothing the labels both modeled in a transductive setting. Through extensive evaluations on various benchmark datasets, we find that our approach consistently outperforms competitive baselines across all three tasks. On average, IntenDD reports percentage improvements of 2.32 %, 1.26 %, and 1.52 % in their respective metrics for few-shot MC, few-shot ML, and the intent discovery tasks respectively.

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Don’t Retrain, Just Rewrite: Countering Adversarial Perturbations by Rewriting Text
Ashim Gupta | Carter Blum | Temma Choji | Yingjie Fei | Shalin Shah | Alakananda Vempala | Vivek Srikumar
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Can language models transform inputs to protect text classifiers against adversarial attacks? In this work, we present ATINTER, a model that intercepts and learns to rewrite adversarial inputs to make them non-adversarial for a downstream text classifier. Our experiments on four datasets and five attack mechanisms reveal that ATINTER is effective at providing better adversarial robustness than existing defense approaches, without compromising task accuracy. For example, on sentiment classification using the SST-2 dataset, our method improves the adversarial accuracy over the best existing defense approach by more than 4% with a smaller decrease in task accuracy (0.5 % vs 2.5%). Moreover, we show that ATINTER generalizes across multiple downstream tasks and classifiers without having to explicitly retrain it for those settings. For example, we find that when ATINTER is trained to remove adversarial perturbations for the sentiment classification task on the SST-2 dataset, it even transfers to a semantically different task of news classification (on AGNews) and improves the adversarial robustness by more than 10%.

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Adversarial Clean Label Backdoor Attacks and Defenses on Text Classification Systems
Ashim Gupta | Amrith Krishna
Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP (RepL4NLP 2023)

Clean-label (CL) attack is a form of data poisoning attack where an adversary modifies only the textual input of the training data, without requiring access to the labeling function. CL attacks are relatively unexplored in NLP, as compared to label flipping (LF) attacks, where the latter additionally requires access to the labeling function as well. While CL attacks are more resilient to data sanitization and manual relabeling methods than LF attacks, they often demand as high as ten times the poisoning budget than LF attacks. In this work, we first introduce an Adversarial Clean Label attack which can adversarially perturb in-class training examples for poisoning the training set. We then show that an adversary can significantly bring down the data requirements for a CL attack, using the aforementioned approach, to as low as 20 % of the data otherwise required. We then systematically benchmark and analyze a number of defense methods, for both LF and CL attacks, some previously employed solely for LF attacks in the textual domain and others adapted from computer vision. We find that text-specific defenses greatly vary in their effectiveness depending on their properties.


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Does Meta-learning Help mBERT for Few-shot Question Generation in a Cross-lingual Transfer Setting for Indic Languages?
Aniruddha Roy | Rupak Kumar Thakur | Isha Sharma | Ashim Gupta | Amrith Krishna | Sudeshna Sarkar | Pawan Goyal
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Few-shot Question Generation (QG) is an important and challenging problem in the Natural Language Generation (NLG) domain. Multilingual BERT (mBERT) has been successfully used in various Natural Language Understanding (NLU) applications. However, the question of how to utilize mBERT for few-shot QG, possibly with cross-lingual transfer, remains. In this paper, we try to explore how mBERT performs in few-shot QG (cross-lingual transfer) and also whether applying meta-learning on mBERT further improves the results. In our setting, we consider mBERT as the base model and fine-tune it using a seq-to-seq language modeling framework in a cross-lingual setting. Further, we apply the model agnostic meta-learning approach to our base model. We evaluate our model for two low-resource Indian languages, Bengali and Telugu, using the TyDi QA dataset. The proposed approach consistently improves the performance of the base model in few-shot settings and even works better than some heavily parameterized models. Human evaluation also confirms the effectiveness of our approach.


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A Little Pretraining Goes a Long Way: A Case Study on Dependency Parsing Task for Low-resource Morphologically Rich Languages
Jivnesh Sandhan | Amrith Krishna | Ashim Gupta | Laxmidhar Behera | Pawan Goyal
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Neural dependency parsing has achieved remarkable performance for many domains and languages. The bottleneck of massive labelled data limits the effectiveness of these approaches for low resource languages. In this work, we focus on dependency parsing for morphological rich languages (MRLs) in a low-resource setting. Although morphological information is essential for the dependency parsing task, the morphological disambiguation and lack of powerful analyzers pose challenges to get this information for MRLs. To address these challenges, we propose simple auxiliary tasks for pretraining. We perform experiments on 10 MRLs in low-resource settings to measure the efficacy of our proposed pretraining method and observe an average absolute gain of 2 points (UAS) and 3.6 points (LAS).

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X-Fact: A New Benchmark Dataset for Multilingual Fact Checking
Ashim Gupta | Vivek Srikumar
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

In this work, we introduce : the largest publicly available multilingual dataset for factual verification of naturally existing real-world claims. The dataset contains short statements in 25 languages and is labeled for veracity by expert fact-checkers. The dataset includes a multilingual evaluation benchmark that measures both out-of-domain generalization, and zero-shot capabilities of the multilingual models. Using state-of-the-art multilingual transformer-based models, we develop several automated fact-checking models that, along with textual claims, make use of additional metadata and evidence from news stories retrieved using a search engine. Empirically, our best model attains an F-score of around 40%, suggesting that our dataset is a challenging benchmark for the evaluation of multilingual fact-checking models.


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A Graph-Based Framework for Structured Prediction Tasks in Sanskrit
Amrith Krishna | Bishal Santra | Ashim Gupta | Pavankumar Satuluri | Pawan Goyal
Computational Linguistics, Volume 46, Issue 4 - December 2020

We propose a framework using energy-based models for multiple structured prediction tasks in Sanskrit. Ours is an arc-factored model, similar to the graph-based parsing approaches, and we consider the tasks of word segmentation, morphological parsing, dependency parsing, syntactic linearization, and prosodification, a “prosody-level” task we introduce in this work. Ours is a search-based structured prediction framework, which expects a graph as input, where relevant linguistic information is encoded in the nodes, and the edges are then used to indicate the association between these nodes. Typically, the state-of-the-art models for morphosyntactic tasks in morphologically rich languages still rely on hand-crafted features for their performance. But here, we automate the learning of the feature function. The feature function so learned, along with the search space we construct, encode relevant linguistic information for the tasks we consider. This enables us to substantially reduce the training data requirements to as low as 10%, as compared to the data requirements for the neural state-of-the-art models. Our experiments in Czech and Sanskrit show the language-agnostic nature of the framework, where we train highly competitive models for both the languages. Moreover, our framework enables us to incorporate language-specific constraints to prune the search space and to filter the candidates during inference. We obtain significant improvements in morphosyntactic tasks for Sanskrit by incorporating language-specific constraints into the model. In all the tasks we discuss for Sanskrit, we either achieve state-of-the-art results or ours is the only data-driven solution for those tasks.

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Evaluating Neural Morphological Taggers for Sanskrit
Ashim Gupta | Amrith Krishna | Pawan Goyal | Oliver Hellwig
Proceedings of the 17th SIGMORPHON Workshop on Computational Research in Phonetics, Phonology, and Morphology

Neural sequence labelling approaches have achieved state of the art results in morphological tagging. We evaluate the efficacy of four standard sequence labelling models on Sanskrit, a morphologically rich, fusional Indian language. As its label space can theoretically contain more than 40,000 labels, systems that explicitly model the internal structure of a label are more suited for the task, because of their ability to generalise to labels not seen during training. We find that although some neural models perform better than others, one of the common causes for error for all of these models is mispredictions due to syncretism.

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Keep it Surprisingly Simple: A Simple First Order Graph Based Parsing Model for Joint Morphosyntactic Parsing in Sanskrit
Amrith Krishna | Ashim Gupta | Deepak Garasangi | Pavankumar Satuluri | Pawan Goyal
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Morphologically rich languages seem to benefit from joint processing of morphology and syntax, as compared to pipeline architectures. We propose a graph-based model for joint morphological parsing and dependency parsing in Sanskrit. Here, we extend the Energy based model framework (Krishna et al., 2020), proposed for several structured prediction tasks in Sanskrit, in 2 simple yet significant ways. First, the framework’s default input graph generation method is modified to generate a multigraph, which enables the use of an exact search inference. Second, we prune the input search space using a linguistically motivated approach, rooted in the traditional grammatical analysis of Sanskrit. Our experiments show that the morphological parsing from our joint model outperforms standalone morphological parsers. We report state of the art results in morphological parsing, and in dependency parsing, both in standalone (with gold morphological tags) and joint morphosyntactic parsing setting.


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An LSTM-CRF Based Approach to Token-Level Metaphor Detection
Malay Pramanick | Ashim Gupta | Pabitra Mitra
Proceedings of the Workshop on Figurative Language Processing

Automatic processing of figurative languages is gaining popularity in NLP community for their ubiquitous nature and increasing volume. In this era of web 2.0, automatic analysis of sarcasm and metaphors is important for their extensive usage. Metaphors are a part of figurative language that compares different concepts, often on a cognitive level. Many approaches have been proposed for automatic detection of metaphors, even using sequential models or neural networks. In this paper, we propose a method for detection of metaphors at the token level using a hybrid model of Bidirectional-LSTM and CRF. We used fewer features, as compared to the previous state-of-the-art sequential model. On experimentation with VUAMC, our method obtained an F-score of 0.674.